فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 40 (بهار 1389)
  • پیاپی 40 (بهار 1389)
  • 108 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 15,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/02/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • احمد الستی صفحه 5
    این مقاله با مطالعه موسیقی یکی از مهمترین سکانس های تاریخ سینما، یعنی سکانس پلکان اودسا از فیلم رزمناو پوتمکین، ساخته سرگئی آیزنشتاین، به تشریح این مساله می پردازد که چگونه در این فیلم نظام مونتاژ مبتنی بر ریتم حکم می کند که موسیقی همراه شونده با آن نیز از نظام ساختاری ریتمیکی برخوردار باشد. از آنجاکه آیزنشتاین با ذهنیتی موسیقایی روی مونتاژ این سکانس کار کرده بود، موسیقی دانان بسیاری مشتاق به تبدیل این نظام تصویری به معادل صوتی آن بودند که از میان آن ها، این مقاله به آثار ادموند مایزل، نیکلای کریوکف و دمیتری شوستاکوویچ، می پردازد. به منظور بررسی ارزش زیبائی شناختی کار این موسیقی دانان و نحوه همراهی شان با این فیلم از نظریه های تئودور آدورنو و هانس آیزلر، دو صاحب نظر موسیقی فیلم استفاده شده است. این مقاله استدلال می کند که تنها راه انطباق درست موسیقی با فیلم تطابق ساختاری و هم خوانی حسی مونتاژ فیلم و ریتم موسیقی است، آنچه که آدورنو و آیزلر «خویشاوندی ساختاری» می خوانند. بر همین اساس هرگاه تحولاتی بر سر این فیلم، به ویژه بر سر این سکانس آمده است، خویشاوندی ساختاری بهم ریخته است. این مقاله نتیجه می گیرد که دلایل توفیق بعضی از قطعات، همکاری نزدیک بین کارگردان و موسیقی دان یا دریافت حسی مبتنی بر مونتاژ این سکانس بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فیلم، موسیقی، سکانس پلکان اودسا، ریتم
  • محمد امامی، آذین موحد صفحه 17
    مهم ترین تکنیک در نواختن ساز های بادی، تسلط به صدا و ایجاد صدایی درخشان از ساز است که از چگونگی دمیدن در آنها ناشی می شود. این امر در نی هفت بند که به جهت نوع دمیدن و صدادهی در گروه سازهای بادی، منحصر به فرد می باشد، از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. هدف این مقاله، ارائه ی راه حل هایی جهت بهبود صدادهی ساز نی و ارتقای نوازندگی این ساز، با تمرکز بر نحوه ی به کارگیری صحیح اندام تنفسی و لب ها در هنگام نوازندگی است. جهت تدوین مقاله ی حاضر، منابع صوتی و تصویری نوازندگی ساز نی و برخی از ساز های بادی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین برای نتیجه گیری بهتر و بهره گیری از روش های صحیح و اصولی تنفس در نوازندگی سازهای بادی، منابع نوشتاری تکنیک الکساندر بررسی شده است. در این مقاله ابتدا توضیح مختصری در مورد عملکرد دستگاه تنفس و چگونگی به کارگیری صحیح دم و بازدم، در نوازندگی سازهای بادی ارائه شده، سپس چگونگی تولید صدا در نی و شیوه های دمیدن در این ساز، بیان می شود. ارائه ی تمرینات تنفسی مناسب برای دستیابی به آمادگی لازم جهت نوازندگی نی، از دیگر بخش های موجود در این مقاله است. در ادامه نیز شیوه ی صحیح دمیدن و صداسازی در نی، به همراه برخی راهکارها برای عملی کردن این شیوه ارائه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: سازهای بادی، نی، تکنیک الکساندر، دمیدن در نی، صداسازی در نی
  • رحیم فرخ نیا، ابراهیم محمدی صفحه 27
    عادات، سلیقه ها، تمایلات، آرزوها و مصائب انسان ها در قالب نظام موسیقی آنها گنجانده و بیان می گردد. از آنجا که موسیقی بخشی از فرهنگ است، بنابر این، برای درک و شناخت فرهنگ، به جنب? موسیقیایی آن نیز باید توجه کرد. موسیقی قالبی است برای بیان اندیشه ها و وسیله ای برای بیان مفاهیمی و موضوعاتی که به شیوه های دیگر قابل بیان نیستند. پژوهش حاضر در صدد مطالعه موضوعات محوری در نظام موسیقی کردهای ایران است. این پژوهش بر اساس رویکرد انسان شناسی فرهنگی طراحی شده که در آن موسیقی به عنوان یک پدید? فرهنگی تلقی می