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مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 8 (بهار 1390)
  • پیاپی 8 (بهار 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/03/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مسعود تقوایی، حمیدرضا وارثی، افشین درکی صفحه 1
    امروزه یک اجماع جهانی در این باره وجود دارد که چنانچه به همه قابلیت های صنعت گردشگری و به ویژه گردشگری شهری توجه شود، می تواند به عنوان یکی از راهبردهای توسعه اقتصادی و فرهنگی شهرها محسوب گردد. موفقیت در این امر، مستلزم توجه به فرآیندهای ایجاد ارزش و جذابیت افزوده در جاذبه های گردشگری است و یکی از تاثیرگذارترین آنها نورپردازی است. از این روی، در این پژوهش به نقش نورپردازی بر توسعه گردشگری شهر اصفهان پرداخته شده است. روش این پژوهش، توصیفی، تحلیلی و پیمایشی است و در تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار Spss استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که چنانچه نسبت به نورپردازی-نه به عنوان یک فعالیت تزیینی و جنبی، بلکه به عنوان یک راه کار مؤثر در معماری مجدد شهر ها به هنگام شب- رویکردی علمی و برنامه ریزی شده اتخاذ گردد، می تواند ضمن بهبود کیفیت زندگی شهری، نقش مهمی در افزایش جذابیت، زمان فعالیت و امنیت شهری برای گردشگران وبه تبع آن توسعه گردشگری شهری را نیز به همراه داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: نورپردازی، گردشگری، اصفهان
  • رسول قربانی، محمدرضا پورمحمدی، مجید بهشتی روی صفحه 19
    در سال های اخیر افزایش سریع جمعیت شهری و شهرنشینی، موجب افزایش تراکم مسکن و فشردگی فضاهای شهری و در نتیجه هویدایی نیاز بیشتر به هوای سالم و محیط سالم شده است و در شرایط رشد فزاینده بیماری های روحی و روانی، افزایش استرس و توسعه آلودگی های شهری، توجه و نیاز شهروندان به مکان های با طراوت سبز و تفرجگاهی توسعه یافته است. در چنین شرایطی، لزوم تحقیق، پرده گشایی و تحلیل وضعیت کاربری های سبزشهری، هرچه بیشتر مطرح می گردد. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی و تحلیل سیر تحول تاریخی ایجاد پارک و فضاهای تفرجگاهی در شهرهای استان آذربایجان شرقی در طی سده اخیر با استفاده از مدل تحلیلی «گرانز» است تا بیانگر تفاوت ها و مشابهت هایی بین اندیشه های تئوریک و اقدامات اجرایی در مقوله فضای سبز در شهرداری ها باشد. روش مورد استفاده در تحقیق روش مقایسه ای- تحلیلی است و بخش عمده اطلاعات مورد نیاز تحقیق از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه ویژه تحقیق به دست آمده و بخش دیگری نیز با استفاده از آمارهای موجود و کتابخانه ای حاصل شده است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد: در نگرش شهرداری ها و مشاوران تهیه کننده طرح های شهری، به انواع فضاهای سبزشهری تفاوت های زیادی وجود دارد و این امر با اندازه جمعیتی و طبقه شهری در ارتباط بوده است. همچنین، مشابهت هایی در الگوی ترکیب پارک های شهری در ایران و جهان با توجه به مدل «گرانز» مشاهده نمی گردد و با توجه به موفقیت نسبتا ناچیز طرح های توسعه شهری در ایجاد فضاهای سبزشهری، با تحقق 8/26٪ پیشنهادهای طرح ها، لزوم تلاش بیشتر در ایجاد فضاهای سبزشهری، خصوصا ایجاد پارک هایی از نوع اول و پنجم مدل «گرانز» به عنوان بهترین راه کار، مطرح است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای سبز، شهرهای آذربایجان شرقی، بررسی تحلیلی، مدل گرانز
  • محمد مسعود، امیر محمد معززی مهر طهران، سید نیما شبیری صفحه 39
    هر جامعه ای در راه توسعه تلاش می کند، زیرا توسعه هدفی است که اکثر مردم آن را ضروری می دانند. پیشرفت اقتصادی تنها یکی از جنبه های توسعه است؛ به این مفهوم که توسعه صرفا پدیده ای اقتصادی نیست. بسیاری از جوامع به منظور تقویت پایه های توسعه و رفع و تعدیل عدم تعادل ها و انبوه مسائل و مشکلات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی شان، بیش از هر زمان دیگری نیازمند برنامه ریزی و شناسایی امکانات و منابع بالفعل و بالقوه شان هستند. این مقاله با به کارگیری روش تاکسونومی عددی، در گام اول به تعیین درجه توسعه یافتگی شهرستانهای استان اصفهان در سال 1385 با استفاده از 33 شاخص پرداخته، سپس به مقایسه اجمالی آن با درجه