فهرست مطالب

زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ایران - سال هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1391)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/02/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • A.R.Pazoki, H.Rezaei, D. Habibi, F.Paknejad Page 1
    Due to study the effect of drought stress, ascorbate and gibberellin foliar application on some morphological traits, relative water content and cell membrane stability, an experiment was done as factorial in the basis of completely randomized design in 4 replication during 2012 in Islamic Azad university shahr-e-Rey branch and pakdasht Region. Irrigation in 3 levels (1/3 FC, 2/3 FC and FC), ascorbate in 2 levels (0 and 10 mM) and gibberellin in 2 levels (0 and 10 mM). The results indicated that instead of ascorbate and gibberellin double interaction and drought stress and gibberellin on effects Root length, drought stress and Ascorbate on relative water content and cell membrane stability, triple interaction effects on branch number per plant and cell membrane stability, the others were significant. The triple interaction effect results indicated that, 10 mM ascorbate and gibberelline foliar application in FC irrigation condition gained to maximum amounts of root dry weight (0.72g), shoot dry weight(0.45), branch numper per plant(20), leaf area (50.21 cm2) and leaf dry weight (0.20 g) as the main elements of thyme essential oil production. Ascorbate and gibberellin application in both stress and non stress conditions increased RWC and reduced cell membrane leaching as the main indicator of cell membrane stability.
    Keywords: Thyme, ascorbate, gibberellin, drought stress, morphological raits, relative water content, cell membrane stability
  • A. Akhtari, M. Moez Ardalan, A. Tavasoli, A. Bybordi Page 15
    An experiment was conducted at the green house of agricultural researching station of E. Azarbayjan in 2009. A factorial experiment using completely randomized design with five levels of N (0, 125, 250, 375 and 437.5 kg.ha-1). At growing period factors of quality and quantity are examined. The characters such as: yield, length leaf, dry matter weight, length of tuber was measured and noted and after the end of sampling, amounts of nutrients of N, P, K and nitrate were measured that the conclusion of research is as fallows.By the increasing of N levels, tuber yield increase significantly as levels of 250 kg N.ha-1 increased the tuber tield but in the levels of 375 kg N.ha-1 decreased the yield.Accumulated NO3- N was increased by increasing N-fertilizer in tuber of radish as in 437.5 kg N. ha-1 level reach the amount maximum.
    Keywords: Nitrate accumulation, nitrogen, green house, radish
  • F.Chamani, N.Khodabande, D.Habibi, A.Asgharzade, M.Davoodi Fard Page 25
    Saline stress is major human problems that thousands of years since. So that saline stress can reduce ability crops produce on land count. Saline soils in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran and developed a level equivalent to 15 million hectares of country covers.The effects of salinity on yield and yield components in wheat inoculated with Plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid, an experiment was conducted in 2010 at research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture and plant breeding, Islamic Azad University of Karaj Branch. A completely randomized design with three replications was using analysis of factorial. experimental treatments included two levels of humic acid: (A0): control, (A1): humic acid consumption, and salinity levels in the three levels of: (B0): control, (B1): low salinity of 75 mM, (B2): high salinity of 150 mM, the use of microorganisms in the five levels of: (C0): control, (C1): grain inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum, (C2): grain inoculation with Azotobacter chroocccum, (C3): grain inoculation with Pseudomonase putida, (C4): the mix grain inoculation with (Azotobacter chroocccum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonase putida).The results showed the effect of grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid consumption during exercise salinity on grain yield and spike yield was significant.The highest grain yield and spike yield of treatments inoculated with azetobacter chroocccum bacteria and humic acid no consumption and the salinity was 75 mM was.
    Keywords: Wheat, plant growth promoting bacteria, humic acid, salinity, grain yield
  • E. Ghasemi, Mr. Tookalloo, Hr. Zabihi Page 39
    In order to study the effects of nitrogen, potassium and acid humic fertilizer on nitrogen and potassium on the uptake in potato variety Savalan, factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was performed in six repeats. In experiment, factor, A includes three levels of urea (0, 100 and 200 kg/ ha) was applied at the time of planting and for time on stem elongation, factor B involves three levels of K fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg/ ha) at planting time and includes two levels of factor C humic acid fertilizer (non sprayed and sprayed two liters per hectare) a week before the week was used in the soil. The results showed that the highest leaf area, plant height, shoot dry weight, number of leaves and spad in the application of treatments and 200 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer application treatments used 100 kg/ha of potassium was observed. Used in all traits studied humic acid was increased from the control treatment, so that the application of acid humic has caused increased 10 percent in the leaf number and 28 percent increase dry weight root than control. Based on the results said that the humic acid application with nitrogen and potassium fertilizer can increase crop production.
