فهرست مطالب

المپیک - سال نوزدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 55، پاییز 1390)
  • سال نوزدهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 55، پاییز 1390)
  • بهای روی جلد: 10,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/09/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Ramzaninezhad. R., Hematinezhad. M., Joreanoosh. R., Mahdes. F Page 7
    Athlete's Satisfaction accounts for an important portion of the process and outcome of individual’s participation in championship sport. Among 420 national athletes of Mazandaran province (playing in the 2007 league) 201 were selected that 176 of them completed the Athletes Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ). The questionnaire included 56 five valued Likert questions (from 5 to 1 in order, very important to very little important). This instrument assessed 15 satisfaction variables or factors related to team process and outcomes in three dimensions of individual, social and task. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was estimated by coefficient of alpha Cronbach in different dimensions between 78% - 95%. The data were analyzed by U man – Whitney, kroscal Wallis and Pierson correlation tests in significant level of P≤0.05. The results of the study indicated that the following facets in order were the major satisfactory factors among the athletes; satisfaction from coach's behavior, individual Participation in team, team strategy, individual performance, team morality, team cohesion, coach's instruction, Satisfactionfrom medical personnel and team budgets were located in the last hierarchy. Female's satisfaction in all satisfaction dimensions were higher than male and athletes of the team sports in all satisfaction dimensions were higher than individual teams. But, the hierarchy of some satisfaction dimensions between these groups were significant. In generally, individual and team processes had a higher priority than team outcomes on athlete's satisfaction.
  • Ramzaninezhad. R., Panahi. M., Reihani. M Page 19
    The purpose of this study was to compare the styles of coping with stress among elite athletes in Iran national individual sports and also women and men athletes in different age groups. All 340 athletes in 23 sport fields in Iran National team’s camp were selected that 276 persons (81 percent statistical populations) completed the questionnaire and returned to the researcher. The instrument of the study was a standard questionnaire (coperevised) which is used for measuring the coping styles with stress in elite athletes. This questionnaire included 40 questions in Likert`s 4 value measurement (never=1 to always=4), and statistical tests of Friedman, Wilcoxon,Mann- Whitney U and Kruscal Wallis were used in significant level of p≤0.05 to analyzing the data. The results indicated that athletes used accommodation cope, approach, self-punishment, self-help and avoidance styles, respectively. Although, the athletes older than 30 years used the approach and self-punishment coping styles more than other styles, there was no significant difference between athletes according to their experience. Generally, the problem-focused style was more prevalent than emotion-focus style among all athletes Also, the men athletes used emotion-focused style more than women athletes.
  • Falahmohammadiz., Dabidiroshanv., Kanemati, H Page 35
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short term vitamin E supplementation on nitric oxide responses and some muscle damage indices in untrained male followed by resistance training. Twelve untrained students that resident in university dormitory volunteered into this study and were randomized in vitamin E (n=6) and placebo (n=6) groups. Designed training Protocol was circular and with %75 1RM was done. Venous blood samples were drowning on the condition of minimally 12h fasting in three periods, pre-exercise, immediately after the exercise and 24h post-exercise. Each subject of experimental group received 14 vitamin E capsules (800 IU/day). Again after one -week supplementation, in minimally12h fasting, blood sampling was repeated. Results. resistance training increases NO level in both groups. Vitamin E supplementation decreases significantly NO level immediately after training (P<0.001); moreover, NO level changes between experimental and placebo groups were significant after 24h training (P<0.008). These findings also indicated that CPK level in experimental group following supplementation in base level and immediately post-exercise was decreased. Short -termvitamin E supplementation did not have any significant effect on LDH levels after supplementation. Conclusion. vitamin E supplementation may have beneficial effects on decreasing oxidative stress and free radical and cause decreasing muscle damages followed by acute resistance training.