توسعه یافتگی این شهرستانها در سال 1375 با استفاده از 18 شاخص مشترک می پردازد تا از این رهگذر به مشخص کردن میزان تغییر در درجه توسعه نیافتگی هر یک از شهرستان ها دست یابیم و در ادامه با ارائه راهکارهایی به کاهش فاصله شهرستانهای استان کمک شود. نتایج، گویای آن است که شهرستانهای آران و بیدگل و اصفهان، توسعه یافته ترین و فریدونشهر توسعه نیافته ترین در سال 1385 شناسایی شده اند، در حالی که در سال 1375 دو شهرستان کاشان و فریدونشهر به ترتیب برخوردارترین و غیر برخوردارترین شهرستانهای استان از لحاظ درجه توسعه یافتگی بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص توسعه، درجه توسعه نیافتگی، تاکسونومی عددی، استان اصفهان
  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، امین فرجی ملایی صفحه 55
    شهر به عنوان پدیده ای پیچیده و پویاست که در گذر زمان همواره دچار تحولاتی کالبدی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و حتی سیاسی و فرهنگی می شود. در نتیجه رشد سرسام آور شهرها مدیریت شهری به علت فقدان منابع و زمان لازم برای پاسخگویی به نیازهای فزاینده شهروندان، دچار معضلی گردیده که رهایی از آن را تنها در چارچوب راه حل های نوین می توان جستجو کرد. در این میان، فرآیند استراتژی توسعه شهری (CDS) به عنوان یک نظریه رویه ای-محتوایی و به عنوان رویکردی نوین در برنامه ریزی شهری توسط سازمان ائتلاف شهرها در سال 1999 با هدف کاهش فقر، توسعه پایدار و ارتقای مشارکت و ایجاد حکمرانی خوب شهری مطرح گردید. هدف این مقاله، امکان سنجی اجرای استراتژی توسعه شهری بر مبنای شرایط جاری در سیستم مدیریت شهری ایران است. در این راستا فرض اصلی تحقیق بر این است که نظام برنامه ریزی، اقتصادی و مدیریت شهری کشور ظرفیت لازم برای اجرای این طرح ها را ندارند. برای انجام این پژوهش از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی استفاده شده و برگزیده ای از منابع مکتوب که مورد عمل و استناد است، تحلیل و بررسی شده. و از تکنیک تحلیل SWOT و روش دلفی برای تشریح نقاط ضعف، قوت، تهدید و فرصت استفاده گردیده است. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، در شرایط کنونی ایجاد تغییرات بنیادین، بویژه در مدیریت شهری، اقتصاد شهری و شاخص های کیفیت زندگی در جهت بسترسازی به کارگیری استراتژی توسعه شهری(به عنوان زیرساخت های اجرای این رویکرد) امری ضروری است. ضعف ساختاری مدیریت شهری در شرایط کنونی ظرفیت مناسبی برای اجرای طرح استراتژی توسعه شهری را نداشته، ایجاد تحولاتی در آن را می توان ضروری و حیاتی مطرح کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی استراتژیک، استراتژی توسعه شهری(CDS)، مدیریت شهری، کیفیت زندگی شهری
  • ژیلا سجادی، عیسی ابراهیم زاده، علی شمس الدینی * صفحه 77

    نادیده گرفتن روستاها در فرایند اجرای برنامه های توسعه، به ویژه در کشورهای درحال توسعه، سبب بروز تفاوت ها و دوگانگی های چشمگیر اقتصادی و اجتماعی بین جوامع شهری و روستایی گردیده است. محرومیت و فقر ناشی از چنین روندی، روستاییان را وادار نموده که برای بهبود شرایط اقتصادی – اجتماعی و رفاه زندگی خود از روستاها به دیگر کانونهای سکونتگاهی، به ویژه شهرها مهاجرت نمایند. این جابه جایی ها که با انگیزه های مختلفی صورت گرفته است، در شهرهای کوچک، همچون نورآباد توانسته است موجبات رضایتمندی مهاجران را فراهم آورد. این پژوهش با هدف پی بردن به علل مهاجرت و چگونگی نقش دسترسی و مسافت (دو مفهوم بنیادی تحلیل مکانی) از شهر نورآباد در این مهاجرت ها صورت گرفته است. روش تحقیق تحلیلی و توصیفی بوده و با توجه به ماهیت موضوع مورد مطالعه با نگرشی رفتاری – فضایی دنبال شده است. جمع آوری اطلاعات با اتکا بر مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی انجام گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق علاوه بر اینکه نمایانگر رابطه بین کمبود خدمات به عنوان انگیزه عمده در مهاجرفرستی روستاهای مورد مطالعه است، بلکه نقش موثر فاصله و دسترسی از شهر را در کمبود خدمات روستایی و نتیجتا مهاجرت محرز می سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: روستا، مهاجرت روستایی، فاصله، دسترسی، خدمات، ممسنی
  • سیده هما موذن جمشیدی، مریم مقیمی، نعمت الله اکبری صفحه 95