شود. متناسب با تاثیر شرایط محیطی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی بر زندگی این مردم، پاره ای از عناصر به صورت موضوعات محوری تظاهر یافته اند. شناسایی این موضوعات محوری مطمع نظر پژوهشگران این مقاله بر اساس فنون مردم نگاری، در چارچوب انسان شناسی بوم شناختی، به شکل واکاوی در درون نظام موسیقی مردم کرد ایران بوده است. یافته های این پژوهش بیانگر آن است که نظام موسیقیایی این مردم تحت تاثیر عوامل محیطی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی، برخی از ویژگی ها و عناصر را برجسته تر از سایر جنبه ها و عناصر معرفی کرده است. اهمیت این پژوهش در جنب? نوآوری آن است که با رویکرد علمی انسان شناختی به بررسی موسیقی شناسی قومی کردها پرداخته است. نتیجه این پژوهش می تواند به بازنمایی علمی نظام موسیقی قومی کردها بینجامد.
    کلیدواژگان: ایران، قوم کرد، انسان شناسی فرهنگی، محیط شناسی فرهنگی، موسیقی شناسی قومی
  • فرزانه پورمحمد علی قنواتی، نغمه ثمینی، بهروز محمودی بختیاری صفحه 39
    بررسی ویژگی های دیالوگ در ریگ ودا و اوستا نشان دهنده ی گونه ای از دیالوگ به نام دیالوگ فلسفی است که مترادف عدم خشونت است. محقق معتقد است ریشه ی اولیه ی شکل گیری دیالوگ دراماتیک بر پایه ی دیالوگ فلسفی است، یعنی نوعی سیالیت و جریان معنا بین دو سوی رابطه وجود دارد که از رهگذر این ارتباط، فهم و درکی نو پدیدار می شود. این دو سویه بودن ارتباط و بیان دیدگاه ها باعث سهیم شدن در تولید اطلاعات می شود که اساس دیالوگ دراماتیک را تشکیل می دهند. در دیالوگ فلسفی فضای سیال گفتگویی منجر به ایجاد آواهای چندگانه شده و تلاش برای ادراک و فهم دیگری چشم انداز جدیدی را در گفتگو ایجاد کرده و نوعی فهم فعال پدیدار می شود که نتیجه ی اختلاط بینش های متفاوت است. در اوستا چشم انداز جدید و معناسازی کمتر بوده بر خلاف مرزهای سیال ریگ ودا دارای مرزهای قاطع و مشخصی است. در این پژوهش دو سرود یسنه هات 29 گاهان و تیر یشت از اوستا و سرود 183 از ماندالای دهم و سرودهای 125 و 165 از ماندالای اول ریگ ودا بررسی می شوند تا ریشه های شکل گیری گفتمان مدرن و دیالوگ دراماتیک را بر اساس دیالوگ فلسفی پی گیری نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: ریگ ودا، اوستا، دیالوگ فلسفی، عدم خشونت، سیالیت
  • محمد شهبا، محمود گل محمدی صفحه 49
    مقاله حاضر به ساختارشناسی تله تئاتر در تلویزیون ایران می پردازد، بویژه به این که در مورد تعریف، ساختار و محتوای این «گونه» تلویزیونی بین دست اندرکاران تولید برنامه ها، مسئولان تلویزیون و نیز پژوهشگران عرصه رسانه اختلاف نظر وجود دارد؛ و همین سردرگمی یکی از دلایل ضعف ساختاری برنامه های تله تئاتر در تلویزیون ایران است. از آنجا که مخاطبین اصلی این مقاله، دانشجویان و متخصصان و برنامه سازان تلویزیون در حیطه های تئاتر و درام هستند، تحلیل ساختاری این برنامه ها به خودی خود برای این افراد جذابیت دارد. این مقاله با توجه به زبان تلویزیون، نیازهای مخاطب و کارکردهای رسانه، در مقایسه با تئاتر ومخاطبین آن، به این موضوع مهم می پردازد که به دلیل نبود تعریف درست و شفاف از این ساختار، تهیه کنندگان و کارگردانان و مدیران شبکه های تلویزیونی هرکدام بنا بر برداشت خود به گونه تئاتر تلویزیونی می نگرند. به همین دلیل، برنامه های ساخته شده با عنوان«تله تئاتر» نتوانسته مخاطب برنامه تلویزیونی را به رضایتمندی برساند. در این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی و مورد پژوهی، علاوه بر مصاحبه با دست اندرکاران تله تئاتر، از آمار نظرسنجی های سازمان صدا و سیما نیز استفاده شده است. این آمارها تایید می کنند که برنامه های تله تئاتر کنونی نتوانسته اند رضایت مخاطب را جلب کنند. در پایان، این مقاله چندین راهکار عملی پیشنهاد می دهد تا وضعیت کنونی رو به بهبود برود و به بازنگری فرض های رایج بیانجامد.