  • Hakakdokhte., Salamif., Rajabih., Hedayati, M Page 47
    The purpose of study was to determine the effect of aerobic training with and without vitamin supplementations on SOD and GPX activities and GSH in pregnancy period. Fourteen female rats (with age 3 month and weight 145-160 gr) divided to 4 groups after pregnancy: training (T), training and supplement (T+ S), supplement (S), and control (C) groups. The animals kept in standard laboratory conditions and their availability was free to food and water. S and T+S groups used supplemented food (600 mgr vitamin E and 1 gr vitamin C per Kg) and T and T+S groups participated in aerobic training on treadmill on overload principle. ANOVA used to analyzing data. Results showed there are not significant differences between GSH levels (P=0.054) and GPX activity (P=0.293) but SOD activity was different significantly (P=0.002). Pre and Post test comparision showed GSH were not different in groups but SOD activity were different in T (P=0.000), T+S (P=0.012) and S (P=0.001) groups. Also, GPX activity decreased in C group (P=0.036) but it increased in experimental three groups. Generally, study showed aerobic training, vitamin supplementation and training with supplementationcan increase antioxidative system capacity.
  • Rezaeenezhadn., Nazaralip., Rajabi, H Page 57
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intensity of warm on slow component of VO2 and cardiorespiratory index during submaximal exercise in the Iranian national female futsall players team. The participants of this study were ten Players of Iranian futsall national team (mean± SD age, 22.5±3.2yrs weight, 56.04±6.17kg height, 163±3.67cm body fat%, 23.5±3.8 BMI, 21.07±2.22kg/m2 VO2max, 46.05±4.61 ml.kg-1.min-1). After measuring of VO2- max and LT, the subjects performed two protocoles of warm up (moderate and heavy intensity) and one protocole without warm up before submaximal exercise (80%LT) in three separated sessions. Respiratory gas exchange measured by Gas Analyser during the exercise. Repeated measures were applied for statistical analysis. After moderate and heavy warm up, oxygen uptake in slow component reduced but not significantly due to without warmup (p<0.05). Also the result show between oxygen uptake and ventilation was posetive correlation (r=0.51). The results suggest that warm up causes improved the athletes performance via improved oxygen uptake and cardiorespiratory in slow component.
  • Nakhzareej., Mogharnasim., Haghighi, A.H Page 71
    Scientific findings show that interleukin-15 is a key factor in muscular hypertrophy and is known as a factor stimulating the growth of skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine the response and adaptation of interleukin-15 to resistance training of untrained young men. In order to conduct the study, 20 young men were randomly chosen and divided into two groups of experimental (n=12, weight of 65.2±10.71 kg) and control (n=8, weight of 59.8±11.4 kg). The experimental group performed resistance exercise 3 times per week for 8 weeks. This program consisted of 8 exercises, 3 sets, and each set 10 repetitions with 70% 1RM. The first blood sample was obtained before training and after 12- hour fasting. In order to assess the response, the second and third blood samples were obtained immediately one hour after the completion of the first resistance exercise session whichwas performed once with 70% 1RM. The last blood sam- ple was obtained after 8 weeks of exercise to assess the adaptation of the exercises applied to both experimental and control group with the same condition. The Data was analyzed by Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, repeated measure, post hoc tests of least significant difference (LSD) and t test. The results showed that there was not significantly difference between experimental and control groups regarding critical and delayed response of IL-15 on resistance training (p≥ 0.05).There was also no significantly difference between experimental and control group regarding the adaptation in resistance training(p≥0.05). But after 8 weeks of resistance training the strenght average of the experimental group increased significantly from that of control group(p≤0.05), and the cause of this increase probably could be related to biochemical adaptation and nervous system and it had nothing to do with changes in plasma levels of IL-15.
