فهرست مطالب

Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A - Volume:7 Issue: 3, Summer 2024

Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section A
Volume:7 Issue: 3, Summer 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Mohammad Kamali-Ardakani, Esmael Rostami *, Abdolkarim Zare Pages 236-247
    A thermally and chemically sustainable nanocomposite, namely graphene oxide@polyaniline-FeF3 (GO@PANI-FeF3), was fabricated, and characterized using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy), EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and TG (thermal gravimetric) analyses. Then, 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazoles were constructed from aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate and 2-aminobenzothiazole using GO@PANI-FeF3 as catalyst; performing the reactions under solvent-free conditions, efficiency, high yields, relatively short times and recoverability of the catalyst are some advantages of our protocol.
    Keywords: Nanocomposite, Graphene oxide@polyaniline-FeF3, GO@PANI-FeF3, 4H-Pyrimido[2, 1-b]benzothiazole, 2-Aminobenzothiazole
  • Dina Ali *, Ahmed Ahmed, Alaa J. Alqaisi Pages 248-259
    This study focuses on synthesizing three pyrazole derivatives, namely B, C, and D. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) were used to study the synthesized derivatives. Pyrazole derivative B was produced from the chalcone derivative (A) reaction with (4-nitrophenyl) hydrazine. The pyrazole derivatives C and D were produced from the reaction of chalcone derivative (A) with hydrazide derivatives (N-(2-oxopropyl)benzamide and 3-acetyl-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-7-(piperazine-1-yl)quinolin-4(1H)-one), respectively. The Purification of α-amylase was conducted on pancreatic cancer patients from Iraq, employing three distinct purifying techniques. The experiment yielded a high level of enzyme activity, specifically 7 U/mL and a specific activity of 8.75 U/mg protein. These results were achieved using an ammonium sulfate saturation ratio of 65%. The graph shows a peak in enzyme activity at 3.75 U/mL in the elution area. This peak, fraction 55, has 11.3 U/mg protein activity. The stability of α-amylase was constant over a pH range of 5.0 to 9.0. In the pH range of 6 to 7, enzyme stability is highest at pH 7. At pH 5 and 9, strength decreased. The enzyme was less active at pH 5 and 6 but more active at pH 7 and 9. However, enzyme activity peaked at pH 8.0. The α-amylase enzyme maintained 100% activity at 27-37 °C, demonstrating stability. However, enzyme activity decreased to 50% at 47 °C when temperature increased. The inhibitory effect of bis-chalcone and pyrazole derivatives increased with concentration. The results show that compound B has the most significant inhibitory efficacy, at 50%.
    Keywords: cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Pyrazole, α-amylase
  • Issam Mohammad Shakir, Bakr Sadiq Mohammed *, Nagham Shakir Turkey Pages 260-277
    An innovative and effective method for continuous flow injection analysis (CFIA) was developed and included in the NAG_4SX3_3D Analyzer. The primary objective of this approach was to quantify the concentration of loratadine. This study presents a methodology for the quantification of loratadine, an antihistaminic medication, in pharmaceutical formulations. The samples are analyzed using the NAG_4SX3_3D Analyzer, which is a device that combines optical, chemical, electronic, and detection capabilities. The analyzer operates by receiving a cumulative signal, eliminating the need for amplification. The total distance travelled is 760 mm in relation to the variable YZ -mV during a period of time represented by t seconds (measured in mm). The selection was made based on the accurate computation of the energy transducer profile. The relative standard deviations for loratadine are 0.09% at a concentration of 5 m.M and 0.1% at a concentration of 8 m.M for n = 6. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification were found to be 611.076 ng and 129 μg, respectively, using a stepwise dilution of the lowest concentration on the calibration curve with a sample size of n = 13. The linear range has a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9989, indicating a strong positive relationship. Additionally, the linearity of this range is measured at 99.79% (R2) and recovery is not less than 96.58%, suggesting a high degree of conformity to a linear model. A comparative analysis was conducted between the outcomes of the suggested methodology and the existing UV-spectrophotometric approach, specifically at a wavelength of 275nm, revealing similar findings.
