فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 39 (زمستان 1388)
  • پیاپی 39 (زمستان 1388)
  • 108 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 15,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1388/11/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • بازنمایی چالش های روشنفکر طبقه متوسط شهری در سینمای پایان دهه 1360 ایران
    احسان آقابابایی، رضا صمیم، پیمان کی فرخی صفحه 5
    فیلم ها در هر دوره تاریخی تا حدود زیادی تحت تاثیر شرایط اجتماعی حاکم، به بازنمایی ایدئولوژی طبقه مسلط پرداخته و هریک به نحوی به استیضاح مخاطبان و برساخت سوژه می پردازند. فیلم هامون که در پایان دهه 1360 شمسی ساخته شد و با استقبال بسیاری نیز مواجه گردید، از جمله این فیلم هاست که متاثر از بافت تاریخی و اجتماعی عصری که در آن قرار گرفته با بازنمایی چالش های روشنفکر طبقه متوسط شهری با مناسبات حاکم بر خود زندگی در جهت استیضاح مخاطبان موفق عمل کرده است. در این مقاله هدف اصلی واکاوی رمزگان فیلم هامون، در جهت فهم چگونگی بازنمایی چالش های روشنفکر طبقه متوسط شهری در سینمای پایان دهه 1360 ایران است. در این راه، به نشانه شناسی دو سکانس ابتدایی و انتهایی این فیلم پرداخته ایم و رمزگان این سکانس ها را در جهت پاسخ به این سوال کلیدی که چرا شخصیت اول فیلم که نمونه روشنفکر طبقه متوسط شهری است، در انتهای حیات پرچالش اش به این نتیجه می رسد که باید خود را نابود کند، به کار گرفته ایم. با استفاده از مفاهیم ایدئولوژی از لویی آلتوسر، دلالت های ثانویه اسطوره زمان حاضر از رولن بارت و روشنفکر از آنتونیو گرامشی و چارچوب روش شناختی متاثر از نشانه شناسی جان فیسک به این نتیجه می رسیم که روشنفکر طبقه متوسط شهری در مواجهه با طبقه بالا به سوژه بودن خود پی برده است و حاضر به توضیح وضع موجود نیست، بنابراین درصدد بر می آید با خودکشی، خود را از مناسبات حاکم بر حیات اجتماعی برهاند.
    کلیدواژگان: ایدئولوژی، روشنفکرف طبقه متوسط شهری، دلالت ثانویه، هامون
  • نشانه شناسی نام شخصیت های نمایشی در نمایشنامه ی مرگ فروشنده
    سعید اسدی، فرهنگی فربد صفحه 13
    این نوشتار در باب نام شناسی بر اساس نشانه شناسی نام شخصیت ها در نمایشنامه است و می کوشد با توجه به دانش نام شناسی و تکیه بر روش نشانه شناسی پیرس به دلالت های گوناگون چون دلالت شمایلی، نمایه ای و نمادین نام های شخصیت های نمایشی بپردازد. از آنجا که دانش نام شناسی یکی از امکانات تحلیلی در باب شناخت شخصیت ادبی– نمایشی در نظریات جدید است و در حوزه ی مطالعات نمایشی ایران نادیده گرفته شده است این مقاله می کوشد با اشاره به این دانش ضمن معرفی، نمونه ای از این تحلیل را ارائه دهد. باید اشاره کرد به دلیل اهمیت کار پیرس یعنی مطرح کردن نشانه با تصاویر، مبنا و الگوی مناسبی برای بررسی آثار هنری به ویژه در حوزه های تئاتر و سینما به دست می دهد و بر همین اساس نشانه شناسی پیرس در مقاله ی موجود بر همعصر خود یعنی سوسور ترجیح است چرا که تمرکز سوسور در نشانه شناسی بر روی زبان است. بنابر این پژوهش در اثر نمونه روشن می شود که رابطه ای مستقیم و کاربردی میان نام اشخاص نمایش و درون مایه و کنش های نمایشی وجود دارد. بر اساس همین یافته به نام شناسی نشانه شناختی شخصیت های نمایشی نمایشنامه مرگ فروشنده اثر آرتور میلر پرداخته شده است. در ضمن این پژوهش بیانگر توجه آرتور میلر به جنبه های دلالت گر نام ها در نام گذاری اشخاص نمایش به طور خودآگاه و نا خودآگاه است.
    کلیدواژگان: نام شناسی، نشانه شناسی، پیرس، آرتورمیلر، مرگ فروشنده
  • رابطه موسیقی رمانتیک و ایده منطق از دیدگاه هگل
    فاطمه بنویدی صفحه 25
    بحث درباره هنر رمانتیک نزد فیلسوفان بسیار چالش برانگیز بوده است. هگل به عنوان فیلسوف و متفکر ایدئالیسم آلمانی از زمانی که با رهیافت خاص خود به تحلیل هنر رمانتیک پرداخت تاکنون همواره نکته گیری های ژرفش، اندیشمندان پس از او را به تامل واداشته است. هگل به واسطه کتاب «پدیدارشناسی روح» و «علم منطق» مشهور شده است، و متن مستقلی در مورد زیبایی شناسی به طبع نیاورده است، اما این به این معنا نیست، که او در چارچوب نظام فکری اش به هنر و زیبایی بی توجه بوده است. درواقع نظریه زیبایی شناسی هگل از قلب نظام فلسفی اش ناشی می-شود. مسئله اصلی هگل رابطه نامتناهی و متناهی است. روش هگل برای حل این مسئله روش دیالکتیک است. این روش خصوصیاتی دارد. از جمله اینکه دینامیک و پویا است. به نظر او در کل عالم حیات این روش برقرار است. از دید هگل این پویایی در یکی از شاخه های هنر رمانتیک یعنی موسیقی دیده می شود. موسیقی هم مانند ایده منطق هگل انتزاعی است. یکی از راه هایی که هگل سعی می کند حرکت اندیشه موجود در منطق را شرح دهد بهره گیری از مثال موسیقی است، زیرا واجد آن ویژگی است که هگل می خواهد. این مقاله اشاراتی است به رابطه ای که بین موسیقی و ایده منطق وجود دارد. نگارنده در این پژوهش سعی دارد با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به این رابطه بپردازد.
