فهرست مطالب

Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene
Volume:9 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Parisa Shavali Gilani, Mohadeseh Fesahat, Nabi Shariatifar* Pages 217-226

    Nitrosamines (Nams) have been demonstrated to possess carcinogenic properties in certain animal species, suggesting a potential link between the consumption of this compound and the development of cancer in humans. Multiple reports have highlighted the presence of nitrosamine contamination in various food groups, particularly meat and meat products. Consequently, the presence of nitrosamines in meat products has raised significant concerns. This study aims to examine the levels of nitrosamines in meat and meat products, explore the mechanisms underlying their formation in these foods, and identify potential strategies for reducing this compound in food. To achieve this objective, scholarly articles about the keywords Nitrosamine, Exposure, Meat and Meat Products, and Mechanism of Formation were retrieved from academic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, among others. The formation of nitrosamines (Nams) can be influenced by several factors including nitrosating agents, pH levels, the presence or accessibility of nitrite and nitrosable amines, and oxidative status. Moreover, the rate at which Nams form can be impacted by reducing these factors. Additionally, processed meat products may contain natural components and additives that interact with these factors to either hinder or facilitate the formation of Nams. Given the increasing consumption of sausages in daily diets, evaluating the levels of nitrosamines in meat products can serve as a quality measure for assessing nutritional value and the effectiveness of processing and thermal treatments.

    Keywords: Nitrosamine, Exposure, Meat, meat products, Mechanism of formation
  • Nadia James Killa*, Ombui Jackson Nyarongi, Gathura Peter Baaro Pages 227-240

    Meat spoilage reduces the meat quality and the revenue from the meat industry. This study assessed the direct impact of ineffective meat preservation methods on economic loss among meat retailers in the Dagoretti region of Nairobi, Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 87 butcheries and 9 supermarkets from low, middle, and high-income areas using a systematic sampling technique. The meat losses were measured by kilograms of spoilt meat and associated financial cost was estimated. Descriptive and Inferential statistics were used to establish the significance of the association between preservation and demographic factors. A correlation analysis was used to estimate the strength of the relationship between the factors. The study revealed that most of meat handlers heavily relied on refrigeration methods (73%) for storing meat, and 27% hung meat at room temperature due to the high cost of electricity and deep freezers. Furthermore, it revealed that each meat retail business lost 2.3 kg (1.0-3.0 kg) on average per week, which indicates financial losses of USD 11.5 (Range 5.0-15.0 USD) per week or USD 598 (Range USD 260-790) per year. These losses were mainly associated with moisture loss (49%) and microbial spoilage (22%). Poor storage and meat handling practices were blamed for spoilt meat. Meat retailers reported fly menace disturbing their business. It’s recommended that the government implement policies to reduce electricity bills and enhance the adoption of refrigeration methods, while industry stakeholders should facilitate initiatives for public awareness on appropriate methods of meat preservation. Additionally, retail cut meat products on display should be wrapped with permeable film to reduce moisture loss. Further study is needed for a comprehensive analysis of direct economic losses segregated by meat types and preservation forms.

    Keywords: Meat spoilage, Meat retailers, Economic losses, Meat preservation
  • Hanieh Nobari Moghaddam, Shahrzad Alaeepajouh, Masoomeh Behzad, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Naficeh Sadeghi * Pages 241-251

    Honey is one of the richest sources of antioxidants due to a variety of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Another prime chemical indicator of assessing honey quality is 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) which indicates the freshness of honey as well as exposure to heat. Increasing HMF above the permissible limit could cause cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. In this study, we evaluate the antioxidant activity and radical scavenging capacity of forty samples of natural and commercial Iranian honey. Also, we determine the HMF content in these samples. This aim was achieved through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and white methods. Results of DPPH (in the range of 3.13% to 66.61%) revealed there was no significant difference between natural and commercial honey in terms of radical scavenging activity (p˃0.05). On the other hand, the results of FRAP showed that natural honey had a significantly higher total antioxidant capacity than commercial honey (p˂0.05). There was a significant difference between honey samples from different plants, too. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between natural and commercial honey in terms of radical scavenging activity and HMF levels (p˂0.05). The result of HMF content was in the range of 8.64 to 98.48 mg/kg. Eventually, it could be concluded that climate, plant source, process of production and storage have an impact on these parameters. Also, some honey samples have high HMF content due to heat-treated processes or dated products.

    Keywords: Honey, Antioxidant, Antiradical, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, Ferric reducing antioxidantpower, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Zeyana Nassor Mohamed*, Abdulsudi Issa-Zacharia, Frida Nyamete Pages 252-267