    دخالت دولت در اقتصاد از دیرباز یکی از موضوعات مورد بحث بسیاری از اقتصاددانان بوده است. در رابطه با اندازه ی دولت و تاثیر آن بر رشد و توسعه ی اقتصادی، نظریات گوناگونی وجود دارد. یک نظریه بیانگر این است که دولت بزرگ تر برای دستیابی به اهدافی چون کارآیی و رشد اقتصادی زیان آور است. در نقطه ی مقابل این نظریه برخی عقیده دارندکه دولت نقش مهمی در فرایند توسعه ی اقتصادی به عهده دارد و دولت بزرگ تر را به موتور توسعه ی قوی تر برای اقتصاد تشبیه می کنند. در هر صورت اندازه ی بزرگ دولت یکی از مهم ترین ویژگی های کشورهای در حال توسعه و کمتر توسعه یافته می باشد، به طوری که اغلب بخش های اقتصاد در این گونه کشورها از جانب دولت مدیریت و تامین مالی شده، و دولت ها در این گونه کشورها با کسری شدید بودجه مواجه هستند. بنابراین، عمده ی تغییرات در این دسته از کشورها، تحت تاثیر اندازه ی دولت آنها قرار می گیرد، و همین امر سبب شده که تلاش های زیادی در جهت بررسی تاثیر اندازه ی دولت بر متغیرهای مختلف اقتصادی انجام شود. از این رو هدف این مطالعه، تحلیل تاثیر اندازه ی دولت بر شاخص توسعه ی انسانی است؛ تفاوت و نوآوری این مطالعه با سایر مطالعات، در روش تحلیل بکار گرفته شده است؛ بطوری که تا بحال این موضوع از طریق روش رگرسیون وزنی جغرافیایی (GWR) مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است، این روش دارای قابلیت های ویژه ای است که در مقاله به آن پرداخته شده است. کشورهای عضو سازمان کنفرانس اسلامی به عنوان کشورهایی که بیشتر از مجموعه ی کشورهای در حال توسعه و کشورهای کمتر توسعه یافته تشکیل شده اند، به عنوان جامعه ی آماری مورد بررسی انتخاب شده است. نتایج برآورد مدل نشان می دهد که استفاده از روش های معمول اقتصادسنجی برای این نوع داده ها که مکانمند هستند فاقد اعتبار بوده و الزاما باید از روش های اقتصادسنجی فضایی بهره گرفت که روش وزنی جغرافیایی کاملا منطبق بر داده های مورد استفاده است. نتایج حاصل از روش وزنی جغرافیایی نشان دهنده تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار اندازه دولت بر توسعه انسانی در کشورهای مورد مطالعه است.
    کلیدواژگان: اندازه ی دولت، توسعه ی انسانی، روش رگرسیون وزنی جغرافیایی GWR))، کشورهای عضو کنفرانس اسلامی، اقتصادسنجی فضایی
  • محسن طاهری دمنه، سکینه فرمانی، رضا مستوفی صفحه 117
    حالی که واژه گردشگری تداعی کننده رونق اقتصادی و توسعه اجتماعی است، لیکن مشاهدات عینی در شهرهای گردشگرپذیر ایران، از جمله شهر شیراز، ذهن را متوجه این مساله می کند که انبوه مسافران ساکن در اطراف خیابان ها چه برونداد مثبتی را عاید شهر خواهد کرد. با طرح این مساله و لزوم توجه به صنعت توریسم به عنوان پربازده ترین صنعت خدماتی در دنیا، پژوهش حاضر به دنبال ریشه یابی و ارائه راهکارهای عملی برای برخورد با این معضل شهری است. پارادایم گردشگری پایدار که اخیرا در زمره مفاهیم مورد مطالعه در حوزه توسعه پایدار و گردشگری مطرح شده و در حقیقت نقطه اشتراک این دو مفهوم است، گردشگری را در جایی منبع خلق ارزش می داند که ملاحظات انسانی، اجتماعی و زیست - محیطی را لحاظ کرده، منبع کسب درآمد باشد. لذا پژوهش حاضر در بستر گردشگری پایدار به بررسی وضعیت گردشگری در شهر شیراز پرداخته است. مطالعه حاضر ابتدا به بررسی تناسب بین گردشگر و تعداد مراکز اقامتی پرداخته و نشان داده است که علی رغم انبوه مسافر، در بسیاری از ماه های سال مراکز اقامتی زیر ظرفیت استاندارد فعالیت می کنند. در ادامه با طرح فرضیه هایی در زمینه کیفیت مراکز اقامتی و تاثیر آن در جلب گردشگران، به بررسی وضعیت کیفیت خدمات در مراکز اقامتی پرداخته است. بدین منظور، پرسشنامه سنجش کیفیت خدمات در صنعت هتل داری تهیه و با روش های آماری مرسوم استاندارد گردید. سپس به نظرسنجی از گردشگران ساکن در مراکز اقامتی بر اساس مدل عملکرد-اهمیت (Importance-Performance Analysis) پرداخته شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق را کلیه گردشگران داخلی شهر شیراز در مردادماه سال 1388 تشکیل می دهند که از این میان و به وسیله فرمول نمونه گیری کوکران حجم نمونه ای برابر با 293 به دست آمد. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از وجود شکاف معنادار بین اهمیت و عملکرد مولفه های کیفیت در همه ابعاد پرسشنامه است.