    Keywords: Loratadine, Continuous flow Injection analysis (CFIA), NAG-4SX3-3D analyzer
  • Nur Shazwani Binti Abdul Latif *, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Hafizah Ariff, Rauda A. Mohamed, Nurnadia Andenan, Khoirul Solehah Abdul Rahim, Noor Azilah Mohd Kasim, Keat Khim Ong, Alinda Samsuri Pages 278-288
    Extensive utilization of pesticides in the agricultural sector is acknowledged for their potent insecticidal properties, effectively safeguarding crops and consequently enhancing both yield and quality. However, the organophosphate compounds (OPs) predominantly found in these pesticides are highly toxic and known for their rapid skin absorption, leading to acute poisoning and posing public health challenges. Early exposure requires immediate and efficient decontamination to prevent further skin absorption of OPs. The current cleaning agents, such as soap and bleach, are often associated with harsh chemicals that can be corrosive to the skin. Furthermore, these conventional options tend to merely wash away chemicals, potentially leaving effluent that still carries toxic compounds, causing pollution to the environment. Thus, there is a need for approaches that not only clean effectively but also degrade the harmful substances. This paper proposes a method to synthesize solid soap from palm oil incorporating 2-PAM as an active agent for effective decontamination. The resulting yellowish solid soaps exhibit pH values in the 9-10 range, lathering capabilities, and controlled moisture content (4.19 % for S1, 2.42 % for S2, 2.1 % for S3). FTIR analysis confirms successful 2-PAM integration in soaps S2 and S3, as evidenced by specific bands at 3016 cm-1 to 3015 cm-1, 1736 cm-1 to 1735 cm-1, 1368 cm-1 to 1364 cm-1, and 1217 cm-1 to 1215 cm-1. These characteristics set the stage for further research into the efficacy of these soaps in organophosphate decontamination and their role in environmental pollution control.
    Keywords: Decontamination, Organophosphate, solid soap, oxime, Palm oil
  • Arash Vojood * Pages 289-294
    The current paper carried out the formose reaction (or the Butlerow reaction) when a fumed (pyrogenic) silica) also known as Aerosil or Cabosil) catalyst is present in methanol, which is one of the simplest forms of alcohol, at pH of 10.6. Ethane-1,2-diol (IUPAC name), also known as ethylene glycol or mono-ethylene glycol, is the reaction's visible product. Furthermore, Aerosil was investigated and identified through various analyses, including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Generally speaking, the results indicated that formose reaction produces ethylene glycol (simplest diol) with low efficiency in the methanolic medium.
    Keywords: Probiotic Chemistry, Formose reaction, Aerosil, Methanol, Ethylene glycol
  • Aseel M. Aljeboree, Ola Hamad Salah, Usama S. Altimari, Ammar Ali Aljanabi, Ayad F. Alkaim * Pages 295-302
    The adsorption capacity of a low-cost biosorbent, Sunflower Seed Shells (SFS) as activated carbon was prepared treatment by hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 0.1 N, was investigated for removal paracetamol drug, several analyses of AC-SFS surface, like FESEM, TEM, and EDX have been done. The effect of some optimum conditions such as concentration of Paracetamol drug and equilibrium time, weight of AC-SFS, and temperature solution were investigated in the batch model. As the equilibrium time increases, the absorption efficiency increases. Likewise, the removal percentage increases and the increased weight of AC-SFS leads to an increase in the removal percentage, while the adsorption efficiency decreases. Finally, with increasing temperature, the adsorption efficiency and removal percentage increase, as a result the reaction is endothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption equilibrium studies were examined by Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model fitted the result best with an AC-SFS efficiency (Qe= 46.567 mg/g). The thermodynamic factors presses were calculated as the maximum ΔG= −3.015 kJ/mol, ΔS= 24.47 J/mol, and ΔH= 2.222 kJ/mol, the adsorption method of the studied drug was spontaneous and endothermic. These data revealed that the use of sunflower seed shells as activated carbon to remove drugs would be an interesting option from both economic and environmental.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Paracetamol drug, Isotherm, Thermodynamic Spontaneous
  • Nagham Shakir Turkey, Bakr Sadiq Mohammed *, Issam Mohammad Shakir Pages 303-318
    This study utilized the NAG-4SX3-3D analyzer (four sources of white snow light-emitting diodes arranged in three rows corresponding to three detectors), a tool for optical, chemical, electronic, and detection based on receiving cumulative signals (no amplification is required). Total travelling distance is 760 mm with regard to YZ(mV)–t sec (d mm). It was selected for its precise calculation of the energy transducer profile (NAG4X3) to accurately calculate the energy output detector. There was a goal to help scholars understand the technology better by giving them accurate information about the device. The technology provides a low-cost, efficient, precise, and responsive method. CPH in pharmaceutical samples has been determined using the turbidity technique. This procedure does not require the use of any extra materials. CPH is predicted to react immediately with 3,5-DNSA, resulting in the creation of a bright yellow precipitate. Cyproheptadine has a linear range of 0.005 to 40 mM. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for the n = 6 at 10 mM and 15 mM doses was substantially less than 0.15%. Starting from the lowest concentration on the calibration curve and gradually diluting it, the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 163.958 ng per analyte, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 245.632 μg/sample. The linear dynamic range has a strong correlation value (r = 0.9986) and a high percentage of linearity (R2% = 99.72), with recovery not less than 95.78%. The findings of the newly created approach were found to be similar to those of the previous technique (UV-spectrophotometric at a wavelength of 274 nm). The suggested method demonstrates enhanced sensitivity, utilizes a reduced quantity of chemicals, and yields superior outcomes compared to the reference approach, which involves 10 mm irradiation.
