فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:4, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/01/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Saeed Afzali, Seyed Kazem Taheri, Mehri Jamilian, Parisa Eslambolchi Page 531
    Introduction
    Suicide or para suicide is one of the known complications all around the world that unfortunately has had an increasing trend in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between different phases of menstrual cycle and suicide attempts among suicidal women who referred to the Poisoning Ward of Farschian Hospital, Hamedan, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, all fertile women who had committed suicide with drugs or toxic chemical agents and had regular 4-week menstrual cycles were investigated in a 6-month period between September 2010 and March 2011. Data on menstrual cycles were collected and analyzed.
    Results
    A total of 81 cases aged between 15 and 55 years were investigated. Of these, 53.1% were married, 44.4% were housekeepers, 51.9% were under diploma, and 72.8% had committed suicide by drugs. The mean age of puberty (37%) was 13 and the patients had 7 days of bleeding. In terms of menstrual cycle phase, 48.1% were in luteal phase and 51.9% were in follicular phase.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study revealed that there is not a significant relationship between suicidal attempts and different phases of menstrual cycle.
  • Athena Rafieepour, Farshid Ghorbani Shahna, Zahra Hashemi, Farhad Ghamari Page 535
    Background
    Nanotechnology is a new approach that has been lionized in recent years. One of its applications is its consumption as an absorbent. In this study, the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were used as an absorbent for sampling benzene in the air.
    Materials And Methods
    For this study, SWCNTs manufactured by Iran and SKC’s activated charcoal were used for sampling benzene vapors. Preparation and analysis of the samples were done by carbon disulfide and GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector), respectively
    Results
    The results indicated that the performance of SWCNTs is less than conventional activated charcoal for sampling benzene vapors in the air
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed that the performance of SWCNTs in the sampling of benzene vapors in the air is very poor and, therefore, cannot be a good alternative to SKC’s activated charcoal.
  • Esmaili-Sari, Esmail Abdollahzadeh, Sharif Joorabian Shooshtari, Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri Page 541
    Background
    Mercury is widespread and persistent in the environment. One organic form of mercury, Methylmercury (MeHg), can accumulate in the food chain in aquatic ecosystems and lead to high concentrations of MeHg in fish, which, when consumed by humans, can result in an increased risk of adverse effects. Currently, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has established provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for total mercury at 5 µg/kg body weight and for methylmercury at 1.6 µg/kg body weight. Mercury concentration in blood or hair has been widely used for estimation of methylmercury exposure.
    Materials And Methods
    In this review article, we calculated methylmercury exposure from hair mercury levels among six subpopulations (i.e. students, dentists, dental nurses, women with amalgam fillings, pregnant women in Mahshahr, and Women of a port town, Mahshahr, Iran). Some of the experiments had been performed by this group in previous years.
    Results
    The mean exposure level (µg/kg bw/day) in three Iranian groups (dentists, pregnant women, and women in Mahshahr) was higher than RfD and PTWIs.
    Conclusion
    As people are exposed to methylmercury mainly through their diet, especially from fish and other marine species, pregnant women should reduce fish consumption, especially predatory fish, and dentists should use preventive measures (like masks and gloves).
  • Farzad Gheshlaghi, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Faranak Shafiei, Gita Montazery Page 548
    Background
    Poisoning, a common worldwide problem, seeks its own treatments to improve, especially by the forthcoming evidence based medicine (EBM). Charcoal/sorbitol slurry (CSS) administration is one of these methods with great debates around it which needs to be investigated more.
    Methods
    In this clinical trial, 105 cases of benzodiazepine toxicity with at least 3 symptoms and no contraindication for sorbitol prescription were divided into 3 groups. Patient grouping was based on the sorbitol manufacturing factory. Sorbitol was prescribed for the patients, with one kind of sorbitol for the patients of each group. The measured variable was the time passed up to the presence of charcoal-mixed stool and the gathered data were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS software.
    Results
    The average age was 25.8±8.4 in females and 24±8.5 years for males (P=0.641). The average follow up time was 8.3±3.1 hours for females and 8.1±2.7 hours for males (P=0.30). The average pass time from drug ingestion, was 46±23.15 min in females and 40±23.15 min in males (P=0.132). Interestingly, no sorbitol was able to increase in transit time in the study population despite a follow-up interval about 3 times more than expected (based on the reference).
    Conclusion
    No increase in transit time was seen by sorbitol prescription in our cases despite the appropriate follow-up interval. This ineffectiveness may be somehow due to the absence of standard sorbitol amounts in those products, but we assume that it is mainly due to the population-based bowel habits (i.e. constipated ones with essential prolonged transit time).