    کلیدواژگان: هگل، موسیقی، منطق، هنر رمانتیک، روش دیالکتیکی، ایده منطق
  • علیرضا بلنداقبال صفحه 33
    این مقاله، به بررسی و توصیف ساختار و نشانه های نمایشی منظومه ی درخت آسوریگ می پردازد؛ مناظره ای منظوم میان یک بز و یک درخت خرما از اصل پارتی و به خط پهلوی کتابی که تنها نمونه ی فابل به شکل مناظره در زبان های ایرانی میانه غربی است. این متن، شباهت ساختاری انکارناپذیری با متن های مناظره ای بین النهرینی دارد که در جشن بهاری سال نو بین النهرین (اکیتو) به صورت نمایشی اجرا می شده اند. در این منظومه، برخلاف باورهای ایرانی که در متن های فارسی میانه بازتاب یافته، درخت خرما چهره ای دیوآسا دارد و بارها از سوی بز،«دیو»خطاب شده است. همچنین بز درخت را روسپی زاده خطاب می کند.کاربرد استعاره درخت برای اشاره به سرزمین های بین النهرین سابقه ای دیرینه در ادبیات باستانی خاورنزدیک و ایران دارد. استعاره زن روسپی نیز بارها در کتاب مقدس (کتاب ناحوم و مکاشفات یوحنا) برای اشاره به این سرزمین ها به کار رفته است. این نمادپردازی ها بی گمان برگرفته از ادیان کهن بین النهرین اند که پرستش درخت و روسپی گری مقدس از شعائر اساسی آنها بوده است. همچنین در متن های کتاب توبیت و مکاشفه ی ایرانی زند بهمن یسن، سرزمین آشور جایگاه دیوها خوانده شده است. در این بررسی، برای نخستین بار کوشش شده است تا بر خلاف پژوهش های گذشته، مدارک و مستندات دال برتعلق این اثر به گوسان ها (هنرمندان و بازیگران بدیهه پرداز پارتی)، ارائه وکارکرد نمایشی آن اثبات شود.
    کلیدواژگان: درخت آسوریگ، گوسان ها، بز، میم، روسپی گری مقدس، پیوازگ گفتن
  • محمدرضا خاکی، فرهاد مهندس پور، علی قلی پور صفحه 45
    «تشبه» یکی از مفاهیم بحث انگیز در فرایند نمایشی شدن وقایع کربلا است. این مفهوم با در نظر داشتن پیشینه ای که در علم کلام، عرفان و به خصوص فقه دارد، از سه بعد در تعزیه شایان توجه و قابل بررسی است: 1- تشبه، پیوند عمیقی با نهادن نام «شبیه خوانی» بر تعزیه دارد. 2- تشبه به امامان (ع)؛ تشبه به کفار و دشمنان ائمه و تشبه مردان به زنان؛ از مسائل مناقشه برانگیز فقهی هستند که شاهد حضور آنها در تعزیه نیز هستیم. 3- اهمیت مسال? تشبه نزد فقها، منجر به صدور فتاوی گوناگون از سوی آنها می شود. این فتاوی از سوی دیگر، تاثیر آشکاری نیز بر شیو? شبیه خوانی دارند. هدف این مقاله، بررسی سه مورد فوق با توجه به دانش و فرهنگی بومی است که هم شبیه خوانی و هم مفهوم تشبه بر آمده از آن است. پس رویکرد مقال? حاضر در نقط? مقابل آن رویکردهایی قرار خواهد گرفت که تعزیه را با قراردادهای تئاتر و درام غربی فهم و تحلیل می کنند. یکی از این مفاهیم که با آن تعزیه را بررسی می کنند، واژ? یونانی «میمسیس» است. این مقاله نشان می دهد که چرا این مفهوم در شناخت تعزیه کارایی ندارند و نمی توان با اتکا به آن تحقق تشبه در تعزیه را فهم کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تشبه، شبیه، شبیه خوانی، تعزیه، فقه، فتوی
  • پژمان رادمهر صفحه 55
    طی سده های سوم تا نهم هجری، دانشمندان مسلمان اهتمام به نگارش رسالات موسیقی متعدد کردند. علم ایقاع تقریبا در تمامی رسالات، بخشی را به خود اختصاص داده است. تقریبا در تمامی رسالات فوق االذکر، تعریف اصطلاح «ایقاع» ارایه شده است برعکس اصطلاح «وزن» که تعریف آن منحصرا در یک رساله (معیارالاشعار) ارایه شده است. دقت در تعاریف ارایه شده ازاصطلاح ایقاع، نشان می دهد که این تعاریف در بعضی موارد با یکدیگر متفاوت اند اما با هم درارتباط اند به این معنی که رابطه ی عام و خاص با یکدیگر دارند. عام ترین تعریفی که ازاصطلاح ایقاع شده است، «نگاه