    کلیدواژگان: نمایش صحنه ای، نمایش تلویزیونی، تله تئاتر، تولید برنامه تلویزیونی، مخاطب تلویزیون
  • یدالله وفاداری، سیدمصطفی مختاباد، سیدحبیب الله لزگی صفحه 65
    این مقاله درباره ی ارزش های تربیتی تئاتر کودک است و در آن کوشش شده ویژگی های پرورشی و آموزشی تئاتر کودک در مدارس بررسی و پژوهش گردد. در ابتدا تعاریفی از تربیت و تئاتر کودک و نظرات برخی صاحب نظران در این رابطه آورده شده و تاثیرات عمیق این نوع تئاتر که منشاء و زمینه اش نمایش بازی ها و بازی های نمایشی می باشد بر کودکان مطرح گردیده و انواع تئاتر کودک از نظر شکل و محتوی و ویژگی های آن که از هر نظر می بایستی خوب باشد و تعریف خوب، بد، ارزش ها و ضد ارزرش ها مطرح گردیده. همچنین دو بازی نمایشی به نام های هل هل گرگ چمبری و شاه دزد بازی معرفی شده و نیز به علت جنبه های پرورشی و آموزشی تئاتر کودک که شکل تکامل یافته نمایش بازی ها و بازی های نمایشی است این سوال مطرح گردیده که جهت رشد و پرورش شخصیت کودکان در مهد کودک ها و مدارس ابتدایی و راهنمایی از این بضاعت تئاتر کودک استفاده می شود یا خیر. با توجه به پیگیری و مطالعات پژوهشگر، این نتیجه حاصل شده که: - به اثرات ارزشمند تربیتی تئاتر کودک و استفاده از آن توجه لازم صورت نگرفته است. - نهایتا پیشنهاد شده است که بخشی از برنامه های مهد کودک ها و مدارس ابتدایی و راهنمایی به این مهم (تئاتر کودک) اختصاص یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: تربیت، کودک، تئاتر، تئاتر کودک
  • نوشین داداشی، فرهاد ناظرزاده کرمانی، دکتراشرف سادات موسوی لر، مهرانگیز مظاهری صفحه 73
    پژوهش حاضر به سه نظام کمدی غربی شامل کمدی یونانی، کمدی رومی و کمدیا دل آرته و کمدی سنتی ایرانی یا تقلید می پردازد و در پی دستیابی به این پاسخ است که تئاتر کمدی غربی چگونه و بر اساس چه معیارهایی به این سه گونه تقسیم شده و چگونه می توان مطالعهی تطبیقی آن را صورت بندی نمود، همچنین تئاتر کمدی غربی با تقلید چه همانندی یا ناهمانندی هایی دارد. پژوهشگر کوشیده تا به پرسش های یادشده بر اساس مهمترین و معتبرترین مآخذ، و بر بنیاد روش های تحلیلی، توصیفی، تاریخی و تطبیقی پاسخ دهد و ضمن توصیف و تحلیل سه نظام کمدی غربی و تقلید و به دست آوردن ویژگی های نمایشنامهای و اجرایی- نمایشی آنها، ویژگی های سه نظام کمدی غربی را یکایک با یکدیگر و با تقلید تطبیق داده و مقایسه کرده است تا به وجوه مشترک و افتراق میان سه گونهی کمدی غربی و کمدی سنتی ایران دست یابد. این پژوهش نه تنها جنبه های کمدی را روشن می کند، بلکه می تواند با مقایسهی آنها با کمدی سنتی ایران، زمینه هایی برای مطالعهی نظری و در نتیجه نظریه پردازی فراهم کند و همچنین مایه هایی برای ژرف و گسترده تر ساختن کمدی سنتی ایران پیشنهاد نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: کمدی، کمدی کهن، کمدی نو، کمدی رومی، کمدیا دل آرته، تقلید
  • حمید دهقانپور، جلال الدین کزازی، مهدی پوررضاییان صفحه 85
    جهان بصری از طریق تصویر شکل می گیرد و به اشکال مختلف نشان داده می شود. شاهنامه به سینما نزدیک تر است تا سایر هنرها؛ شاهنامه و سینما تفکیک ناپذیرند، ابیات شاهنامه به شما امکان می دهد تا در تصویر غوطه بخورید و پس از غوطه ورشدن در تصاویر به تجسم سینمایی بپردازید در چنین حالتی است که همه چیز شکل پذیر و بصری می شود، هر بیت مثل یک نما شما را به بیت دیگر هدایت می کند، در ابیات سیر و سفر می کنید و همچنانکه در لابلای آنها حرکت می کنید با شگفتی و حیرت به تصاویر و جنبش حرکات سینمایی می رسید. شعر شاهنامه اگرچه از واژگان ویژه ای ساخته و پرداخته شده است اما با زبان بصری فضایی سینمایی می سازد، تصویر سازی می کند و جزئیات تصویری را شرح می دهد. گفته شده است که سینما هنر تصویری است، واژگان شاهنامه همه تصویراند و فردوسی با مهارت، تعادلی بین واژه وتصویر ایجاد می کند. واژگان قدرت القایی تصاویر را تشدید می کنند و در نتیجه صورتی پدید می آید که اغلب به بیانی درخشان و سینمایی می انجامد.
