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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research - Volume:11 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research
Volume:11 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Ehsan Amirmotalebi, Naser Samadi *, Sohrab Ershad Pages 123-137

    In this study, ZnO/Fe2O3 and ZnO/activated carbon nanoparticles have been employed as efficient adsorbents for the removal of ibuprofen antibiotic from aqueous solutions. Nano-adsorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The results illustrate that the ZnO/Fe2O3 and ZnO/activated carbon nanocomposite were successfully synthesized. Optimization of the removal of ibuprofen was scrutinized via response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The process parameters, such as pH (4-6), contact time (10-20 min), nanoparticles dosage (0.02-0.04 wt.%), and nano-adsorbent type (ZnO/Fe2O3 and ZnO/activated carbon) were investigated in batch experiments. Within the range of the chosen experimental conditions, the optimized values of pH, contact time, nanoparticles dosage, and nano-adsorbent type were obtained to be 5.48, 17.22 min, 0.03 wt.%, and ZnO/Fe2O3, respectively. According to the optimum condition, the anticipated Ibuprofen removal was 83.74% and the empirical value was 85.42%. The high values of R2 95.96 and R2 adj 93.78 demonstrate that the fitted model shows a satisfactory accord with the anticipated and empirical Ibuprofen removal. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well-fitted with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, respectively, meaning that monolayer adsorption of Ibuprofen to the adsorbent's surface is controlled by electrostatic interactions, stacking of π-π, and linkages of hydrogen

    Keywords: ZnO, Fe2O3, activated carbon, Adsorption isotherms, Ibuprofen, Optimization, Response surface methodology
  • Siddaraju Chikkalingaiah, Nagaraju Rajendraprasad * Pages 139-151

    In this study, we designed two simple, selective and cost-effective solid-state ion-selective sensors using a polyvinylchloride matrix to detect fexofenadine hydrochloride (FFH) and rupatadine fumarate (RTF) in pharmaceuticals. These sensors utilize the sodium tetraphenyl boron (NaTPB) for ion exchange and β-cyclodextrin for ionophore properties. The FFH sensor shows a linear response within the range of 5 × 10-4 to 2.5 × 10-3 mol L-1 of FFH at pH levels ranging between 2.5 and 6, exhibiting a Nernstian slope of 56.92 mV/decade. Similarly, the RTF sensor demonstrates a linear response between 8 × 10-5 and 2.5 × 10-3 mol L-1 of RTF within the pH range of 2.8 – 6.4, with a Nernstian slope of 20 mV/decade. Detection and quantification limits of FFH were found to be 2.5 × 10-4 and 4.5 × 10-4 mol L-1, and that of RTF were 2.0 × 10-5 and 6.1 × 10-5 mol L-1, respectively. The sensors exhibited excellent selectivity, as indicated by mean percentage recoveries of 100.7 and 99.87 for FFH and RTF, respectively, with a low relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 2.5 %.

    Keywords: Fexofenadine, Rupatadine, Sodium tetraphenyl boron, Nernstian slope, Sensors
  • Beheshteh Ajdari, Tayyebeh Madrakian *, Abbas Afkhami, Mohammad Reza Jalali Sarvestani Pages 153-167

    The paper describes a scientific study involving the use of an over-oxidized p-aminophenol sensor for the quantification of sunset yellow in the presence of tartrazine. The study utilized the electropolymerization method on a glassy carbon electrode and employed the Box-Benken method to optimize parameters such as pH, step voltage, number of electropolymerization cycles, and precipitation potential. The study assessed the electrode's selectivity towards various ionic species and found no significant interference. It determined a linear range between 0.25 and 300.0 µ mol L-1 for sunset yellow, with a detection limit of 0.09 µ mol L-1. The electrode modified with PAP-OX underwent assessments of repeatability and reproducibility, yielding relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.14% and 4.09%, respectively. The primary objective of the research was to quantify the concentration of Sunset Yellow in different food samples, including ice cream, fruit juice, powder jelly, Smarties, and chocolate, while considering the presence of tartrazine. Overall, the study focused on developing a sensor for the quantification of sunset yellow in food and drink samples, with a particular emphasis on optimizing the sensor's performance and assessing its reliability for practical applications.