داشتن اندازه ی ازمنه ی نقرات» است. اگر این تعریف را به عنوان تعریف مبنا اختیارکنیم، سایر تعریف های ایقاع، یا معرف ایقاع لحنی (که می توان آن«را نگاه داشتن اندازه ی ازمنه ی نقرات لحنیه» دانست) (مثل تعریف فارابی)، یا معرف ایقاع منتظم (که می توان آن را «نگاه داشتن اندازه ی ازمنه ی نقراتی که دارای دورهای متساوی اند»دانست) (مثل تعریف صفی الدین ارموی)، یا معرف ایقاع لحنی منتظم (که می توان آن را «نگاه داشتن اندازه ی ازمنه ی نقرات لحنیه ای که دارای دورهای متساوی اند» دانست) (مثل تعریف جامی) هستند. وزن را نیز (طبق تعریفی که خواجه نصیراز آن ارائه می کند) می توان«هیاتی که توسط ایقاع منتظم ایجادمی شود» دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: ایقاع، ایقاع لحنی، ایقاع شعری، ایقاع مقارنه، ایقاع منتظم، وزن
  • فریندخت زاهدی صفحه 61
    توانمندی اندیشه موجود در آثار ادبی و هنری نشات گرفته از مایه های اساطیری در طی اعصار متوالی نقشی تاثیرگذار در تاریخ تمدن بشری داشته و بازسازی مداوم واقعیت های زندگی انسانی را ممکن ساخته است. در پاره ای از آثار برجسته ادبی جهان شخصیت های واقع گرا در صورت ظاهری زندگی و واقعیات مربوط به آن ویژگی های خاص جامعه ای مشخص را در دورانی معلوم در بر دارند، اما گاه در عین حال دارای ارزش های اصیل اسطوره ای نیزهستند و در آثار ادبی تبدیل به الگو های نمادین می شوند. هنرمند با خلاصه کردن نشانه ها، تاویل و افزودن معنایی تازه به ارزش های اصیل واقعیت های ارائه شده توسط شخصیت های اساطیری امکان تداوم آن واقعیت را از طریق اثرهنری خود در زمانی متفاوت فراهم می آورد در این تحقیق سعی شده است با نگاهی تطبیقی بر شخصیت سولنس در نمایشنامه استاد معمار، یکی از آثار هنریک ایبسن، نمایشنامه نویس نروژی و اسطور? «جمشید»، یکی از اساطیر ایرانی برگرفته از «یشت ها» که مشابهت بسیار با اساطیر اسکاندویناوی دارد اثبات نسبی نظریه بالا را پی بگیریم. این فرضیه بر اساس گرایش ایبسن به مفهوم«ابر انسان» طرح می شود که در تفکر نیچه ای به خصوص کتاب معروف او چنین گفت زرتشت به عنوان اندیشه فلسفی غالب مطرح بوده و بر اثار ایبسن تاثیر نهاده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اساطیر ایرانی، نیچه، شخصیت های واقع گرا، فردگرایی، جهان فرعی، الگوهای نمادین
  • محمدمهدی سلطانی سروستانی صفحه 69
    بازنمایی واقعیت بر روی صحنه، منجر به پیدایش دیدگاه های متفاوت و یا حتی گاهی متضاد راجع به تئاتر رئالیستی می شود. گروهی، تئاتر رئالیستی را تئاتری می دانند که واقعیت«مکشوف» را، متعهدانه و متبحرانه، به معرض نمایش می گذارد. اما، گروهی دیگر، تئاتر رئالیستی را تئاتری می دانند که واقعیت را «خلق می کند» و پس از گذراندنش از فیلترهای پالایشی، بدون هیچ تعهدی نسبت به ارائ? واقعیت روزمره، آن را نمایش می دهد. در هر صورت، آنچه مسلم است، اینکه، تئاتر واقعگرا، تئاتری واقعی نیست. واقعیت در تئاتر، در یک فرایند تئاتریکال، «بازنمایی» می شود. همین عنصر «بازنمایی» است که واقعیت ارائه شده در هنر را تحریف کرده و به یک «واقعیت استیلیزه»، یا شیوه پردازی شده تبدیل می نماید. از این رو، در تئاتر، استیلیزاسیون، هدف نیست، بلکه «روش» است، روشی است دیالکتیک که می خواهد واقعیت پنهان در مناسبات روزمر? اجتماعی بشر را به صورت توهمی از واقعیت و بر اساس ارتباط علت و معلولی افشا نماید. در فرایند شیوه پردازی، رئالیسم خام به «رئالیسم آگاه» تبدیل می شود. دراین پژوهش، ابتدا سعی داریم به تعریفی مشخص از واقعیت در ساختار تئاتر رئالیستی نایل شویم و به شیو? قیاسی، واقعیت حقیقی را با واقعیت شیوه پردازی شده تحلیل نماییم.