    کلیدواژگان: دکوپاژ، میزانسن، مونتاژ، روایت، شاهنامه
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  • Ahmad Alasti Page 5
    Through close scrutiny of the Odessa Steps sequence in Sergei Eisenstein's 1924 film, Battleship Potemkin, this article argues that the rhythmic editing of the film demands accompanying music based on the same rhythmic system. Since Eisenstein had a musical structure in mind for the editing of this sequence, composers of film music tasked themselves with expressing his rhythmic visual patterns in equivalent musical form. Three of the composers who attempted this were Edmund Meisel, Nikolai Kryukov, and Dmitri Shostakovich. An evaluation of the aesthetic relevance of these composer's works will draw on theories of film music developed by Theodor Adorno and Hanns Eisler. Meisel, a contemporary of Eisenstein, had the advantage of composing his music in direct consultation with the director. The result is music which closely follows the film's rhythmic structure. Although composed hastily in a short time, the music became Eisenstein's all time favorite for this film. This article argues that the close collaboration between the filmmaker and the composer was central to the success of Meisel’s score. However, since Meisel’s score was composed for a censored and shorter version of the film, a new score was required to accompany later releases of the film which were longer and closer to Eisenstein’s own version of the film. Two-time Stalin Award winner Nikolai Kryukov was commissioned to write film music for an international release of the film in 1950. However, despite Kryukov's close attention to Eisenstein's notes and instructions on the importance of rhythm in the sequence, his score was repetitive, monotonous and unnecessarily loud. This article describes how the constant beating of the timpani throughout the piece limits the development of a meaningful relationship between the film and the music -- what Adorno and Eisler regard as a “cardinal sin.” When a still more complete version of Potemkin was released in 1976, a new soundtrack was composed using excerpts from the symphonies of Dmitri Shostakovich which expressed a pronounced Russian spirit. Although, selected after the great composer’s death, the brutal dissonance of the score reinforce the horror of the Cossack assault on the helpless people. While parts of the Shostakovich score do not correspond with the ideas of Eisenstein, Adorno and Eisler, it is clear that an emotional rather than structural correlation between the film and the music is at work. Non the less, on many significant moments within this sequence, the music matches the visual cues and heightens the emotional effects of many juxtaposed shots in their sequential arrangements. After discussing the film music by each of these three composers, the article concludes that an adequate match between the film and its score can only be achieved through exact structural and meaningful rhythmic correspondence between the film's editing and its music. Finally, along with an analysis of the relevance of the work of these composers to the film, the article delineates how censorship and repeated restorations have had a detrimental effect on the structural unity of the film.