    کلیدواژگان: سیمای شهر، گردشگری، مدل IPA، مراکز اقامتی، شهر شیراز
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  • M. Taghvaei, H. R. Varesi, A. Doreki Page 1
    -Introduction Tourism attractions are major component of tourism development. Those are like immature materials and exploiting them should be a procedure of creation value added. It seems urban lighting is a subject that can be effective in this area. Urban lighting can reconstruct the urban skeleton at nights and impress tourists. Moreover it can be effective for urban security and increasing urban tourism duration. Urban lighting can be exploited as a tourist attraction if considered properly. Accordingly the study goal should be inspecting the role of lighting on urban tourism development. Theoretical bases Lighting is a combination of art and science. Lighting affair includes how people light on, feel and react to their surroundings lighting. In fact urban lighting is a compound of lighting streets, urban furniture, traffic lights, urban displays and seasonal lighting. Today, urban life and its related economic affairs necessitate urban activities to be expanded and continued during nights. Although urban lighting cannot be sufficient condition for expanding urban functions duration but it is considered as a necessary condition of night activities. Security affair is always vital for the sake of attracting tourists and city security has a strong relationship with Lighting at nights. Additionally, Lighting can be considered as a tourism attraction singly. Using a deliberated lighting can eliminate inappropriate urban facades and furthermore it can set off physical strength of cities. Discussion Isfahan is a valuable treasure of Islamic Art and Architecture and it has a distinguished position as a tourism city. Thousands of Iranian and foreigner tourists visit Isfahan historical remains from different eras every year. In fact, it is an exposition of national and religious identity, technology level and architectural style of this territory in past centuries. Hence, usage of various methods in order that display them is very important and lighting is one of these techniques. Just six indicator monuments have been lighting in Isfahan now. Khajoo and Sio sepol bridges in the past and Ali Qapu, Chehel sotoon, Manarjonban and hasht behesht have been lighting recently. Caring visitors and experts’ comments indicates that the buildings lighting are not appropriately. These foibles include low light, inappropriate details lighting, non-observance the rules of monument manipulation and aesthetics roots inattention. Conclusion The findings show a high correlation between lighting and buildings attractiveness. Lighting has a significant impact on creating comfort and security of tourists. The research results confirm the role of lighting on increasing the urban tourism duration. This would be effective in reducing urban traffic and shopping boom causing by tourists. According to the research findings, it can conclude that if lighting, not as a marginal and decorative activity, but as an effective solution for the city nightly architecture adopt with a scientific and planned policy, it can improve both the quality of urban life and development of urban tourism. Suggestions 5-1- changing view to lighting and considering lighting as an; Opportunity for increasing quality of urban area; 5-2- attention to increasing quality and quantity of passages, parks and the other city structures lighting; 5-3- utilization of lighting new technology for decreasing efficiency (in the above case establishing seminars and lateral specialized exhibition in Isfahan can be an effective policy); 5-4- utilization past experiences and expert consultants for lighting the other historical buildings of Isfahan; 5-5- establishing annual lighting festival in Isfahan.