    کلیدواژگان: واقعیت رئالیسم، تئاتر رئالیستی، شیوه پردازی
  • مجید سرسنگی، رحمت امینی صفحه 79
    در دهه های اخیر به ویژه با گسترش روزافزون هنر تئاتر در کشورهای مختلف، و نیز طرح نظریه های جدید نمایشی مبنی بر ظرفیت های بالای این هنر در مسیر ارتقای کیفیت زندگی بشر، وجوه تازه ای از این هنر بازشناسی و ارائه شده است. یکی از این وجوه، که از سوی بخش وسیعی از نهادهای آموزشی و تربیتی، و نیز محافل علمی و دانشگاهی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، تئاتر تعلیمی تربیتی یا پداگوژیک نام دارد. هنر نمایش به صورت عام و تئاتر به صورت خاص از دیرباز با دو کارکرد متفاوت به جامعه ی بشری معرفی شده است: کارکرد فرهنگی روشنفکری، که بیشتر بر جنبه های ارائه ی اثر هنری مستقل به مخاطبان تاکید دارد، و کاربرد تعلیمی تربیتی که متضمن پرورش روح، آموزش و ارتقای کیفی زندگی انسان است. کاربردی که تئاتر را نه فقط هنری برای سرگرم کردن مخاطبان و اقناع ذوق هنری آنان، بلکه فرایندی پیچیده و موثر بر سیر تحولات فکری بشر می داند. مقاله ی حاضر با استناد به آرای متفکرانی چون ماکارنکو و فریر و بوآل و نیز تجارب جهانی در حوزه ی استفاده از تئاتر در راستای مقاصد تعلیمی و تربیتی به بررسی ویژگی های تئاتر تعلیمی تربیتی (پداگوژیک) و تفاوت های آن با تئاترهایی که صرفا اهداف دیگری از جمله فرهنگی روشنفکری را دنبال می کنند، پرداخته است.
    کلیدواژگان: تئاتر پداگوژیک، تعلیم و تربیت، آموزش، تئاتر فرهنگی روشنفکری، بازی های نمایشی
  • موضوع شناسی غنا در آواز منطبق بر ردیف دستگاه ایرانی / تطبیق نظریه عدم حرمت ذاتی غنا با محتوای آواز ایرانی
    مهدی نیکجو صفحه 87
    یکی از مباحث مهم و در عین حال مبهم در علم فقه مسئله ی موسیقی است که براساس تقسیم موسیقی به دو نوع سازی و آوازی، مساله ی حرمت و عدم حرمت خوانندگی ذیل مبحث غنا و موضوع نوازندگی تحت عنوان لهو و لعب مورد نظر قرار می-گیرد. در این پژوهش آنچه مد نظر قرار گرفته است خوانندگی می باشد. در این میان، موضوع شناسی توسط کارشناس (عرف خاص، موسیقیدان) به جهت کشف حکم فقهی از اهمیت وافری برخوردار است. در بحث غنا ما با دو نظریه کلی مواجه هستیم: 1- حرمت به وصف ملازم 2- حرمت به ذاته در این پژوهش با تحلیل نظریه ی حرمت غنا به عنوان ملازم و نظری اجمالی به تعاریف واژه های مرتبط با موسیقی ایرانی به این نتیجه رسیده ایم که ردیف های آوازی به مثابه قالب هایی هستند برای اجرای صحیح آواز که بسته به نوع شعر (محتوا) مورد استفاده درآن، از پستی یا والایی برخودار وخود کیفت صوت به ذاته حرمتی به همراه ندارد. به عبارت دیگر از این قالب که به شیوه بسیار منطقی نظام بندی (ردیف) شده اند هم می توان استفاده صحیح و نیز نادرستی داشت. این برداشت دقیقا منطبق بر نظریه ی حرمت به عنوان ملازم (رای مرحوم فیض کاشانی) می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: غنا، موسیقی، ردیف، دستگاه، وصف ملازم، کلام
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  • Iranian Cinema Representing the Intellectual Challenges of Middle Class Society " 1980's and the Semiotics of Hamoon"
    Ehsan Aghababaii, Reza Samim, Peyman Key Farrokhi Page 5
    Throughout history, films have always been influenced by the social conditions of the societies in which they were made, often, representing the ideology of their middle class, probing their audience, and presenting new themes. Hamoon is the name of a feature film made at the end of 1980s which won great acclaim. It was influenced by historical and social fabric of its time and was successful in representing challenges facing middle class intellectuals as well as relations in everyday life. The main goal of this paper is to explain the reasons behind the success of that film. The main question of this study, which results from the tragic end of the movie, is why Hamid should be perished in Hamoon? Death, or in other words, salvation of Hamoon as a result of suicide at the end of the film has been explained in various critiques as a symbol of confrontation between tradition and modernity and representation of failed intellectuals…. The issue that has been seldom mentioned in those critiques and is the main subject of this study is why the result of challenging life of Hamoon cannot be anything but suicide? The fact that Hamoon should commit suicide in order to inspire the audience with a sense of salvation will get us close to the true meaning of ideology as represented in this film. Banking on theories of Louis Althusser on ideology, Roland Barthes on secondary indications of contemporary myths, and Antonio Gramsci on intellectuals and by taking advantage of John Fiske’s methodological framework, we will try to answer the main question which is why the leading character should die? After explaining semiology of the opening and closing sequences of the film, we have concluded that in the sequence when Hamoon meets Mahshid, we are faced with a traditional intellectual figure who is trying to be assimilated by the higher class. That assimilation is apparently due to Hamoon’s 90-percent love for Mahshid and the commitment of an intellectual figure for enlightening the masses. Our analysis, however, would reveal that bourgeoisie which is filled with instrumental rationality is looking for a means to realize class congruity and this is why it accepts Hamoon. However, in the closing sequence and due to what has happened to Hamoon in the course of the film, he tries to prove his individuality by calling that class corrupt. He finds out about his social statues and turns his back to all symbols of the higher class, including is arts, by declining from becoming a tool. Bourgeoisie charges Hamoon as being a carefree man in order to convince the audience by resorting to a mediocre excuse. However, the main reason behind the separation between the intellectual man and the higher class is his effort to refrain from being used as a subject and is not ready to give in to class rules in order to justify the status quo. Therefore, he decides to get rid of the relationship governing social life by committing suicide.