  • Mohammad Emami, Azin Movahhed Page 17
    The source of energy for playing aerophones is the air that is conducted through the instrument via the lips of the player. Despite the fact that the function of the respiratory system is consistent among all players, the method of blowing varies from one instrument to another. Every instrument, and more specifically, every player must find the most appropriate method of utilizing the lips vis-a-vis their desired tone. Gaining sufficient knowledge about this process, along with respiratory and tone exercises, allows players to reach an ideal sonority. Wind
  • Rahim Farrokhnia, Ebrahim Mohammadi Page 27
    The human being attitudes, customs and their style of life are explained through their musical system design. So far the music is a part of the culture, therefore, to understand a culture one should also consider musical aspect of that culture. The human being attitudes, customs and their style of life are explained through their musical system design. So far the music is a part of the culture, therefore, to understand a culture one should also consider musical aspect of that culture. Music is an important aspect of a culture, which by no way it is separable from the total way of life of man. Music should not be considered as only an instinctive phenomenon. Because it has close relations with the social traditions, believes, sexuality, social aesthetic, co-operative and actions with other cultures. Within man’s history music always companied him, and had different functions and roles in production, entertainment, curative of diseases aesthetic and etc. Different ethnic groups based on their environmental, socio-cultural and economic conditions, develop different musical systems. This means that, music should be considered as a complex phenomenon of cultural system. Some researcher’s interest is diverted to the music’s expansion and its complexity nature. Music is the oldest arts; its symbolic function even can be traced in its ethnic identity nature. Each ethnic group possesses a kind of direct relation with the states, psychic qualities, thoughts and verbs of the people. Therefore, we conclude that each ethnic group’s musical structure is developed under the above conditions and people’s qualities of life. Present research attempts to discover important pivotal themes of Iranian Kurdish musical system, through the anthropological approach. In this paper emphasis is on this point how the Kurdish people explain their thoughts, wishes, attitudes, identity, classification, and stratification diverse within their musical system. The growth of socio-cultural changes, acculturation processes, rapid growth of technology and globalization phenomenon are brought about a situation, that with a short span of time traditional cultures either vanish or diminish some of the confrontation mechanisms of survival. Simultaneously this work does not neglect the important aim of anthropological objective, that is, reconstruction of cultural aspects before decline of traditional art within cultural context. The present research theoretical consideration is ecological anthropology approach. In this approach the music is seen as a cultural phenomenon, based on the effect of economical, social, and cultural conditions in the Kurdish people life. In fact this approach is introduced by julian steward which emphasis on cultures adaptation with particular environmental situations. Researchers considered important elements of Kurdish musical system as pivotal themes. Data collection procedure is followed by ethnography method. The ethnographic techniques like participant observation deep interviews with key informants, songs analysis, emic and etic approaches were employed for this purpose. This research findings show that Kurdish musical system is affected by factors like socio-cultural, economical and environmental one. The result of this research can help the integration and enforcement of different cultural convergence of different ethnic groups within a plural society of Iran.