    Keywords: Over-oxidized p-aminophenol, Sunset yellow, Experimental design, Glassy carbon electrode
  • Parya Khalatbarimohseni, Mohammad Reza Jalali Sarvestani *, Shahin Ahmadi, Mohammad Mahboubi-Rabbani Pages 169-176

    In this research, a coated graphite polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrode was fabricated for the potentiometric determination of lithium based on 13-(3-nitrophenyl)-12H,14H-benzo[g]chromeno[2,3-b]chromene-7,12,14(13H)-trione (L) as the ionophore. The best Nernstian response was observed from the membrane composition of 31% PVC, 7% L, 2% NaTPB, and 60% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the plasticizer. The designed sensor showed a wide linearity over the concentration range of 1×10-8-1×10-3 mol L-1 with the slope of 60.2±0.3 mV decade-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) of 7.5×10-9 mol L-1. The selectivity of the designed sensor was investigated by matched potential method and no serious interference was observed. The response time and life span of the electrode were 5s and 16 weeks, respectively. The potential response of the electrode was independent of solution pH in the pH range of 3.0-12.0. The influence of the presence of organic solvents on the potential response of the electrode was also scrutinized, and the results showed that the designed sensor keeps its Nernstian behavior in solutions with 20% non-aqueous content. At the end, the electrode was successfully applied to determine lithium carbonate in tablet, urine and serum samples with the recovery% values of 96.0 to 106.33 and RSD% 1.99-4.45.

    Keywords: Ion selective electrode, Potentiometry, Lithium carbonate, PVC membrane, Sensor, Chromene
  • Forough Karami, Ardeshir Shokrollahi *, Salimeh Abbasi Pages 177-189

    The survey of protein adsorption is important due to significant application of proteins in food, medicine, biotechnology, environment, and separation science. Therefore, in the current investigation, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a functionalized mesoporous (MCM-41) using layered double hydroxide (MCM-41@LDH) was investigated under different conditions such as the amount of adsorbent, pH of the solution, contact time, and protein concentration. The optimization process was carried out using central composite design (CCD). After characterization of modified mesoporous, more investigations were conducted to assess the adsorption of BSA onto MCM-41@LDH, including adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic. It was revealed that Freundlich isotherm and second-order kinetics provided the best fit for support of MCM-41@LDH. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were determined as -3100.47 kJ mol-1 K-1 (at 298.15 K), -3101.12 kJ mol-1, and -0.002 kJ mol-1, respectively. According to CCD analysis and desirability function of 1.0, the optimal conditions for BSA adsorption were determined to be a pH value of 4.50, BSA concentration of 250 mg L-1, support amount of 0.016 g, and contact time of 55 min. The obtained findings can be used for purification, separation, and removal of BSA from complex samples.

    Keywords: Bovine serum albumin, Central composite design, Freundlich, Layered double hydroxide, MCM-41
  • Nduvho Mulaudzi *, Lehlogonolo Trucy Rasealoka, Gudani Honoured Maano, Tlabo Client Mohlapi, Pasca Makgwale Moshidi, Nkgetheng Nonyane Mohlabe Pages 191-199

    In several parts of Africa, Securidaca longipenduculata Fresen is a medicinal plant that has become well-known in traditional medicine for its wide range of therapeutic uses. The first goal of this study was to establish a high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) chemical fingerprint for S. longipenduculata roots as a reference for quality control. Methanol was used to extract the root samples that were collected from seven distinct locations in the Vhembe area of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. To resolve the major compounds from the sample matrix, an HPTLC method was optimised. The developing solvent was chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (90:5:30:1), while the derivatising agent used to view the plates was p-anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid. The developed HPTLC method was able to resolve the chemical constitutes from the root crude material to enable clear identification of six chemical markers. The second goal was to investigate Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) functional groups information of the species in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. A web-based high throughput metabolomic program called MetaboAnalyst was used to build several chemometric models including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). HCA analysis of data identified two clusters and additional analysis verified the quantitative differences between the samples. The FT-IR spectra of S. longipedunculata roots revealed a total of 15 metabolites that could be used as potential markers to differentiate between samples taken from the seven different locations.

    Keywords: Securidaca longipenduculata, Violet tree, Quality control, HPTLC, p-anisaldehyde, Marker compound
  • Somaye Vali Zade *, Hossein Rastegar Pages 201-209

    This study introduces parallel coordinates plots as an innovative visualization method, offering an alternative to traditional score plots in Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory data analysis (EDA). EDA is pivotal for unraveling intricate data structures, and PCA serves as a powerful tool for simplifying complex datasets. The paper explores the application of parallel coordinates plots in visualizing and interpreting PCA results, emphasizing their effectiveness in revealing multivariate patterns and detecting outliers. Through the examination of simulated datasets, where two distinct classes are generated in three-dimensional and five-dimensional spaces, and real Raman spectroscopic data, the research demonstrates the utility of parallel coordinates plots in enhancing data exploration and providing valuable insights in pattern recognition methodologies. The results highlight the complementary nature of traditional score plots and parallel coordinates plots, offering a comprehensive approach to understanding high-dimensional datasets. This innovative visualization technique proves valuable in discerning subtle patterns and relationships within complex data structures, contributing to a more profound exploration of datasets in various domains.

