فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:3, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/06/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zeynab Abedi, Mohammadkazem Khalesi, Sohrab Kohestan Eskandari, Hossein Rahmani Page 672
    Background
    The present study compared lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO3)2 between two scaled and scaleless freshwater fish species: Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) and Pangasius hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae).
    Methods
    The experimental fishes were obtained from fish markets/ponds with average lengths and weights of approximately 11.68 ±1.92 and 9.8±1.9 cm, and 25.92±6.3 and 18.61±3.22 g for C. carpio and P. hypophthalmus, respectively. The fishes were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100, 120, 200 mg L−1) lead (Pb) (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 90, 150 mg L−1), and chromium (Cr) (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg L−1) for 96 h. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature of aquaria as well as mortality rate of the fishes, were monitored daily.
    Results
    The 50% lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO3)2 for P. hypophthalmus were found at 64.89, 7.46, and 48.06 mg L−1, and those of CdCl 2, CrCl 3, Pb (NO3)2 for C. carpio were detected at 84.8, 17.05, and 77.33 mg L−1. The ratios of heavy metal toxicity factors (TF) were greater for common carp compared to those for the catfish.
    Conclusion
    Our preliminary findings suggest that common carp C. carpio with higher LC50 (and LC100) values appears to be more tolerant to heavy metals exposure than the catfish (P. hypophthalmus). This may be due to the resistance to the heavy metals through protection from the carp's scaled body versus scaleless body of the catfish
    Keywords: Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Fish Scales, 50% Lethality
  • Alireza Badsar, Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Nozar Sotodeh Foumani, Hannan Ebrahimi, Morteza Fallah Karkan Page 681
    Background
    Acetaminophen is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug and it is a frequent cause of acute drug poisoning.This study was carried out to investigate the demographic information and clinical and laboratory findings in acetaminophen poisoning patients referred to “17 Shahrivar” and “Razi” educational hospitals, Rasht.
    Methods
    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 125 patients with acetaminophen poisoning were studied. Descriptive data were analyzed by SPSS software.
    Results
    90 of the patients were women and the mean age of the patients was 21.5±9.06 years. Also, 72.8% of the patients were from urban areas and most of the patients (67.2%) lived in Rasht. Spring was the most common season for the incidence of poisoning. Suicide was the most common pattern of poisoning (91.2%). The mean time interval between poisoning and use of antidote N-acetylcysteine was 4.94±3.5 hours. The most common cause of delayed administration of antidote was failure in diagnosis of poisoning. Overall, 31.2% of the patients had no significant clinical manifestations. In other patients, nausea (50.4%) was the most common clinical symptom. The most common abnormal laboratory findings were prolonged prothrombin time and international normalized ratio (29%). Liver aminotransferases were elevated only in 18% of the patients.
    Conclusion
    Poisoning with acetaminophen was mainly found in women, 12-20 years of age, in urban areas and spring season. Suicide was the main reason of poisoning. Regarding the most common cause of delay in antidote therapy (failure in poisoning diagnosis), establishment of a toxicology laboratory in Guilan province can help the better management of poisoned patients.
    Keywords: Acetaminophen, Poisoning, Rasht, Suicide
  • Mostafa Delavar, Rita Ahmadi Araghi, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Mahdi Abdollahi, Behnoush Ansari Page 686
    Background
    Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories. The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products.
    Methods
    In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0.
    Results
    Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers.
    Conclusion
    Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.
    Keywords: Arak, Bulk Cargo, Pickled Cucumbers, Pickles, Preservative, Sodium Benzoate
  • Masoomeh Masoomi Karimi, Moslem Jafari Sani, Ali Zaree Mahmudabadi, Asma Jafari Sani, Seyed Reza Khatibi Page 691
    Background
    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals in our environment having a very strong ability to accumulate in body organs, especially in kidney. The present study was done to determine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in kidneys of rats exposed to cadmium.
    Methods
    Male rats (n=30), kept in standard conditions were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and treatment). The treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with Cd (300µm/kg) at hours 0, 6, 12, 24, 48. Twenty four hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were obtained. Then oxidative stress markers, malondialdehide (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed in homogenized kidney for studying their cytotoxicity. For genotoxicity and DNA damage studies, Comet assay was run on isolated kidney cells. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 15.
    Results
    MDA and GSH concentrations in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 287.01±37.30nmol/g.pr and 15.61±3.89µmol/g.pr and 609.24±87.87nmol/g.pr and 28.52±5.22µmol/g.pr, respectively. In addition, SOD activity in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 77.75±4.12 and 218.91±5.40 U/mg.pr, respectively. Comet assay results (content comet length, tail length, and head diameter) showed DNA breakage in the treatment group that was stimulated by Cd which was not seen in the control group.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrated the genotoxicity effect of Cd on kidney cells as well as the ability of Cd to producing cytotoxicity.