  • Farzane Pour Mohammad Ali Ghanavati, Naghmeh Samini, Behrooz Mahmoudi Bakhtiari Page 39
    Studying the dialogue properties in Rigveda and Avesta indicates a type of dialogue called “philosophical dialogue” that is the synonym of “nonviolence”. According to the author, the initial root of forming the dramatic dialogue is based on philosophical dialogue, i.e. a type of fluidity and flow of meaning between two sides of the relation and by such relation it will be made a new concept. Thus, fluid space of dialogue conduces to multiple tons, and efforts to perceive the others will produce a new landscape in dialogue that displaces mind with power. In this style, using mutual question and answer, the subject is converted to word and dialogue is formed. In this process, a kind of active comprehension is appeared that is not based on initial agreement, but it is the result of mixture of different conceptions and is converted to understanding and causes speech improvement and mutual confirmation. Such duality of relation and stating the visions results in sharing for information making forming the basis of dramatic dialogue. In philosophical dialogue, conversational political space result in making multiple voices and attempting for finding another perception has made new perspective in the conversation and there will be appeared a type of concept resulted from mix of different insights. In Avesta, there is less new perspective and sense making and comparing with fluid boundaries of Rigveda, it has determined and absolute boundaries. The reason for the selection of this topic is to introduce another concept and dimension of dialogue and to emphasize the importance of the concept of dialogue in an era in which human being has noticed the power of communication and is trying to establish a better communication with his environment and familiarity with other insights. Modern human being has come to the conclusion that better communication will not be possible unless geographical and racial borders fade into insignificance. Developing and creating common meaning, paying attention to others’ views, coincidence of views, suspending meanings and thoughts, and discourse instead of exerting power are the concepts that we will try to find their roots in Rig Veda’s and Avesta’s songs. In Avesta’s, we encounter conversation. A new style will not be created in this style and semantics will not occur. Avesta’s language is a strategic and ideology-maker one, and is concluded from monologue system, namely a distinguishable system between friend and enemy, which has exact and definite borders despite of fluid borders of Rig Veda. Here, two songs of Yasneh-hat 29 Gahan and Tiryasht from Avesta’s; songs 183, from tenth Mandala; songs 125 and 165 from first Mandala of Rig Veda are studied. This study proves that while there is little capability in Avesta’s for dramatic dialogue, but philosophical dialogue is impossible in it, and this is while Rig Veda has philosophical dialogue capability plus dramatic dialogue. In fact, roots of formation of modern dialogue should be searched in Rig Veda. In this study we follow up the roots of formation of modern conversation and dramatic dialogue based on philosophical dialogue.
  • Mohammad Shahba, Mahmood Golmohammadi Page 49
    The present paper aims at a structural analysis of tele-theatre programs in Iranian television. What intensifies the need for such a research is the fact that despite considerable progress in dramatic programs in various TV networks across the globe, and the relative success of Iranian TV in this regard, there is no consensus over the definition, structure, and content of "tele-theatre" programs. As the target audience for this research consists of students, experts, program makers, and managers in the fields of theatre and the media, the structural analysis of tele-play is in itself an interesting subject for those people. Additionally, through a survey of the existing theoretical material on TV language, audience demands, and media functions - and comparing them to theatre and its audience - the research makes it clear that there is no decisive definition of the term tele-theatre among the people involved in producing such programs. So, the producers, directors, and network managers all act according to their own assumption of the term. As a result, these programs have failed to satisfy the majority of their audiences. To improve the situation, this research presents practical suggestions to revise the dominant assumptions and to apply those structures already used in some successful tele-theatres broadcasted over the national television. To this end, the opinion-sampling data published by IRIB about certain Tele-theatre programs have been taken into consideration.According to the findings of this research, the best way to broadcast theatre on television screen is to record such live performances using 4 cameras. In this way, the original mood of the performance would be sustained, and most importantly, the needs and potentials of television as a medium would be met. Also, the best way to adopt a play for TV broadcast requires some changes to be made to the text according to the language and requirements of television. It must be noted that such changes should not betray the original purpose and mood of the written play. One of the most common changes is substituting visual elements for dialogues. The research also suggests that due to the obsoleteness of the term "tele-theatre", it seems more sensible to use the term "tele-play" which implies a more TV- oriented structure aimed at a specific audience already familiar with the medium and its aesthetics. The structure and aesthetics of the medium of television requires the stage play be adopted and modified according to the language of television which is closer to film than to live theatre. In other words, the stage play should be revised or rewritten according to the norms and structure of movie scripts. Another important finding of the research suggests that tele-plays should be broadcast and watched in one session, lasting from 30 minutes to 2 hours. Longer broadcasts (more than 2 hours) require them to be divided into two or more episodes which demonstrates a clear break from the temporal and spatial continuity of theatre, and would make the audience less concerned about the dramatic flow of the events.