  • R. Ghorbani, M. R. Pourmohammadi, M. Beheshti Rouy Page 19
    Introduction Urban parks are spaces that designed and constructed within urban boundaries and provide health public outdoor recreation for urban residence. These spaces have continued the relation between residences and nature in built area as one of main elements of urban structure. In reality these spaces are important sector of framework and morphology of current cities and they must make pleasant environment and provide other ecological needs and important sector of urban green spaces. With regards to importance of urban parks and green spaces in improvement of urban life, we an academic research is needed for increasing its function in the present urban environment condition. 2- Theoretical Bases Study and analysis of literature review of urban park areas show that the all forms of parks are constructed and used with regard to important human needs such as refreshment, fun, growth, efflorescence, satisfying aesthetic need, mental needs paying less attention to quality, distance, function and theirs accessability. During 150 past years, parks has replaced the urban gardens as effective approach with wide ecological affects. Parks were classified according to their size, facilities, situation, valence, accessibility and etc. The researches in history of urban planning show that the urban planning paradigm has had effective function in historical change of parks and green space planning in different countries of world. All kind of parks have constructed from special ideas. Also, These researche shows that the first attempts for urban parks construction formed in thoughts of earlier town planner such as San Simon, Robert Owen, F.M.S. Forieh, Atin Kabeh who considered the urban parks as having great importance function in their ideal city. Since 1910 there have be three new opinions effecting the planning and design of parks and green spaces efforts. Modernism Urban planners, affected by ATTENS charter, predicted suitable place for leisure activity within and around cities adapting international urbanism approaches. Also they have paid attention to balance between built area and open space in cities. Cultural urban planners, attended to foot path, mix uses, Multi-functional urban spaces and planning spatial parks for any cities with emphasizs on natural symbols. Finally the natural urban planners, paying attention to naure have attempted to creat organic human settlement in balance with nature. They also proposed the idea of "city as park". "Granz" Suggess a model for analyzing the urban parks planning theories in the past 150 years. (the middle of the nineteen century to end of twentieth century). His researches findings show that the theories and views about urban parks have changed during 30-35 years and replaced with new paradigm ideas changing from confronting with nature and cultural considerations to confirming with nature and cultural needs. the first use of this model in evaluation of parks constructen in 2 decades of 1980 and 1990 shows that (Table 1): type 4 parks with 43 percent is basic form of park constracted and the parks of type 5 with 24 percent and the parks of type 1 with 22 percent are in the next place. Namely 90 percent of parks like in 3 types (type1, 4, 5) and parks type 1& 5 have a good lot with recreation nature
  • M. Masoud, A. M. Moazazi Mehr Tehran, S. N. Shobayri Page 39
    Introduction It is more than a quarter of century that economical development has been discussed as a goal and better value in the western and eastern societies, developed and undeveloped. It is mostly determined based on following believes and requirements: - Economical development is a linear trend, assessable and with an infinite persistence - Fulfilling the development will ensure the social and political development Accepting such theories and pre-requirements and this point that fast development is the only way by which all society’s complications such as housing, nutrition, employment, training encountered in most undeveloped countries will be removed, resulted in ambitious objectives in developing countries. But evaluating the result of first decade of this policy by UN (1960- 1970) as well as the social situation of countries which experienced fast development, indicates that there is no reciprocal and direct relation between discussed development and balanced development such that even it has heightened the social inequalities and increased internal conflicts in most developing countries. This indicates that development is not merely an economical event and in order to promote their developmental bases and to remove and reducing the imbalances and most economical, social and cultural problems, most societies need planning and knowing the possibilities and their current and potential resources more than past. Theoretical Bases New development is a development paying attention to the rights and dignity of man and of his living place (regional planning thinking) and its final goal is attaining the man to the stage satisfying him from his living. For this reason, during development, the growth of human capacities and talents must be together with increasingly reduction in his material deprivations and social inequalities and these are the results of structural changes and economical renovation. One of the methods for ranking the regions based on development is taxonomical analysis. Taxonomical analysis is applied for different classifications in the science. Its specific state is numerical taxonomy and by definition, it is the numerical evaluation of similarities and closeness between taxonomic units as well as ranking those elements to taxonomic groups. This method for the first time proposed by Anderson on 1763 and discussed as tool for classification and ranking the development between different nations by Professor Heloing, from economical super school, UNISCO, on 1968. This is an excellent method for ranking, classification and comparing different regions based on the development rank and their modernity as well as a method dividing a set to some homogenous sub-sets and provides the planners with an acceptable scale for studying the development rate of regions. - Discussion Need for spatial and logistical planning followed by regional planning as the final goal of those plans will be occurred when “development density” in some regions in the national or provincial area results in some imbalance and norm inconsistencies and comes with two bad
    Results
    first, increased irregular immigrations of population and second, lag in other points of country or related province. Therefore, one of the tools that can be extendedly applied for integrated development of different regions of the country is classifying the regions or towns based on their development or lack of their development; consequently, determining the rate of development of any towns of Isfahan province as well as related weaknesses and strengths and opportunities and threats and existing needs in the towns can be considered as efficient tools for planning and resulting in regional balances with the emergence of more justice among the regions. Conclusion By determining the development rate, this study has investigated the development level of Isfahan based on different dimensions. Accordingly, Kashan, Aran and Bidgal towns respectively in 1996 and 2006 were the most developed towns and Ferydoonshahr town is the most undeveloped town during these years. Towns such as Ardestan, Lanjan, Khomeini Shahr, Feridon, Samirom and Ferydoonshahr are among towns that always (in 1996 and 2006) were under the development limit and among undeveloped towns of the province. Suggestions In order to better the situations of towns of Isfahan, following alternatives can be proposed: Attempt for adapting the part planning by spatial planning system; promoting and clarifying the planning system and method as well as properly managing it through out the country particularly provinces; achieving the strategies for removing the deprivations in the towns such that it can provide the required field for promoting these towns; population control; studying and knowing the weaknesses and indicators that are in their low level in undeveloped towns; deconcentralization and reducing the economical and social inequalities between urban areas and rural areas; providing the needed services for towns including medical care centers, training services, post and telecommunication centers, etc.., promoting and completing the connecting network system of province hierarchically for facilitating the communication between all population centers; controlling the immigration of rural areas to cities.
