فهرست مطالب

Toxicology Scientific Quarterly Journal - Volume:3 Issue:3, 2011
  • Volume:3 Issue:3, 2011
  • 70 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/06/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Jaber Aazami, Abbas Esmaili Sari, Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri, Nader Bahramifar Page 295
    Background
    Present study was carried out in north of Iran to investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) as one of the most toxic metals in tissues of two species of birds.
    Methods
    In this study, 15 birds from coot (Fulica atra) and 18 birds from cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were hunted in Anzali and Gomishan wetlands. Data-analyses carried out using SPSS software version 17 licenced by Tarbiat Modares University. Data-test normality performed based on Sharpiro-Wilk’s test and P-value was set on P<0.05.
    Results
    Based on the study, for two species, mercury concentration in feather was in maximal and in muscles it was in minimal concentration. For coot muscles, kidney, liver tissues and feathers, it was 0.03, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.23 mg/kg, and for cormorant it was 2.26, 3.59, 5.67, and 8.68 mg/kg. In general, mercury (Hg) concentrations in coot were lower than cormorant (P<0.05). No significant differences were found between them in terms of sex (P< 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Concentration of mercury was not the same in two species. Statistical analysis didnot show a significant differences between male and female tissues of them.Our data can contribute to develop management programs for understanding the ecotoxicological status of the Caspian basin and its coastal environment.
  • Gagik Badalians Gholikandi, Mohammad Mehdi Baneshi, Emad Dehghanifard, Saeed Salehi, Ahmad Reza Yari Page 302
    Background
    There are great resources of natural zeolite in Iran. Zeolite, an inorganic ion-exchanger, may be used as a suitable technical-economical solution for water treatment in many regions of Iran. In this study, the characterization of natural zeolite natrolite and the feasibility of removing hardness, cations, and anions were investigated.
    Methods
    First, zeolite composition and type were determined using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), thermal analysis, and infrared spectrometer. Also, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and its impact on water hardness reduction evaluated. Then, isotherm curves for Fe, Cr, Al, Bi, Cd, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ag, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, and their disposition to zeolite phase besides removal rate of the mentioned cations in analyzed water samples identified. Eventually, zeolite structure was rectified using surfactant (HMNDA) for anions removal.
    Results
    Natrolite zeolite was more effective for waters with higher hardness, but it turned out to be moderate for waters with lower hardness. The ability of natrolite zeolite for permanent hardness removal was more than others and was less for temporary hardness. Also, the natrolite zeolite was more effective in removing non-heavy metal cations and by increasing the HMNDA concentration, arsenate anion removed fast from water samples. However, by pH increases in the water sample, the arsenate anion removal arbitrarily changed: less in pH=3. But the removal efficiency got better in alkaline pH. It is obvious that by increasing the pH of water samples, the removal efficiency will decrease. In spite of that, the removal efficiency of chromate ion, in acidity pH, was more than alkaline. The maximum removal of Cr (VI) occurred in acidic media at pH<1.5.
    Conclusion
    The natrolite zeolite could remove different heavy metals from drinking water. Moreover, the removal efficiency of natrolite zeolite was enhansed by surfactant modification.
  • Behnam Behnoush, Elham Bazmi, Maryam Akhgari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Fariba Sardari Iravani Page 311
    Background
    Blood alcohol concentration is a major factor in forensic analysis in criminal and civil litigation. Along with ethanol, other volatile compounds such as n-propanol are produced as products of putrefaction. The aim of this study is the evaluation of ethanol and n-propanol in postmortem blood.
    Methods
    A case-control study was done on 300 blood samples obtained from cadavers that were referred to Legal Medicine Organization (LMO) of Tehran, Iran, over a year (2009-2010). Blood ethanol and n-propanol concentrations were analyzed in duplicate by HSGC. Data on cadavers were taken from the information sheets and were analyzed by SPSS software.
    Results
    In this study, mean n-propanol level in blood was 8.311 mg/dl in putrefied and 1.58 mg/dl in non-putrefied victims. Interval times between death and autopsy in putrefied and non-putrefied victims were 3.5 and 1.25 days. Results show that n-propanol concentrations increase 1.23 mg/dl/day after death. In 99% of putrefied victims, ethanol level was more than 10 mg/dl. There was a high correlation between ethanol and n-propanol concentrations. By increasing 1mg/dl of n-propanol concentration, ethanol levels increased 2.5 and 1.4 mg/dl in putrefied and non-putrefied victims, respectively.
    Conclusion
    N-propanol produced in putrefied victims with ethanol. Production of ethanol increased by rising n-propanol levels. Therefore, we might use n-propanol as a putrefaction factor in postmortem blood to distinguish endogenous and exogenous ethanol production.
  • Nastaran Eizadi Mood, Siamak Pourabdian, Mahdieh Fallah Page 317
    Background
    Purpose of present study was to investigate whether chronic exposure to zinc fume would affect serum zinc levels, memory, and cognition in zinc fume-exposed workers.