  • Yadollah Vafadari, Mostafa Mokhtabad, Habibollah Lazgee Page 65
    This article is about the educational values of children's theatre and its aim is to review and research the educational and nourishing characteristics of children's theatre in the schools. This article is based on the author’s Ph.D. thesis under the title of “Analytical Study of the Iranian children's theatre and Evaluation of the Findings” under the supervision of Dr. Seyed Mostapha Mokhtabad at the department of Arts Studies, University of Tarbiat Modarres. In the beginning, the notions of training and children's theatre are defined and some related views of experts are quoted. It discusses the profound impacts of this kind of theatre (which is the evaluated form of role-playing and dramatic games) on children. Then the different kinds of children's theatre, regarding forms, content and characteristics (which should be good in every aspect) are listed and the notions of good, bad, norm and abnormal are defined. Furthermore, two examples of dramatic games are introduced; HEL HEL GORGI CHAMBARI and SHAH DOZD BAZI. And according to the educational and nourishing aspects of children's theatre (which is the evaluated form of theatre game and dramatic games) it is questioned whether this potential function of children's theatre is used properly for growing and nourishing the character of children in kindergartens and primary and secondary schools. In children's theatre, by using the simplest facilities, like a chair and a colorful cloth, instead of throne and a piece of wood instead of Pegasus, and a twig instead of a dense forest, could reach to an effective and complete performance. In children's theatre, less applying of scene instruments and facilities, training effect of that will be more; because our addressee child could simply repeat what he or she has seen and riding a Pegasus, fighting with spooks and ogres, on consubstantiality with the hero. It should be noted that children's theatre is a kind of theater that tries to change or correct and/ or confirm the addressee children's thoughts and behaviors, moreover to presentation of children's problems, in a simple and varied performance. At the end, the results of this research will be presented. Based on this research, I have concluded that the rightful place of children’s theatre as well as its valuable educational impact on society, have largely been ignored. Although children’s physical health have been cared for enough to safeguard the appropriate methods and issue vaccinations against illnesses, children’s mental health and the appropriate educational vaccinations (through theatre productions) have not been truly considered. There has not been any governmental or private organization, association, or institution in charge of the fundamental programming for children’s theatre in the country (considering its important role as well as children’s inherent needs in them). In addition, it has been concluded and suggested in the dissertation that fundamental programming for the use of children’s theatre in the kindergartens and primary, elementary and junior-high schools are crucial and thus should immediately be undertaken in order to take advantage of its educational aspects.