    Keywords: Cadmium, Comet Assay, DNA Damage, Kidney, Oxidative Stress
  • Samane Sattar, Gholamreza Asghari, Ali Akbar Ehsanpour Page 699
    Background
    Nicotiana tobacco contains large amounts of alkaloid nicotine. Tobacco plant is used for smoking and causes many health problems since it is high in nicotine which is one of the widely-recognized toxic compounds with serious side effects for different body organs. Reducing nicotine content of this plant is a way to reduce its health hazards in cigarette smokers. Utilizing the new methods of genetic engineering can modify nicotine levels in the plant. In this study, through transferring the blocking gene, the pathway of nicotine biosynthesis was blocked to produce transgenic tobacco with low levels of nicotine.
    Methods
    Transgenic plants carrying T DNA, and non-transgenic plants were grown on MS medium. Then their leaves were dried and powdered. The plants were extracted with alkali solution. Eventually, the nicotine content of the extract were analyzed using GC.
    Results
    The analysis of extracts showed a reduction in the nicotine content of the transgenic plant (contain T-DNA) in comparison with non-transgenic plants.
    Conclusion
    Tobacco with lower nicotine reduction can reduce the toxic effects of smoking on smokers and can facilitate withdrawal from it.
    Keywords: Nicotine, Non, Transgenic Tobacco, Tobacco, Toxicity, Transgenic
  • Mohammad Shokrzadeh Lamuki, Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, Nasrin Otadi Page 704
    Background
    Pesticides are essential in modern agricultural practices but due to their biocide activity and potential risk to the consumer, the control of pesticide residues in foods is a growing source of concern for the general population. Extensive application of such agents as organochlorine pesticides in farmlands and contemporary agricultural industries has led to undesired environmental contamination and human health hazards. Thus, this study attempted to evaluate and analyze the residual values of the organochlorine insecticide D.D.T and its metabolite D.D.A in the four species of most consumed fish collected from the Caspian Sea.
    Methods
    In this investigation, concentrations of residual values of D.D.T and D.D.A were quantitatively determined in the 4 species of fish sampled from 4 major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities and Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in Mazandaran province, Iran, using gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC–ECD) in 2008.
    Results
    The results showed that the highest values of D.D.T were in Mugil auratns (0.033±0.008 mg/kg) and Rutilus frisikutum (0.031±0.007 mg/kg) fishes collected from Babolsar sampling center.
    Conclusion
    Concentrations of D.D.T and D.D.A in the fish were found to be less than the standard permissible intake.
    Keywords: Caspian Sea, D.D.A, D.D.T, Fish, Organochlorine Pesticide
  • Fakhreddin Taghaddosi, Nejad, Meysamie Alipash, Shahin Shadnia, Mahmoud Ghazi, Hosein Hasanian, Arash Okazi Page 709
    Background
    Fatalities from acetaminophen poisoning are common, but they are preventable by timely treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In many medical centers, NAC is prescribed in keeping with the ingested dose of the drug as revealed through medical history. It seems to significantly differ from the real indications of NAC administration based on plasma level of acetaminophen. Overtreatment increases adverse drug reactions and it is time- consuming and costly.
    Methods
    Acetaminophen plasma level was checked by HPLC method in 170 admitted patients who had history of acute ingestion of more than 7.5 g acetaminophen within 4 to 24 hours prior to hospital admission. Indications for NAC prescription according to patient’s history and adaptation from acetaminophen plasma level in Romack-Mathew nomogram were matched. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0.
    Results
    Mean age of the patients was 21.8±6.05 years. In 75.8% of the patients, poisoning had occurred after suicidal attempts. Acetaminophen plasma level was between less than 2 and 265 μg/ml (18.7±28.88, mean± SD). Only in 18 (10.6%) cases, overtreatment had been performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the number of suicidal attempts, number of ingested pills, and time of referral had positive relationships with acetaminophen plasma level.
    Conclusion
    If NAC is prescribed only based on patient's medical history, overtreatment may take place.
    Keywords: Acetaminophen, Plasma level, Poisoning
  • Musa Toyinyakubu, Babasoji Percy Omoniwa Page 716
    Background
    Massularia acuminata has been claimed to be used in managing several ailments in folk medicine and in some instances substantiated with scientific data. This however has been without recourse to its safety. Therefore, aqueous stem extract of M. acuminata was evaluated for its effects on some function indices of the liver of male rats.
    Methods
    Sixty, male rats were grouped into 4 (A, B, C and D) such that Group A (control) was orally administered 1cm3 of distilled water while those in groups B, C and D received orally 1 cm3 of extract corresponding to 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight respectively. Some biochemical parameters of liver function were evaluated in the animals after 1, 7 and 21 daily doses.
    Results
    The extract significantly decreased (P<0.05) the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the liver of rats throughout the experimental period. This decrease was accompanied by corresponding increase in the serum enzyme. In contrast, all the doses of the extract increased the activities of both the AST and ALT in the liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as the concentrations of serum total bilirubin, protein and albumin.
    Conclusion
    This study has revealed that the aqueous stem extract of Massularia acuminata at the doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight hampered the normal functioning of the liver of male rats and is therefore not safe for oral consumption at the doses investigated.
    Keywords: Functional Indices, Hepatotoxicity, Massularia acuminata, Rubiacea, Safety