    Keywords: Nitrogen, potassium, humic acid, potato minituber, greenhouse
  • F. Aghayari Page 57
    According to needs, many models have been developed for simulation of soil water and crop yields. MEDIWY is one of these models which presented for simulation of yield for Adle winter wheat under irrigated and rainfed conditions in Badjgah area. Therefore it was tried to consideration of the water balance submodel of MEDIWY model because of needs and useful of MEDIWY model. LEACHW is a model, which is able to simulate soil water movement in different soil layers. In present study water balance submodel of MEDIWY model and LEACHW model in Maragheh area (Eastern Azarbayjan province) were compared. The LEACHW and MEDIWY models for simulation of soil water contents were compared. Mean error between measured and predicted soil water contents in LEACHW and MEDIWY models was between 1.52 to 3.31 and 9.12 to 14.22 percent, respectively. The LEACHW model was able to estimate relatively accurate results comparing with MEDIWY model. Therefore, use of LEACHW model instead water balance submodel of MEDIWY model, can be useful to simulation of wheat yield.
    Keywords: Simulation of Soil water, Wheat, MEDIWY Model, Maragheh area
  • H. Madani A. Moradi Aghdam, T. Taherkhani Page 71
    Twelve seed samples of wheat were examined in this studied that they were from Pishtaz and Chamran. All seeds were elite category and the germination and seed vigor tests include cold test, germination under low temperature, aging, electrical conductivity, Ttrazolium, speed of germination, mean germination time and seedling length were studied. So, climate data from each region were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance of germination in wheat germination test every 12 samples showed the difference in climate between different parts of a seed affected seed production was not affected. Based on the average percentage of seed germination was between 98 to 100%. These measurements show the seed germination test is general. They cannot produce elite seeds of possible differences between the various states in the region to separate from each other. But the test results were pretreated seeds germinate the seeds with cold, zero degrees Celsius respectively. Dry wheat seeds for the first time from zero to 25 hours 5 minutes. That they seed were treated. The effect of seed production area and cold periods and interaction effects had Pishtaz significant impact on results. Other results showed that the electrical conductivity between different regions of the wheat seed production both for seed locked and second, Pishtaz seeds had significant differences were observed. So, that most of the seeds that cause cell damage, the highest electrical conductivity of the electrolyte solution in the cell were for Chamran cultivar reproduced in Haji Abad was 890 micrsimense per cm, and for Pishtaz seed in the Bakhtiari region was 680 microsimense per cm, respectively. Top seed tissues for cell membrane stability in kohkiloye Boirahmad, Chamran cultivars were reproduced. This index for a seed was observed in Arak. The proliferation of both varieties and certified seed locked into place amplification showed a different response. These seeds can cause changes in climate and weather of the year is the proliferation of these seeds. So it can be stated that the influence of physiological parameters in different regions of the country can produce seed on some characteristics of wheat seed had a significant impact. So, only certain tests can be distinguished. These tips on choosing sustainable strategies for zoning and climatic zones of the country will affect the suitability of wheat seed.
    Keywords: Elite seed, winter wheat, seed testing, seed lot
  • L. Rezakhani, A. Golchin, S. Shafiee Page 87
    In order to study the effects of different levels of soil available Cu and Cd on growth and chemical composition of spinach, a factorial experiment with completely randomized design and three replications was conducted in greenhouse of Zanjan Agricultural Research Center. In this experiment factorial combinations of five levels of Cu (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg soil) and five levels of Cd (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg soil) were used as 25 treatments using cadmium and copper sulfate to artificially contaminate soil samples.The results of the experiment showed that with increase in available form of soil copper up to 10 mg/kg the fresh and dry weights of plants increased but when the concentration of soil Cu increased to 20 or 40 mg/kg the fresh and dry weights of spinach decreased significantly. Increase in available form of soil cadmium up to 20 mg/kg increased the dry weight of aerial parts in spinach but higher concentrations of this element decreased the spinach biomass significantly. The Cu concentration of leaf increased as the available form of soil Cu increased. Increase in soil available form of Cu up 10 mg/kg increased Cd content of leaf but higher concentrations of soil Cu decreased leaf concentration of Cd significantly. With increase in available form of soil Cu the leaf concentrations of Zn and Mn decreased. The Fe concentration of leaf increased when the concentration of soil Cu increased up to 20 mg/kg but at higher concentrations of soil Cu it decreased significantly. With increase in available form of soil Cd up to 40 mg/kg the Cd content of leaf increased but at higher concentrations of soil Cd the concentration of Cd in leaf decreased significantly. With increase in concentration of soil Cd the leaf concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and P decreased but that of Fe increased significantly.