  • H. Hatami Nejad, A. Faraji Mollaie Page 55
    Urban unprecedented and heterogeneous growth is one of the most important problems in post world war II in many developing countries. The consequence of such explosive growth has led to the widespread poverty. Meanwhile the process of city development strategy (CDS) as a theory of content-procedural and as a new approach was organized by Organization of city coalition in 1999 aiming at reducing poverty, promoting sustainable development, good governance and increasing citizen participation. This new approach intends to provide a context to solve the problems which come from the heart of urban society instead of eliminating them. The contemporary cities which are creating one after anther in Iran are in fact rural areas which changed artificially their names to city and not as real transformation to urban life. It is clear that the weakness of their culture show the necessity of cultural precondition. At present creation of cities in all parts of the country are not based on the cultural evolution but the state decision; so implementation of such plans with broad financial and executive consequences need a comprehensive study in the managerial, cultural and economic dimensions. Based on the above facts, it could be stated that in many cases lack of necessary preconditions has led to the condition which most of the urban plans never materialized. So, it is very important to consider the governing mechanism on planning system and adjusting it as a vital step to achieve desired results by feasible studies. This paper tries to emphasize on creation of necessary conditions for the optimal implementation of city development strategy (CDS). At the same time this paper aims to extract the viewpoints of individual experts besides the feasibility study of planning, economy and urban management system as a basis for decision making in the preparation system of urban development plans. Therefore the main question of the research is as follows: whether planning and urban management system has the proper capacity to prepare and implement CDS? To answer such question, the methodology of the research is based on description and analytical models as general procedure and the relevance documents were evaluated. Theoretical Bases This paper concentrates on the strategy of urban development which helps to a democratic way for decision making and promotion of urban life and was proposed by the Organization of City Coalition in 1999. CDS provides a context which everyone can participate in poverty reduction and economic development in a democratic way. So, the process of CDS emphasizes on the internal capital of urban society and solves the problems via a systematic and a hierarchical order. This new approach as a major measure has provided background for citizens to benefit from basic urban services and the slogans of 'privileged city', inclusive city', 'exclusive city' and ' disjunctive city' were entered to the urban literature. Discussion There are two sets of internal and external factors regarding the feasibility studies and application of CDS in the present conditions of Iran. There are 9 opportunities and 16 threats as external factors and also there have been 8 strong points and 21 weaknesses. In sum there are 17 positive points against 45 negative ones for applying CDS. With a simple analysis it can be stated that the current situation needs fundamental changes in the urban management, urban economy and the indicators of urban quality of life to provide a context for employing CDS. The structural weakness of urban management has led to the lack of readiness for implementation of CDS. Conclusion It can be realized that the Iranian cities suffer from severe internal weaknesses and high vulnerability regarding the results of SWOT technique and Delphi. On the one hand lack of necessary precondition capacity for CDS implementation and on the other hand the urgent need for implementation such plans, demands a comprehensive management. Suggestions There are some recommendations to employ the results of the research: - Creating an integrated urban management system as long-standing desire of urban administration in Iran - Customizing the imported ideas of planning form capitalist countries - Planning with people with the intention of identifying the real needs of citizens - Feasibility studies and capacity survey prior to preparing and implementing of any urban plan.