    Methods
    In a cross-sectional study, all zinc fume-exposed workers (exposed, n=20) were compared with unexposed workers (reference, n=20) matched for sex and education level in a zinc galvanization factory. The workers were undergone Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Mean WMS score in exposed group (75.80 ± 14.40) was significantly lower than reference group (91.65 ± 15.79); however there was no significant difference in MMSE scores between two groups. There was a negative linear relationship between memory, MMSE scores, and serum zinc level. Exposure to zinc fume may lead to memory problems.
    Conclusion
    Regular measurement of serum zinc level is recommended for exposed individuals.
  • Abdul Ghani Page 325
    Background
    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the toxic effects of some heavy metals on the plant growth and seed yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Materials and Metheds: Heavy metals Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Co individually and in combinations were added as chloride salts in solutions to the pots before sowing. The test plants for were harvested after 80 days of germination and evaluated for nitrogen, protein and heavy matal content was determined. Resalts: Heavy metals caused significant decreases in growth and protein content. Cd was the most toxic metal followed by Co, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Cr. Protein content decreased from 16.0–68.4% in metal exposed plants at metal concentrations equivalent to those found in
    Conclusion
    Metal accumulation by seeds was directly related to the applied heavy metal with greater concentrations of metals found in cases where metals were added individually rather than in combinations. The toxic effects on the plant growth, nitrogen content in different plant parts, and protein content in seeds, exerted by two metals in combination were only as harsh as for the most toxic metal individually probably due to their antagonistic effects.
  • Seyed Mahmoud Ghaempouri, Narjes Okati, Abbas Esmaili Sari Page 335
    Background
    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous metal responsible for environmental contamination and human intoxication. Methyl mercury bio-accumulation through food chain can be responsible for chronic mercury exposure of South Caspian Sea communities with a diet rich in fish. Uncertainties about exposure levels that could have damaging consequences for nervous system development of infants makes bio-monitoring of Hg a necessity in Southern Caspian Sea populations.
    Methods
    Mercury concentration in the hair of 70 pairs of mothers and their breastfed infants were assessed and its relationship with influencing factors was evaluated.
    Results
    Calculated levels of mercury exposure of both infants and mothers indicated concentrations less that the recommended levels by WHO and EPA reference. Total mean mercury concentrations in infants hair was 0.48±0.32 μg / g and for mothers was 0.19±0.09 μg / g. Correlation analysis showed that mercury concentration in the hair of infants was significantly (P=0.002, R=0.371) associated with mercury levels in the hair of their mothers. The influence of other variables such as living location, age of mothers, infants‘ sex, weight, the amount of fish and sea food consumption of mother, and the number of dental amalgam fillings, were examined as well as.
    Conclusion
    The amount of fish and sea food consumption by mothers and the living location were the variables that significantly affected hair mercury concentrations of mothers and infants. Also the age of infants (p=0.02) and the number of dental amalgam fillings of mothers (p=0.016) significantly affected the hair mercury levels in infants. Hair
  • Mohammad Hosein Rasouli Koocheh, Babak Mostafazadeh Page 347
    Bachground: Paraquat (PQ) intoxication manifests with pulmonary edema and fibrosis, heart failure, hepatic failure, and sometimes convulsions. In severe cases, the patients may die within the early hours. At best conditions, the conventional therapeutic methods can only save less than 50% of the victims of intentional PQ intoxication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of new therapeutic approaches particularly phlebotomy in PQ intoxication.
    Methods
    Five patients enrolled in the present pilot study. The conventional therapeutic method consisting of gastric lavage, diuresis techniques, corticosteroids, immuno-suppressors, and antioxidants were applied in association with new interventions including early hemo-dialysis and the use of new antioxidants, especially phlebotomy.
    Results
    One of the six patients who survived was excluded from the study. Four of five patients (80%) who were admitted with positive urine PQ test and treated with the modified method, could survived and only one case expired despite the interventional treatment and care. The mean age of patients was 25.21±3.47 years. Patients drank on average 52 ml of concentrated PQ. During admission, the mean Hb concentration was 16.79±2.11 g/dl that reduced to 8.95±0.93 g/dl on the second day of hospitalization.
    Conclusion
    Phlebotomy causes fast circulation and remove toxin subjects. This study showed effect of phelebotomy and administration of antioxidants to treat PQ- intoxication. The new modified therapeutic method with phlebotomy surprisingly increased the survival rate up to 80%.
  • Keyvan Ghasamy, Shirin Pazuki, Masoomeh Sofian, Payam Mehrian Page 354
    Background
    Food-born botulism is caused by ingestion of contaminated food with clostridium botulinum neurotoxin.Case: In food-born botulism, due to acetylcholine release blockade, neuromuscular signs and symptoms are common, but in this case report we present a food-born botulism with papiledema and venous sinus thrombosis.
    Conclusion
    Papiledema and fever could not rule out the diagnosis of botulism.