  • Semiotics of dramatic characters name in the plays Death of a Salesman
    Saied Asadi, Farhang Farbod Page 13
    This article, in an onomastic framework, is based in the semiotics of characters’ names, and tries to study the names of the dramatic characters’ names according to the different references introduced by C. S. Pierce such as iconic, indexical and symbolic references.Since the knowledge of onomastics is one of the analytical means with respect to knowing the literary- dramatic characters in the modern theories, and has been neglected in the domain of dramatic studies in Iran, this article aims to introduce this knowledge, as well as providing an onomastic analysis of a dramatic text. It should be noted that Pierce’s framework has been chosen due to the fact that it provides us with a picture-based framework of semiotic studies, and therefore paves the way for the semiotic studies in the field of arts, especially cinema and theater. That is why this framework had been placed in priority rather than that of Ferdinand de Saussure’s, which is mainly based on language. The results of this study reveal that there is a direct and functional relationship between the names of the characters of the play, with the theme and the actions of the dramatic text. According to the same achievement, the article has done an onomastic study of the names of the characters in Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman. The study proves that Miller in his choice of names of his characters, has paid a purposeful attention to the referential aspects of the names. As noted earlier, the base on this article is held on Pierce's semiotics. Pierce has classified the signs into three groups, of which the third group is the best-known. In this classification, the signs are either iconic, indexical or symbolic. The iconic sign. Is the same as photo, in which there is a similarity between the form and the concept. The indexical sign is like the smoke, which is a sign of fire, in which the form points to the concept or is related to it. The symbolic sign, like pigeon as a symbol of peace, is the one in which the relationship between the form and the concept is conventional and formal, and there is no similarity between the form and the concept. Some of such signs may be found in the play Death of a Salesman, which have been thoroughly studied in the body of the article. Biff, Willy Loman's oldest child, according to English-Persian Dictionary means hitting. His behavior in some parts of the play such his quarrel with the others, as well as his favorite sport (footbal) approve his name, which is in direct relation with his deeds in the play. As a result, his name may be analysed within the framework of iconic signs. The major sources used for this research are Grammar of Names, and Oxford Dictionary of First Names and Oxford Dictionary of Surnames. Since this is the first research of its kind in Iran, we hope that it paves the way for other similar works, with emphasis on the Iranian plays too
  • The Relation between Romantic Music and Logical Idea in Hegel's Thought
    Fateme Benvidi Page 25
    The discussion on the Romantic Art for philosophers has been challenging. Hegel as a Idealist German philosopher in traditional philosophy, since examining the special approach to Romantic Art analysis, has made most of thinker after him ponder on Hegelian genius points of view due to the importance of matters in his thoughts. The discussion on the Romantic Art for philosophers has been challenging. Hegel as a Idealist German philosopher in traditional philosophy, since examining the special approach to Romantic Art analysis, has made most of thinker after him ponder on Hegelian genius points of view due to the importance of matters in his thoughts.Hegel is well known by the book “Phenomenology of Soul and Logical Science” but he didnt publish anything independently on Aesthetics. This doesn’t mean that he had been regardless to Art and Aesthetics. Indeed, the Aesthetic theory of Hegel arises from the center of philosophical systems which could introduce a landscape of it. The main theme of Hegel’s thought is the relation between infinite and finite; Hegel solution this problem by dialectic method. The Hegelian dialectic has a special character, for example; one of its characters is dynamic being. According to Hegelian thought, in the Whole of the being World, we can see this dynamic aspect is in Romantic Art specially music. The music is an abstract matter the same as Hegelian Logical Idea. As the Romantic Art has been separated of social faction, it is an acceptable and the most fundamental reason that music must be abstract. This abstraction links music to Logical Idea. The usages of music example help Hegel to explain the motion of thought in Logic. The music can explain spiritual and inner life which is considered by romantic thinkers, so it is better than painting. The music moves in time the same as subjective life. Music and symphony were so outstanding in Germany and France at that time. Goethe, Hugo, Holderline, schilling and schiller and etc. were romantic; but Hegel neglected literature and painting and concentrated on music. The cause of this regard is the nature of music. Music is somatic and doesn’t have a material, it is invisible like soul when the absolute soul wanted to appear in sculpture but it couldn’t reflect the soul. The music is the melody of the lack of soul. Soul has understood that arts are not its statements. Then, the music is the best Art in modern period. The trace of romantic music is in Hegelian dialectical logic because Hegel’s logic is movement in logic. It is planned for demonstrating conceptual anti theses who normal logic considers it as a stable and permanent principle. In deed, the manner of Hegel in description of human soul is a correct and direct explanation from romantic view. In this description, he explains how the absolute soul transforms from a higher stage and is unquiet in every stage. This article considers the relation between music and absolute logical Idea. The author tries to examine this relationship by analytical-descriptive method.