  • Nooshin Dadashi, Farhad Nazerzadeh Kermani, Ashraf Mousavilar, Mehrangiz Mazaheri Tehrani Page 73
    The present study deals with four forms of western comic drama namely Ancient Greek Comedy (Old Comedy and New Comedy), Ancient Roman Comedy, and Commedia dellarte as well as one form of Iranian Traditional Comedy, namely "Taqulid". Ancient Greek Comedy began at Athens in 486 B.C and was basically divided into three periods: Old Comedy, Middle Comedy and New Comedy. Old Comedy (468 – 385 BC) is known by the works of Aristophanes (career: 427 – ca.385 BC) who was the only author whose eleven comedies survived. There is very little known from Middle Comedy (385- 320 BC). Menander (ca 342 – 291 BC) was the only author of New Comedy (325 – 290 BC) that some parts of his plays remained. Old Comedy represented a political and satirical theatre that criticized the judgment system, attacked the new literature and philosophy as well as politicians and poets. The main focus was on Polis (Athens), while in New Comedy the attention moved to the Oikos (home), and the serious and critical theatre of Old Comedy changed to a lively and domestic theatre which plots involved young men in love, mistaken identities, long lost children and comedy of errors and comedy of manners. Ancient Roman Comedy is known by the works of Plautus (ca 254 – 184 BC) and Terence (fl. 166 – 60 BC) who both translated, adopted and Romanized the plays of New Comedy. The Ancient Roman Comedy was based on stock characters who appeared in every play. The main character of comedy was a clever slave who helped his master and was rewarded at the end of the story. The works of Plautus were more witty and popular while Terence followed a more serious and moral plot in his plays. Twenty plays of Plautus and six of Terence survive. Commedia dellarte was a dramatic form that flourished in Italy and throughout Western Europe from sixteenth to eighteenth century. It was performed by a group of professional actors which each actor played a specific character like Zanni the clever servant, the stingy master or the braggart soldier, and the play was based on a scenario of which all the details and dialogues were improvised by the actors. Taqulid or Iranian Traditional Comedy is also based on stock characters, the plots vary in different plays which could be historical, imaginary, ethical,…, and the main character is Siah the clever servant. The research questions in this study formed based on similarities and dissimilarities between Old Comedy, New Comedy, Ancient Roman Comedy, Commedia dellarte vis a vis Taqulid. The present comparative study, by applying descriptive and historical research methods, and based on a wide range of classical as well as new and celebrated research works, attempted to arrive at adequate answers to the purposed research questions. The research findings makes the formal and substantial comic elements in question more clear and appreciated when they are displayed in tabular charts, hoping to make Iranian traditional comedy more understandable when studied in comparative scope and explained with theoretical and critical approaches and concepts.
  • Hamid Dehghanpour, Jalaleddin Kazzazi, Mehdi Pourrezaeian Page 85
    The focus of this article is in the area of poetry and film, dealing specifically with the visual potentials of a monumental Persian classic epic, that is, Firdowsi's Shahnameh. In this masterpiece, the visual world is formed out of images which could represent it in many different ways, at times extremely glorified at other times immensely emotional and psychological but always absolutely clear, perceivable and imaginatively lively. The main statement of this article is that Shahnameh is closer to cinema than any other art form, the two being of similar nature, allow you to plunge yourself in the deep and profound thoughts on cinematic imaginations. Due to these capabilities everything in Shahnameh turns into images and visuals. Like a cinematic shot, in it every single verse leads you to another verse, allowing you to navigate and meander among them to be eventually exalted by their cinematic imagery. The research approach adopted in this article includes those tragedies which encompass the best examples of the visionary scopes of the whole epic.Comparing the language of poetry with that of cinema, this article states that, although inherently different, these two languages come together and constantly make shifts between the words and their mental image in order to capture the spirit of literary compostions. In this regard, this article claims that while reading Shahnameh the reading or listening subject envisions living tableau and identifies with the situations. Regarding the narrative style, genre and aesthetics, this research delineates that Shahnameh embodies logic of sentiments, that is the internal language relies more and more on the visual and emotional logic than as it often the case, verbal and literal language. In regards to words as cinematic shots, this paper states that words works as visual tools and manifest a pattern which constanly evolves into images equal to the mental image of the perceived words. Above all, one of the main emphasis of the paper is the delineation of this point that the inherent language of Shahnameh is apt to performance and suitable to physical activity and accomplishment.Having said that, the basis of the language allows a presentation appropriate for spectatorship and a seemingly absent audience. Here, as if every scene performed fot an imaginary audience carefully observing the pro-cinematic events.And finally, as a result of the working functions of language and its subsidiary properties, every event ends up qualifying as performance and staged, as pro-filmic occurrences. The fidings of this research provide evidence that if cinema is considerd a visual medium, then Shahname's words are all visuals, skillfully created by Firdows to equal that. Although constituted only of words, Shahname's verses develop into cinematic imagination, and created amazing visuals which are loaded with details. Moreover, this research claims that ther lyrical description of scenes embodies those visual techniques called decoupage, montagn and mise-en-scene in cinema. In other words, here, words increase power of the visuals and as a result whatever is produced is brilliantly cinematic.