    The increase of heavy metals concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their toxicity is of global concern. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals in fish poses a serious risk to human health when consumed. This study assessed the quality of Rabbit fish (Signus Sutor) and their associated health risks from four landing sites (namely Malindi, Mazizini, Kizimkazi and Matemwe) in Zanzibar. The concentrations of toxic metals, including Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), and Arsenic (As), in the fish muscle were scrutinized using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The detected mean concentration (mg/kg) of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Ni at Malindi were 0.25±0.14, 2.22±0.44, 0.02±0.02, 0.01±0.00, 0.02±0.02 and 0.00±0.00 respectively; at Kizimkazi were 0.39±0.39, 2.30±0.44, 0.11±0.01, 0.07±0.04, 0.17±0.13 and 0.15±0.04 respectively: at Matemwe were 0.38±0.12, 0.52±0.14, 0.04±0.02, 0.05±0.01, 0.65±0.21 and 0.09±0.03 respectively; and Mazizini were 0.21±0.12, 5.56±1.37, 0.02±0.02, 0.03±0.01, 0.05±0.02 and 0.15±0.05 respectively. The mean concentration levels detected for all the elements in the fish gathered from all four landing sites were below international and local maximum (FAO/WHO) permissible limits for human consumption, except for Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). The study also investigated the relationship between fish size and metal concentration which shows a positive correlation for Cu and Ni. However, it was negative for the remaining metals, possibly due to ecological and metabolic differences. The study emphasizes the necessity for regular monitoring of the marine environment and enforcement of hygienic regulations, as well as the treatment of land-based pollutants before they are discharged into the marine environment to protect fish quality.

    Keywords: Heavy metal, Pollution, Bioaccumulation, Fish quality, Food safety, Health risk
  • Bibi Rafeena Ally-Charles*, Rashama Holder, Ede Tyrell, Andrew Hutson Pages 268-281

    In Guyana, street-vended beverages can often be bought in the local markets and some eating establishments; and are popular, sought-after beverages. The demand and consumption of local beverages are likely to increase for both locals and foreigners. The safe production of fruit beverages by the fruit juice vendor will become crucial to prevent spoilage and microbial contamination. This study analyses the bacteriological quality of street-vended juices from two of the main markets in Georgetown, by enumerating the total viable count and identifying coliforms, Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. This experimental study investigated street-vended juices. The standard plate count method was used to determine the total viable count on nutrient agar using serial dilutions. Selective media including MSA agar, EMB agar, and XLD agar; and other identification tests were used to select for and identify specific bacteria. The data were presented as mean±SD and numbers of positive samples. About 90% of samples were contaminated with bacteria with an average of 5.8±1.9 log cfu/mL or 2.1x107 cfu/mL. Of the 20 juices, 65% contained coliforms, 25% yielded E. coli, and 60% yielded Klebsiella sp. /Enterobacter sp., 65%yielded Staphylococcus sp., 25% were suspected to be Shigella sp. and 5% were suspected to be Salmonella sp. Standards for ready-to-drink, non-carbonated beverages state that coliforms and other pathogens must be absent; therefore our findings are very worrying. We recommend that governmental and non-governmental agencies collaborate to bring more awareness about hygiene and storage techniques for street vendors.

    Keywords: Street-vended beverages, Contamination, Coliforms, Hygiene, Spoilage, Quality
  • Abdusudi Issa-Zacharia*, Stephen Paul Rwabunywenge Pages 282-298

    The prevalence of foodborne illness linked to the intake of freshly squeezed juices sold by street vendors is on the rise, despite the widespread use of these beverages by millions of people in developing nations. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the microbiological standard and safety of locally processed and street-vended sugarcane juices in Dar es Salaam to ascertain their present condition. A total of 60 samples of sugarcane juice were gathered and examined. Street vendors involved in the sugarcane juice business were interviewed followed by physical-chemical and microbiological laboratory analysis. The pH of unpasteurized sugarcane juice was 4.8 and 4.9 for iced and raw, respectively while the pH for pasteurized and pasteurized juice in which citric acid was added were receptively, 4.3 and 3.1. The average level of titratable acidity was 0.083%. The Soluble solids (°Brix) of unpasteurized raw, iced and pasteurized sugarcane juice ranged from 12.2- 22.1, 2.4-13.8 and 14.1-15.8. The total plate counts (TPC) of unpasteurized sugarcane juice showed a mean of 5.592 and 5.64 log cfu/mL for raw and iced sugarcane juice, respectively. About 90% of samples were above TBS and Codex recommended maximum limits of 3.7 to 4 log cfu/mL or 5×10³- 10⁴ cfu/mL. Unpasteurized raw and iced sugarcane juice were contaminated with 1.79 and 2.10 log cfu/mL of E. coli while no typical Salmonella spp. was detected in all 60 samples. The study concluded that the microbiological quality and overall handling practices associated with unpasteurized sugarcane juice sold in Dar es Salaam City were substandard.

    Keywords: Bacteriological quality, Safety, Sugarcane juice, Hygienic practices, Street vendor
  • Isaac Makundi*, Nicas Ngoyinde Pages 299-305

    Aflatoxins are naturally occurring toxins, predominantly produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These toxins are often found in numerous agricultural and food products worldwide. The current study investigated the natural occurrence of total aflatoxins in dried split ginger purchased from different local markets in the Dar-Es-Salaam region, the eastern zone of Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional sampling design, a total of 50 ginger samples were analyzed in two preparations as a whole and peeled ginger based on Q+ Aflatoxin single-step lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assay. The results revealed that all ginger samples analyzed were positive for aflatoxins with levels ranging from 5.7–28.0 g/kg and 3.1–21.5 g/kg for whole and peeled ginger respectively. Forty (80%) and fifteen (30%) of the samples for whole and peeled ginger respectively were above the Tanzanian legally permissible limit of 10 g/kg. Interestingly, aflatoxins level of contamination in whole ginger were significantly higher than in peeled ginger (p<0.0001). This is the first report on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in whole and peeled ginger samples from Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that ginger peels are relatively prone to aflatoxin contamination.

    Keywords: Immuno-chromatographic assay, Aflatoxins, Ginger, Local markets