  • Jafari, A Page 81
    This study was conducted to determine effect of short- term garlic extract supplementation on plasma lactate and serum total creatine kinase in healthy men after an aerobic exercise. Twenty untrained men (age 25±3 years, body fat 15±2%, and VO2max 42±3 ml/kg/min) in a randomized and double-blind design were allocated in two equal groups: supplement group (700mg/day garlic) and placebo group (700mg/day dextrose). After 14 days supplementationperiod, all subjects were participated in an aerobic exercise protocol with 75% VO2max on the treadmill for 30 minutes. Plasma lactate and serum total creatine kinase were determined by automatic analyzers. Data were expressedas mean (±SD) and analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and independent t test using SPSS15 at α≤0.05. The results show that short-term garlic supplementation has no significant effect on basal parameters (P<0.05), whereas plasma lactate and serum CK were significantly increased after the aerobic exercise (P<0.05). However, the change range of lactate and CK after the aerobic exercise in supplementation group was less than in placebo group (P<0.05). Based on the results, it can be concluded that short-term garlic extract supplementation (14 days) can inhibit exercise-induced lactate and creatine kinase elevations (Fatigue and cellular damage) in male non-athletes.
  • Rahnaman., Namazizadehm., Etemadifarm., Bambaeichie., Arbabzadehs., Nazarian, A.B Page 95
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoga trainings on selected physical fitness factors in MS patients. Thirty women members of Isfahan MS association affected by MS with the weakness degrees of 1 to 5 voluntarily participated in this study and randomly divided into two groups of experimental group (height: 159.4±3.3 cm, weight: 59.1±11.3 kg, age: 31.1±9 yr) and control group(height: 161.9±4.6 cm, weight: 59.5±10.4 kg, age: 35.7±8.3 yr). At the beginning of the program, balance rate (Berg Balance Test), flexibility (Weles Test), functional endurance (6 min walking) and hand grip strength (Hand Dy namometer) were assessed, then the experimental groupperformed yoga trainings for 12 weeks (each week 2 sessions at the yoga class and one session at home), while the control group proceeded only their routine activities. After 12 weeks both groups were tested again. The covariance analysis was used to analyses data. A significant difference was observed for balance between pre-test and post-test in experimental group (P<0.05) but differences werent significant for control group (P<0.05).A significant difference was found for flexibility between pre and post tests in experimental group (P<0.05), but not in control group (P<0.05). A significant difference wasfond between the pre and post-test in functional endurance in the experimental group (P<0.05) but it wasnt significant for control group (P<0.05). Differences between pre and post tests for hand grips werent significant for both groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, balance, flexibility and functional endurance were improved in MS patients following 12 weeks yoga training. So, yoga trainings make considerable improvement in physical fitness factors of the women affected with MS. Therefore, by involving these patients in yoga trainings, it can help them to facilitate their routine activities through elevating their physical fitness factors and prevent from their more and faster disability.
  • Akradim., Abdulib., Farsi, A.R Page 107
    The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two practical approaches in term of practice order and cognitive effort amount on acquisition and retention of forehand skill. To do this 60 female university students randomly assigned to one of five groups (blocked, blocked-random, random, behavioral- decision and decision). After pretest, participants completed 360 Trial of forehand and chop in acquisition. After ten minutes, immediate retention and 24 hours later delayed retention test in a 20-trial block of forehand were conducted. Mixed ANOVA (groups 5) × (sessions 6) showed there is no difference between groups. Data analysis in delayed retention test showed a meaningful difference between groups. In conclusion mixed practice, because of blending high and low cognitive effort, had positive effect on retention.
  • Balzade, A.R., Tojarif., Kamkari, K Page 119
    The purpose of current study was to standardize the Persian version of coach-athlete questionnaire. All athletes and coaches participating in preparation camp prior to the Guangzhou 2010 Asian Games were formed statistical population of this research. They were belonged to group, individual, ball, racket, fighting, competitive and contact sports. 80 coaches and 174 athletes were selected as samples by exhaustive sampling non-random design. Measurement tool used was coach-relationship questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Cronbakh’s Alpha, Split-half (Spearman- Brown Correction Formula) and test-retest statistical methods were used in order to measure research hypothesis, validity, reliability values, internal consistency and stability of the questionnaire respectively. Finally, Mean and Standard Deviation were used in order to determine the quantitative norm; Cut of Point(quartile deviation) was used to determine the Qualitative norm. The results showed that coach-athlete relationship questionnaire possessed validity, reliability and norm. Constructive equations were used for complementary findings and showed Goodness of fit of the current questionnaire.