    Keywords: NAG-4SX3-3D analyzer, Cyprohetadine-Hydrochloride, 3, 5-Dinitrosalicylic acid
  • Matlal Alif, Rahadian Zainul *, Ani Mulyani, Syifa Syakirah, Ahmad Zikri, Anwar Iqbal, Mohammad Abdullah, Abel Adeyi Pages 319-337
    This article explores the latest advancements in the use of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the simultaneous detection of uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), and ascorbic acid (AA) in various biological fluids. These analytes are crucial due to their association with numerous diseases and their vital roles in physiological functions. MWCNTs, especially when combined with zinc-nickel (ZnNi), offer promising attributes like high conductivity, large surface area, and excellent electrocatalytic properties. The synergy between MWCNTs and ZnNi enhances their effectiveness, making them ideal for constructing highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors. This review meticulously examines the synthesis and functionalization of MWCNTs, highlighting their improved solubility and reactivity. We discuss the sensor construction process, emphasizing the compatibility with electrode materials and functionalization techniques. In addition, we analyse the electrochemical properties and performance of these sensors. The key findings of this review aim to guide researchers in exploiting functionalized MWCNTs for developing highly selective and sensitive sensors for UA, DA, and AA, with potential applications in pathological, clinical, and biological studies.
    Keywords: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Uric acid (UA), Dopamine (DA), Ascorbic acid (AA), Electrochemical sensors
  • Marzieh Cheraghipoor, Mozhgan Zakeri, Hamid Moghadam, Mohsen Samimi * Pages 338-346
    Pearlescent pigments encompass a diverse range known for their ability to create an aesthetically pleasing optical appearance due to the facile alignment of numerous platelet-like particles. Consequently, they serve as an ideal choice for imparting robust, lustrous color effects in powder coatings. The synthesis of green pearlescent pigments was conducted in this study, utilizing mica (biotite) and mica-titania flakes coated with a copper oxide thin film. The process entailed the uniform formation of copper (II) chloride through the addition of sodium or potassium hydroxide in the existence of titania, mica, mica-alumina, ammonium molybdate, or mica-titania flakes. Biotite, denoted by the formula K(Mg/Fe)3(A1Si3O10)(OH)2, was selected as the supporting mica. The synthesized pigments were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. Evaluations were conducted using polypropylene extrusion with the incorporated pigments, revealing acceptable chemical resistance and distinctive pearl luster effects. The XRD pattern of the Cu/mica pigment exhibited the presence of copper hydroxide covering the mica surface, confirming the formation of the green pearlescent pigments.
    Keywords: Ammonium molybdate, Biotite, Mica Flake, Pearlescent Pigment, Titania
  • Aseel M. Aljeboree *, Ali Saeed Owayez Khawaf Aljaberi, Ola Hamad Salah, Talib Kh. Hussein, Usama S. Altimari, Ayad F. Alkaim Pages 347-354
    Activated carbon (AC) as a source of normal plants (Cashew Nut Shell) were utilizing as the best, ecological and cost-effective adsorbent for removal of contaminants of Amoxillin (AMX) drug from aqueous solutions via sonicated. Adsorption thermodynamics and equilibrium isotherm of AMX drug onto AC-CNS. The data indicate that AC-CNS can be used as a low-cost substitute compared with commercial adsorbents removal of pollutants from aqueous solution. The effects of pH solution (2-10), initial concentration of AMX (10-100 mg/L), solution temperature (15-35 °C) and adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.1 g) on adsorption were evaluated. The structural and morphological properties of the AC-CNS were analyzed including FESEM, TEM and EDX. The non-linear model was conducted to determine thermodynamic parameters and equilibrium isotherms, where the result of equilibrium isotherm was fitted onto the Freundlich model. Freundlich suggested a determined multilayer adsorption efficiency (109.66 mg/g). The nonlinear models of thermodynamic factors appear to show that the adsorption was spontaneous (negative value of ∆G and positive value of ∆S) and endothermic (positive value of ∆H) at the same optimum conditions.
    Keywords: Nonlinear Model, Thermodynamic, equilibrium isotherm, Drug, Cashew Nut Shell