    Keywords: Parallel coordinates plot, Exploratory data analysis, Visualization, Score plot
  • Gazala Mohamed Benhander * Pages 211-225

    Microextraction techniques have received significant recognition in the realm of analytical chemistry due to their recognized variety and efficacy in the process of sample preparation and in the field of drug analysis, providing efficient and sensitive ways for extracting analytes from complicated matrices. This study has been carefully evaluated and utilizes an extensive bibliometric analysis to examine the patterns of publishing, authorship, citation networks, and clusters within the field of microextraction techniques and drug analysis, utilizing the Scopus database and VOSviewer software. The analysis encompasses the period from 2014 to 2023 and a total of 1321 articles sourced from 157 scholarly journals. The numerous citations that the Journal of Chromatography A's publications have received are proof of its significant contribution to the field of study, with a total publication count of 206 (29%). This highlights the journal's crucial role in the transmission of influential research in this particular domain. A comprehensive analysis of global scholarly contributions highlights China as a prominent participant, responsible for 23% of published publications, with Iran (19%) and Spain (11%) closely trailing behind. The findings of this bibliometric analysis indicate that the advancement of microextraction techniques necessitates collaborative efforts across multiple disciplines, including Chemistry, Biochemistry and others. These subject areas contribute significantly to the establishment of drug analysis methodologies. This concise and comprehensive examination of research issues, thematic focus, and the discipline's future constitutes a significant intellectual contribution. This research helps academics, practitioners, and policymakers understand the importance of microextraction and drug analysis in analytical chemistry

    Keywords: VOSviewer, Clusters, Co-authorship, Co-occurrence, Citation
  • Rahmiana Zein *, Chessia Nodifa Putri, Deswati Deswati, Syiffa Fauzia Pages 227-238

    Lead (Pb(II)) mostly found in water body come from industries and household activities. Pb(II) is non-biodegradable heavy metals and carcinogenic. The recent study had explored the ability of citric modified-kepok banana peel (BP-CA) to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solution using batch method. The adsorption capacity of kepok banana peel (BP) was also investigated for comparison. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) removal using kepok banana peel were achieved at pH 5, initial concentration 600 mg/L, contact time 75 minutes and agitation speed 100 rpm with adsorption capacity 36.478 mg/g. Meanwhile, the adsorption capacity of citric-modified kepok banana peel was 64.088 mg/g which was reached at pH 5, initial concentration 850 mg/L, contact time 75 minutes and agitation speed 150 rpm. The adsorption of Pb(II) onto both sorbents followed Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order model indicating monolayer adsorption with chemical interaction as rate limiting step. The Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) denoted wavenumber shift of some functional groups such as hydroxyl and carbonyl. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed uneven and pore surface of adsorbents that become smooth after adsorption took place. X-Ray Fluorescence showed prominent amount of Pb(II) in sorbents after adsorption occurred. Whereas Thermogravimetric (TGA) indicated significant mass reduction of sorbents at 250 OC.

    Keywords: Citric acid, Isotherm, Kepok banana peels, Kinetic, Pb(II)
  • Marwah A. Kadhim Al-Banaa *, Nagham S. Turkey, Aktham N Jasim Pages 239-245

    A novel and highly sensitive flow injection method was developed for the determination of Mebeverine. The method is based on the formation of an ion pair compound between Mebeverine hydrochloride and calcium hexacyanoferrate in an ammonium chloride medium, resulting in the formation of a whitish-yellow precipitate complex. The analysis was performed using a homemade NAG-4SX3-3D triple flow cell CFIA Analyzer. The experimental parameters were studied to optimize both the chemical and physical aspects of the method. The linear working range was obtained to be 0.01-40 mmol L-1, with an impressive correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9907. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.349 µg/150 µL, and the repeatability of the method (RSD%) was demonstrated to be less than 1.5%. To further evaluate the performance of the newly proposed method, a comparison was conducted using the standard addition method in conjunction with a classical method. Overall, the developed flow injection method offers simplicity, sensitivity, and reliable analytical performance for the determination of Mebeverine, making it a promising alternative to the classical method.

    Keywords: Flow injection analysis, Turbidity, Mebeverine hydrochloride