  • Vijay Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Vinay R. Hallikeri Page 551
    Background
    Brainstem hemorrhage was first described by Cheyne in 1812 in a pathological study of patients presenting with lethargy and coma. In 1877 Bode reviewed the findings of 67 patients reported in the literature (1). In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per year. The financial burden of head injuries in the United States is estimated to be $75-100 billion annually (4).
    Materials And Methods
    This cross-sectional study, the brainstem was studied by both gross and histopathological examinations.
    Results
    During a period between between July 1, 2010 and June 31, 2011, a total of 71 head injury cases were autopsied and brainstem hemorrhage was seen in 28 of them.
    Discussion
    Out of the 28 cases, most of the hemorrhages occurred in the midbrain (68%) and least in medulla oblongata (11%), while four cases had pontomedullary junction tearing and one of them presented presented cervicomedullary junction tearing.
    Conclusion
    Hemorrhages are usually the only evidence of injury to the brain-stem in those dying immediately or within a few hours. Failure to realize this has led to underestimation of the frequency of brain-stem hemorrhage after injury, and, indeed, to the frequency of brain-stem lesions of all kinds.
  • Morteza Rahbartaromsari, Ali Reza Badsar, Niloofar Akhoundzade, Farideh Oojaghi, Morteza Fallah Karkan Page 554
    Background
    Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore forming Bacterium clostridium. Food-borne botulism is one of the dangerous forms of food poisoning in the world. The purpose of this study was to survey some clinical presentations and laboratory findings in patients suspected with botulism toxicity that had received anti-botulism.
    Methods
    This descriptive-retrospective study was done on food-borne botulism poisoning cases admitted to the emergency ward and received anti-botulism at Razi Hospital of Rasht (north of Iran) during 2001-6. Completion of the questionnaire which included such variables as gender, age, clinical presentations, and laboratory data was based on the information available on the patients.
    Results
    Of the 31 patients that had taken anti botulism, 20 cases (64.5%) were male. Subjects were in age range of 19-55 and the mean of age was 34.5 years. Conserved foods (38.7%), salted caviar (32.3%), and fish (16.3%) were the main causes of botulism, respectively. The most common clinical symptom was vomiting (77.4%) and the most common neurological presentations were visual abnormalities (48.4%). Azotemia, leukocytosis, and leukopenia were seen in 3 cases (9.7%), in 2 cases (6.5%), and in 4 cases (12.9%), respectively.
    Conclusion
    Marine products (salted caviar and fish) have an important role in the incidence of botulism in Guilan. Botulism is seen in males more than females and its most common clinical manifestation is vomiting.
  • Hojjat Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hossein Mosavi, Mina Mirian, Saeed Kakhki, Afshin Zarghi Page 558
    Background
    Flavonoids have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, free radical scavenging, and anti-mutagenic.
    Methods
    The cytotoxic effects of three synthesized flavonoid derivatives (K3, K4 and K5) were evaluated against Hela, MDA-MB -231 and HT-29 cancer cells using MTT assay.
    Results
    The results showed that these flavonoids were not cytotoxic at any tested concentrations (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001 mM). To evaluate the possible synergistic effect of synthetic flavonoids with chemotherapeutic agent, the compound (K4) was examined against Hela and MDA-MB-231 cells in combination with different concentrations of doxorubicin (0.01 and 0.001mM). This combination treatment significantly increased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Synthesized flavonoids could be used either in combination therapy with other chemotherapeutic agents or used as antioxidants in food supplements.
  • Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh, Abdolreza Karbassi, Fereydoon Ghazaban, Akbar Baghvand Page 565
    Background
    Evaluation of heavy metals as toxic pollutants in environment has a significant importance in environmental pollution studies. surficial sediments of water resources have a high potential in releasing heavy metals to the upper water environment, hence sediment analysis presents guidelines to the authorities for monitoring the environmental systems.
    Methods
    In this study, total and fractional concentration of eight heavy metals (V, Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, As, Fe, and Pb) were investigated along different sites of Anzali Wetland in Iran using bulk elemental analysis and sequential chemical extraction techniques respectively. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Pollution Index (Ipoll) were computed and compared in different sites of the wetland, too.
    Results
    Total concentration of metals in sediment samples found to be in this order: Fe>As>Cr>Zn>Ni>V>Pb>Cd. The speciation data revealed that most metals were bonded in lithogenous fractions that means no pollution. Igeo results indicated that the wetland is moderately to highly polluted for Cd and As and Ipoll results showed that the wetland is moderately polluted for Pb and Cd were applied to metals also to investigate on Igeo and Ipoll results. For V, Ni, Cr, Zn and Fe, cluster analysis confirmed both indices but for As and Pb it confirmed Igeo results.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study showed that the Anzali wetland is threatened by pollutants related to rivers entering it. So to preserve the environment of the Anzali wetland from deterioration, the main act is to prevent the discharge of wastewater to rivers entering it.