  • J. Sajadisajadi, I. Ebrahimzadeh, A. Shamsoddini Page 77

    Introduction Ignoring the villages in the process of development plans, particularly in the developing countries caused considerable differences and socio-economic between rural and urban communities. The poverty and deprivation derived from such situation made the rural residents to migrate to other settlements such as towns and cities in order to improve their own social and economical position. This kind of movements which is due to different motivations satisfies the migrant’s in small towns. The impacts of ignoring the villages in the development plans were the lack of services and opportunities as well as the lack of settlement hierarchies for the better distribution of services which led to immense rural migration. In such cases villages with further distance from the urban centers with unsuitable accessibility find their security both socially and economically in migrating to the towns and cities, where they are being considered as a more deprived residents. However this kind of migration is found in different levels of the country from national to local ones. The individual and family movements of rural residents of Mamasani are an obvious example for this claim.. As such 27 out of 35 Mamasani’s villages have had negative population growth rate which ranges between -0/7 to-7/39 percent. Due to the importance and sensitivity of unplanned rural - urban migration and its rate of increase as well as its due depopulation particularly in regard to the young ones, this paper attempts to understand the factors which have been causing the rural –urban migration in Mamasani County. It also tries to focus attention on the role of distance, accessibility and services in such movements. Theoretical Bases The increase of inequality between rural and urban centers particularly in regard to income, job opportunity, services and etc. in the developing world have been acting as a push and pull factors between these centers and led to immense migration to the urban centers. In fact the lack of facilities for sustainable livelihood in the rural areas not only led to poverty and the increase of socio-economic gaps between these centers but in case of continuity causes the deserted villages. In this case distance as a physical and relative indicator can be considered as basic factors for determination of interaction and movement between these places. As a result the theoretical bases of this research are mainly based on the gravity and distance decay Models. These models are generally based on the the theory that “everything is related to everything else”. The first model is taken from Isaac Newton which throws light on geographer’s understanding of flows and movements between places. It believes that nearby things are more related. So the flow of migration between the cities is directly related to the size of the cities involved and inversely proportional to the distance separating them. These theories for justifying the volume of migration pay attention to distance and accessibility too. Accordingly settlements with more services and less distance in regard to its peripheral centers have more attraction. Discussion The analysis of data shows that the 52 percent of samples household have mainly migrated due to their social needs such as lack and shortage of welfare and livelihood opportunities in the original villages. The accessibility to job opportunities and income increase were the reason for 39 percent of the samples for migration to Norabad. For the illumination of the role and importance of Norabad in the population changes of the migrant’s origin, the relationship between distance and their population for the years 1375 and 1385 were calculated. The finding shows that those villages with distance under the median have more population and this is vice versa for those higher than median. For the better understanding of the relationship between the populations of original villages with services the centrality index were calculated. Accordingly the median for all the villages was 19 and the range of changes were between 2-103 and from 35 of villages 25 were below the mean and 8 out of 10 villages which were above the mean had a population of more than 1000 person each. The analysis of data also shows the relationship between the unsuitability of roads with distance and the landforms on which the villages are situated with their out-migration. As such among 27 of villages with negative population growth rate 14 had an unsuitable roads and 15 from the landform point of view were mountainous- plains. on the other hand among 8 of those villages with positive population growth rate 5 had a suitable road, 6 were plain-mountainous and 5 had a distance below the mean. Conclusion The spatial analysis of the migration causes shows the role of distance and other variables such as services, means of accessibility, mountainous situation and unsuitable roads and the landform of the villages in their out-migration. Accordingly when the mountainous situation and unsuitable roads of migrants origin were added to the high distance from Norabad the result was the decline in services and consequently the increase of migration and under population of the villages. This is vice versa for those with lower distance, better accessibility and plain landform. Suggestions: The most important suggestions which can be given for the betterment of the study area is summarized as below *planning for the reduction of spatial inequality between Norabad and the peripheral villages by adapting the regional approach in rural development * Paying special attention to the role of distance and accessibility in spatial and hierarchical arrangement of rural settlements *extension and renewing the road networks between urban and rural centers in particulate to those villages further away from the urban centers.

  • S. H. Moazenjamshidi, M. Moghimi, N. A. Akbari Page 95
    Introduction The role of government in the economy has always been a matter of argument between the economists. There are many different theories about the government size and its effect on economic growth and development. While some of these theories believe in negative effects of larger governments on economic efficiency and growth, others assume that government plays a significant role in economic development in away that a larger government is like an engine for more powerful economic development. Large government size however, is one of the most important features of less-developed (LDCs) and developing countries around the world, so that in such countries different economic sectors are directly administrated and financed through government budgets and governments of such countries usually have large budget deficits. Theoretical bases Regarding different economic schools viewpoint we can understand the complementary role government and market play in an economy.As long as government activities are limited to providing and protecting individual rights, protecting people and their properties and enforcing voluntary contracts between individuals, market mechanisms will dominate the economy and all rents will distribute through competing forces.On the other hand the possibility of existing economic rent will encourage the economic growth. If government activities go far from these limitations, however, the rents would not distribute. Considering this view, we can define two major roles for governments: a) Supportive government: Provides rules and laws in a way that different people with different interests are protected against each other and against the government. b) Productive government: In this kind of government transferring productive activities from private sector to public sector increases the possibility of externality related costs and reduces decision making costs,in return. Discussion Economic development, or rather the lack of economic development, is a serious problem in many countries throughout the world. This has led to various economic and social conflicts in most of them. In away that developing countries are known to have features such as: law levels of income, inadequate housing, poor health, limited or no education, high infant mortality, low life and work expectancy, low or poor economic reliability, low private investment, high inflation rates, high rates of unemployment, low economic productivity, inappropriate transportation and unequal distribution of income.Economic development differs from economic growth. Economic development is the continuous increase in society's overall level of welfare over time, whereas economic growth is the continuous increase in the economy's ability to produce goods and services over time. Development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional), and a move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource extraction. As we can understand from their characteristics, developing countries lack these infrastructural requirements. All these has caused a major gap between these countries and developed ones. To remove this gap the only thing to do is to build and generate these infrastructures and to build them high capital accumulation and national will power is needed. Doing this, however, is almost impossible for the private sector. Most of these projects need high amounts of capital and are mostly long term projects with rather social than financial returns. Here we can understand the necessity of government intervention as the only factor which can remove this gap through a big push. So if we use the government share of GDP (G/GDP) as a measure for government size and HDI as a measure for economic development, we expect that governments through their expenditures which are aimed to affect HDI indices can improve the level of developmentin their countries. Conclusion The results of the model disqualify the regular econometric techniques for this kind of data with locational aspects. Therefore, it's necessary to apply spatial econometric methods one of which is geographical weighted technique. This method is completely consistent with the data. The results of both classic and GWR model show the significant and positive effect of the per capita government size on human development in the case countries. Suggestions - Regarding the positive and significant effect of government size on HDI, governments and policymakers can improve the countries social and economic development status by directing their expenditures to affect HDI indices. - It is a good idea to investigate the effect of government expenditures on different HDI indices separately.