  • Alireza Bolandeghbal Page 33
    This article has long been taken of the description and clarification of dramatic signs as well as the structure of the small book entitled Draxt? ?s?r?g “The Babylonian Tree” (Here after BT); a text having comparatively long history in Iranian studies which have been interpreted in different ways, by previous scholars. BT is a versified contest between a goat and a palm tree, originally composed in Parthian language, written in Book Pahlavi script. This text exposes fundamental resemblance with Mesopotamian tensons which seems to be performed in Mesopotamian New Year spring feast so-called “Akitu”. Although palm tree in Iranian custom as reflected in Middle Persian Texts (e.g. Bondahi?n IX) is explained as one of the most beneficial and exalted trees, it is pictured demoniac as the goat apostrophizes it ubiquitously in BT. The palm tree is called Assyrian/Babylonian (e.i.? s?r?g) through the text, specially in the beginning which the narrator locates the region of the palm tree in Assyria. The considerable point here is that the tree symbol in Middle Eastern literature and esp. in Bible and Iranian Apocalyptic Text so-called Zand? Wahman Yasn is a well-known metaphor denoting Mesopotamian territory (e.i. Assyria and Babylon). On the other hand, apostrophizing the tree, symbol of Assyria, as a demon is not an unheard phenomenon. In several Middle Eastern scripts (Zand? Wahman Yasn, The Book of Naom, The Book of Tubit) Assyria is depicted as the house of demons. Furthermore, based on intangible evidents in BT the goat symbolizes Zoroasterian Religion. Based on Middle Persian religious texts goat is a holy animal. In The Selections of Z?dsparam (Ch. 3:2) the white xarbuz (a kind of goat) as the representative of domestic animals accepts Zoroasterian religion. In BT the goat addresses the palm tree as “the son of a courtesan”. In The Book of Naom and Revelations of St. John “The Whore” is the specific epithet of Assyria and Babylon. These two metaphors _ the tree and the whore_ undoubtedly are founded in the rights of Mesopotamian pagan religions in which worshiping the tree and Hieros Gamos rituals formed the main part In other words, the most distinguishable sign of the coming farming period _ in spring season _ for Mesopotamian agricultural-based civilizations were the pollination of palm trees. For Ancient Mesopotamian, since the time of Sumerian sovereign, the king was the concrete incarnation of “Dumuzi, The Vegetative God, and was addressed after Him “Ama-ushamgal-anna” (i.e. blatant power in palm tree) and so played the role of Ishtar’s husband (the Goddess of breeding and fertility) in Hieros Gamos rights of “Akitu”. In the present study the author has made an attempt to present a satisfactory interpretation of the narrative; illustrate and prove the dramatic function of the text by considering evident samples of bardic discourse persisting in the text as well as undeniable external documents which show its belonging to G?s?n tradition. It seems these interesting evidences clearly induce its belonging to G?s?ns and dramatic function of the text.
  • Mohammadreza Khaki, Farhad Mohandespour, Ali Ghoulipour Page 45
    "Tashabboh" (becoming similar) is one of the controversial concepts through the process of dramatization of Karbala events. Kal?m is the Islamic philosophy of seeking Islamic theological principles through dialectic. This concept has a root in "K?lam", Theosophy and Jurisprudence in particular, and when it comes to "Tazieh" (it means condolence. The term ‘Ta?ziyeh’ is used in Iran for all sorts of mourning rituals, including the performance of the fully fledged Ta?ziyeh passion plays), Tashabboh can be discussed from three points of view: 1- "Tashabboh" has a deep connection with the process in which "Tazieh" has been named "Shabih-Khani". 2- Different stances of "Tashabboh" – like considering someone similar with Imams, or with impious and enemies of Imams, or assimilating a man to a woman- are juratory controversials that have been appeared in "Tazieh" as well. 3- The importance of "Tashabboh" for jurisconsults leads them to issue variety of diverse indults. These indults on the other hand, have clear effects on the method of "Shabih-khani". The quality of “Shabih-khani” relies on Fatwa. It is a religious judgment issued by a great Ayatollah. This paper wants to consider relation between Fatwa and quality of “Shabih-khani”. The Islamic high clergy have two kinds of contact to "Tazieh". On the one hand, they did not approve of the Ta’ziyeh, or any other theatrical presentation, On the other hand, the clergy were unable to ignore the popularity of the Ta’ziyeh and recognized that these performances had a profound effect on the people. In this article, it's been tried to scrutiny these three points, considering the knowledge and culture in which both "Shabih-khani" and the concept of "Tashabboh" have been derivated and extracted from. This approach stands against those approaches that conceive and analyze "Tazieh" with the Conventional Western Theatre. We can’t identify "Tazieh" with "Mimesis". Mimesis is a Greek word. Its persistence as such within English-speaking cultures is significant. For it has no fixed, reliable or agreed English equivalent. We can find it associated with the following English words: imitation, representation, copy, similarity, fake. On the other hand "Tashabboh" associated with the following Persian words: becoming similar, assimilating, considering similarity, comparison. Mimesis isn’t correct term for mimetic processes in kinds of Iranian traditional theatre, particularly "Shabih-Khani". In Ta’ziyeh, acting is not mimetic and entirely suggestive, with a full contractual agreement, performatively stipulated, between the actors and the audience that they are just acting. Actors hold their script in their hands, they want to gesture a distance and suggest a dissimilitude. If the Aristotelian mimesis is based on similitude, Ta’ziyeh is predicated on dissimilitude. The style of acting in "Tazieh" show that "Shabih-Khan" (actor in Tazieh) is a narrator. He narrate story of Karbala. He don’t play role, because in tradition of "Tazieh" actor don’t allow to role playing. Now "Tashabboh" is defines our way of thinking about "Tazieh". This paper has not linguistic approach. The concept of Tashabboh in this approach only reduces to simple word. But archeological approach helps us to better understanding "Tazieh", Shi’i passion play.