  • M. Taheri Demneh, S. Farmani, R. Mostowfi Mamaliki Page 117
    Introduction Paradigm of sustainable tourism, that is recently recommended as one of the concepts studied in sustainable development and tourism field and is in fact the common point of these two concepts, accepts tourism as a profitable source when concerns human, social, and environmental considerations and is source of income. This research in the field of sustainable tourism tries to investigate tourism status of Shiraz. Current study at first has investigated proportion between tourist and number of residential centers and showed that despite the large number of tourists, in many months of year residential centers act below the standard capacity. In the meantime and according to high level potential of Shiraz in developing tourism industry and large number of tourists that visit this city each year, it has been unable to use this industry as an income source. There are many factors affecting this matter that amang which weakness and failure of residential facilities is an important one. This study attempts to investigate quantitative and qualitative issues of residential centers in Shiraz city. Theoretical Bases While tourism term associates economic prosperity and social development, objective observations in Iran’s tourism cities such as Shiraz, question what positive output that large number of tourists resent in streets will have for the city. By proposing this issue and the necessity of paying attention to tourism issue as the most efficient service industry in the world, this research tries to provide a practical solution for dealing with this true urban dilemma. For tourism industry to transform and develop in one country, some elements and activities should transform and develop along it, which has contribution in its dynamism. Residential units are one of the most important elements of tourism industry. Service level of residential centers such as their grade and quality, desirable and standard health services, and proximity to the intended place that is the end aim of tourist trip, can cause decrease or increase of service space and change of tourist’s behavioral pattern. By the increase of current service quality and also increase of side services, investors and tourism industry will earn more income. Discussion This study by proposing hypothesis about quality of residential centers and its effect in absorbing tourists, has investigated service quality status on residential centers. Accordingly, service quality assessment questionnaire in hospitality industry was provided and standardized by conventional statistics methods. Then tourists in residential centers were surveyed according to Importance- Performance Analysis (IPA) model. The subjects of research are all of the internal tourists of Shiraz city in Mordad of 1388 among whom, a sample size of 293 subjects were obtained using Cochran’s sampling formula. Indices used in the research are 7 indices measuring quality of service in hospitality industry and also two indices for determining rate of using hotels by guests. 1- Coefficient of occupying rooms and, 2- Coefficient of occupying beds. Conclusion By investigating statistics of tourists in different months and years, investigating capacity of residential centers (room and bed) in Shiraz city and calculating percentage of occupying rooms and beds in studied months and years, it can be concluded that the most average rate of occupying beds during years (1382-1387) in Shiraz city is Farvardin and months Mordad, Shahrivar, and Ordibehesht were on the next grades. The least average rate of occupying beds during years (1382-1387) is Day. Regarding the number of residential units and its capacity with the number of tourists from the beginning of spring to Mehr that is the first month of fall there is a relative proportion, but from the beginning of Aban to Esfand month, number of tourists is less than the capacity of residential centers. This investigation indicates that tourism in Shiraz city is seasonal and it is more in spring and summer seasons. Also, according to the result that there is a significant gap between importance and tourists’ understanding of service quality in Shiraz hotels that this gap is obvious in the dimensions of hotel quality. It means that residential units in Shiraz in none of seven dimensions of service quality could respond positively to tourists’ expectation level or service quality could not go beyond that and received quality of service by tourists was always less than their expected quality. Meanwhile, the most critical component is hotel’s service prices. It indicates that hotel’s prices are more than guests’ expectations. Suggestions 1. Appropriate advertisements, based on frequent surveys of customers 2. Holding tourism festival and introducing tourism attractions of Shiraz city especially in the second 6 months of year 3. Searching and embracing of creative ideas in offering better service 4. Expenses’ management