  • Pezhman Radmehr Page 55
    From the 3th to the 9th AH centuries (Lunar), Muslim scientists endeavored to write numerous treatises on music. Almost in all treatises the science of? q?' allocated a section to itself and in rare cases,included the whole treatise. The definition of "?q??"has been introduced in almost all the treatises mentioned above, contrary to the definition of "vazn" which has been introduced only in one treatise. A close observation on the definitions of the term? q?', proves that in some cases the definitions are different but related; they have general and
  • Farindokht Zahedi Page 61
    Many mythological roots and cosmological tendencies link Ibsen’s characters to their archaic origins in ancient cultures. Hence, a study of the symbolic essence reveals many ideas seen in the Zoroastrian template, and this can serve like a key for opening the unknown dimensions of Ibsen’s works.The mythopoetic inclinations in Ibsen's works and the common elements of his characters with those of the Persian mythic characters was the motivation of this research. Ibsen’s way of using the mythopoetic substance to express human experiences and aspirations is one of the unique styles in play writing due to it's layers of meaning. Looking more closely at those common traits, I realized that there were numerous idiosyncrasies common to the characters created in Ibsen plays and the characters in Zoroastrian mythology. This should not sound strange. Ibsen’s aesthetical approach to individualism, humanism and the total consciousness of modern man are said to be traits also in Greek philosophies, especially that of Plato. But Greek philosophy was, in turn, rooted in Zoroastrian philosophy. In the Zoroastrian philosophy, the initiatives taken towards reasoning as an attempt to comprise a primitive rationalism and consciousness of man resembles Ibsen’s search for the discovery of the essence and foundation of the phenomena of life through total consciousness. To examine my reading of Ibsen’s literary works, I tried to compare Solness’ character in The Master Builder with the myth of Jamshid, the first human being, who leaves Heaven to protect the earth in Zoroastrian philosoph, in order to prove the eternality of reflection from the ancient to Ibsen’s time. The drama, Brian Johnston states, is a major archetypal expression of Western consciousness. Ibsen’s continued presence on the world theatrical stages, in the West as well as the East, is an indication of the potential of his realistic characters, who enjoy the same unchanging and common elements often found in ancient mythology. At the same time and in parallel way, these characters live in worlds that endow them with the characteristics of a society in a particular period, and their behavior thereby becomes a reflection of their surrounding environment. Moreover, they are accompanied by mythological and timeless values, which enable modern man to establish a connection with the ancient world. Thus, such characters become symbols that not only determine the peculiarities of the society to witch they belong, but they also reveal the cosmological aspects of their contemporary world. Considering the symbolic traits and qualities of ancient mythology, his characters reflect archaic images of modernity. To examine my reading of Ibsen’s literary works, I tried to compare the modern individualistic attitude of Solness’s character in Master Builder with the myth of Jamshid, the first human being, who leaves heaven to protect the earth, in Zoroastrian philosophy in order to prove the eternality of the reflection from the ancient to Ibsen’s time. The Impact which was made upon Ibsen`s plays through Nietzsche’s Thus spoke Zarathustra.
  • Mohammad-Mehdi Soltani-Sarvestani Page 69
    Research about reality, leads us to this belief that everything in the world are located in reality, because they all pas through the human mind and imagination, which are inevitably real. But in order to do away with the complicated concepts of the endless reality, we may limit it to the fundamental concept of "reflection of reality in art, and its relation with the absolute reality". While the realism artist -in a broad sense- believes in the fact that human being is an independent reality, insists on reflecting that part of reality whose existence in the material world is tangible and understandable. But, the reflection of reality on the stage, has led to different and even paradoxical views concerning Realism Theater. Some define Realism Theater as skilled and consecutive portrayal of everyday "proven" social life. They intend to make use of natural methods to reach the reality. These realists go forward with so much arrogance in showing all the details of reality, that are sometimes categorized as excessive naturalists too. But, some others define it as a theater which does not explore theatre, but create it, and after putting it through refining filters, without any prejudice bestows on it purpose then without any commitment to everyday life performs it. As a matter of fact, these realists consider the creation of illusion of reality as a principle, and in order to reach this objective, they authorize themselves to make use of unreal methods as well. Realism Theater is not real. Reality is put through a theatrical process then re-preformed on the stage. This re-performance distorts the reality portrayed and transforms it to a stylized reality. Thus stylization for the theatrical stylists is not a goal but a means. A dialectic which tries to show the hidden truth in everyday human social life as a distortion of reality based upon cause and effect. The important feature of the stylized realistic theatre lies in its ability to picture the different aspects and dimensions of reality, both with respect to form, and structure. When the actor is able to move between different identities, some new and even contradictory manifestations of reality emerge, those manifestations which can not be achieved through the description of daily realities. Of course in stylized realistic theatre, meaning is not the center of attraction. This theatre authorizes itself to be moving among all theatrical theories and styles. In fact, the contemporary realistic theatre is a mixture of different theatrical styles, because life is actually a mixture of differences. In this mixture, there are lots to be found of Epic theatre, Absurdist theatre and naturalistic theater. This research first tries to reach a definition of reality in the fabric of Realism Theater and them by the way of comparison, analyze the reality of truth and the reality of art or stylized reality. After reaching a definition of sterilized reality the quality and quantity of realities place in contemporary realism theater will be studied and the role of sterilization in the process of theatrical and content alterations of traditional to neo realism will be analyzed in a comparative table.
  • Majid Sarsangi, Rahmat Amini Page 79
    Theatre is not just bound to what happens on the stage and in front of the eyes of the spectators. The process of preparing and practicing theatre is effective in training people. In this way theatre sociologists have studied theatre from the point of view of affects on social contacts and pedagogical theorists who think that childhood is the most important period in forming people personality have focused on theatre from the pedagogical point of view. In our country – although limited – theatre is used in kinder gardens in training children. In this article which aim is knowing the how and effects of theatre on children, children theatre as a two-dimensional art which is in close relation with its spectators, and its pedagogical effects on spectators are analyzed. In fact, the main discussion is to introduce pedagogic theatre as a resource in training. Researching about theory of drama is very important because pedagogical and applied drama are necessary for education in life and schools. in this article I try to their characteristics. In fact applied drama and non applied drama are not separated of their characteristics like entertaining because both of them have this dimensions, In this research with studying the most important source in Persian we studied and important pedagogic and cultural – intellectual drama and their characteristics. This research illustrates, in our country. The charging of behavior of audience in pedagogic drama is considerable and in cultural- intellectual aesthetics is very important. Pedagogical drama in education theatre is important. It seems that theatre have not paid attention to this kind of education in drama studying therefore using of drama as an educational tool is one of the most important aims of this research. This research is comparative research and in this comparison, two important kinds of ideas, we get serious results. about pedagogic and playing and its role in behavior of children, however, nowadays we have to pay attention to the educational side of in institute. So I think pedagogical and applied drama in schools and central education is more than and important the comparative of traditional education. In future we must try to better education and drama for students. If we try in the next time and future teach drama and pedagogical drama in the schools, that is successful for students. social theatre, political theatre, radical theatre and many other variations, but over the course of the last decade, “applied theatre” is the term that has emerged as the umbrella under which all of these prior terms and practices are embraced. One example of how applied theatre can be different lies in the area of scripting. Whereas traditional mainstream theatre is most often centered in the interpretation of a pre-written script, applied theatre, in contrast, involves both the generation and the interpretation of a theatre piece that in performance may or may not be scripted in the traditional manner.
  • Mehdi Nikjoo Page 87
    Appearance of music in history of human being is an innate issue. When the man started the social life and the special civilization and culture formed in the society the music as the part of human life changed in a way which got an important part of culture of nations. So we want to study music in Islamic culture. One of the most important and ambiguous issues in jurisprudence is music which is divided to song and instrumental performances. Legality and illegality of singing is discussed in Qina and playing the music in the form of lahw wa la’ib (trivial). This research discusses the singing. Therefore knowing the subject by experts (Musician) is very important to find out the commandment. The general concept of Qina has been for a long time illegal in Shiite scholars’ viewpoint. Although the generality of this illegality has been disputed for some individuals or types, no one is known to be opponent to its illegality in general sense. Sheikh-e-Tusi has argued in his book, Khilaf, that: Qina is illegal and anyone who commits this sin is fasiq and his/her testimony is not acceptable. In Qina we have two general theories: 1) Illegality by being concomitant 2) Illegality in essence. 1. Illegality by being concomitant: this theory argues that what causes the illegality of Qina or triviality of singers is that this issue is concomitant with women dancing, weltering men with women etc. and singing by itself is not illegal. 2. Those jurisconsults who believe that Qina is illegal by itself argue that sometimes the quality of a voice is subjected to be illegal no matter what is the poem, and even though the poem is legitimate. Nonetheless, as mentioned above, the well known opinion of Feidh Kashani counters this theory. He argues that qina is not illegal by itself. We discuss and analyze it in this article. It seems that the context in which the relevant sayings (al-riwayat) has been said in it supports the opinion of Feidh Kashani’s and his contemporary Mohaqiq Sabzevari’s and verifies it. As we will see in this article, the same opinion is well adapted with the reality which is the subject of this research. Albeit, we should emphasize that we are not going to prove neither theories. Moreover, the discussion about the context of riwayat is just discussed because of its necessity and relevance to the issue. In this article we analyze the first theory and define some concepts which are related to Persian music. Finally, we conclude that keyboards of singing are forms for performance of the song correctly, and these forms have no illegality in their essence. Rather, the poems (content) specify transcendentality or invalidity of what is being sung. Voice in essence hasn’t any illegality. In other words, although the form of Persian music is designed in a systematic and logical way, a man can use it in a correct way or in a false one. This article is based on the first theory which is the theory of Faydh Kashani.