    Keywords: Spinach, cadmium, copper, soil pollution
  • M. Davoodi Fard, D. Habibi, F. Davoodi Fard Page 101
    Drought is recently the major abiotic stress for plants because beside of crop rate, it causes restriction of water and useable land for agriculture. Many investigations showed that plant growth promoting, silicic acid and amino acids decreased several stresses including drought in plants. irrigation factor at two levels includes a1: control, a2: cut irrigation after flowering stage anol the second experimental treatment at the five levels includes: b1: control, b2: seed inoculated with bacteria (Azospirillum، Azotobacter، Pseudomonase), b3: seed inoculated with bacteria (Azospirillum، Azotobacter، Pseudomonase) and sprayed silicic acids, b4: seed inoculated with bacteria (Azospirillum، Azotobacter، Pseudomonase) and sprayed amino acids, b5: seed inoculated with bacteria (Azospirillum، Azotobacter، Pseudomonase) and sprayed silicic acids with amino acids in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates using analysis of split plot. Results showed that the drought stress reduced the traits measured but seed inoculated with the plant growth promoting, sprayed silicic acid and amino acids Both in terms of normal irrigation and drought stress conditions traits chlorophyll a, b, height, spike yield and seed yield increased. Also seed inoculated with the plant growth promoting and Consumption combined silicic acid and amino acid seed yield relative to control in terms of normal irrigation and drought stress, respectively %27/76 and %44/64 increase.
    Keywords: Plant growth promoting bacteria, drought stress, amino acids, silicic acid, seed yield
  • M. Esfini Farahani*, F. Paknejad, A. Kashani, M. R. Ardakani, M. Bakhtiari Moghadam, M. Rezaei Page 115
    Recent years researches have indicated that methanol as a carbon source for C3 crops, lead to increase their yield and growth. In order to evaluate effect of methanol spraying on yield and yield components of sunflower (Azargol) under different moisture conditions, a factorial split plot experiment was done within a randomized complete block design with four replications was done at research field of Islamic Azad University of Karaj in May 2010. The first factor was drought stress in three levels, based on depletion of 40% (normal irrigation) and 75% (drought stress) of available soil moisture. The second factor was application time of methanol in two levels (in the morning and in the evening). The third factor was different concentrations of methanol spraying equal to 0 (control), 14, 21 and 28 volumetric percentage (v/v), which control plot sprayed just with water only. First and second factor were arranged as factorial on main plots and the third factor was as split on sub plots. The result showed that seed yield, biological yield, thousand seed weight, number of seed per head and number of empty seed per head had significant different (P<0/01) as well as harvest index has significant different (P<0/05). Normal irrigation treatment with average of 3527/9 kg/ha compared with drought stress treatment showed 36% increase in seed yield. Also methanol 21% concentration treatment with average 3099/70 kg/ha lead to 12% increase in seed yield compared with control treatment. Highest level of seed yield obtained in normal irrigation, in combination with spraying with methanol 21% concentration in the evening with average of 4095/00 kg/ha that lead to 23% increase in seed yield when compared to control treatment. Also lowest level of seed yield was obtained in drought stress, in combination with in spraying with methanol 0% concentration in the morning with average of 1863/75 kg/ha.
    Keywords: Sunflower, methanol, irrigation, time of spraying, methanol concentration
  • S.Oroojnia, D.Habibi, D.F.Taleghani, S.Safari Dolatabadi, A.Pazoki, P.Moaveni, M.Rahmani, M.Farshidi Page 127
    To evaluate the effects of drought stress on different varieties of sugar beet on experiment was conducted in 2009 at the research field of sugar beet seed institute in Kamal Abad, Karaj(latitude 35, 59 North and longitude 50, 75 East with 1313 m upper sea level). The experiment was a split plot with a randomized complete block design using four replicates. The main plots were the levels of irrigation with two levels(normal irrigation and irrigation time after 180mm evaporation of pan class A) and subplot with 15 varieties of sugar beet. Root yield, sugar yield, white sugar yield, sugar content, Na, K, N, white sugar content, ESC, alkalite and molasses were calculated. Results demonstrated significant effects of two factors of this experiment on all of characterstics. The normal irrigation increased 35.1% of root yield of sugar beet to compare of drought stress. In between varieties treatment in respect of root yield was significant effect. The highest root yield(variety 4) and the lowest root yield (variety 5) had different root yield at 56.37%. Among the varieties, the highest white sugar yield belonged to variety 11 and the lowest of white sugar yield belonged to variety 5.
    Keywords: Sugar beet, drought stress, variety, root yield, sugar content
  • M. Ramezani, R. Rezaei Sokht, Abandani Page 145
    In order to study the effects of priming and time on the germination of winter rape (Sarigol), as factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomaized design (CRD) with 3 replications in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Mazandaran Province (Sari) in 2011. Factors included poly ethylone glycol (PEG 6000) with the concentration of 5 and 10 %, potassium nitrate (KNO3) with the concentration of 1 and 2 % and potassium chloride (KCl) with the concentration of 2 and 4 % for the times of 2, 4 and 6 hours. The results showed that speed of germination and seedling length by the priming solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration of 5 % was achieved with 2 hours. The highest and lowest number of normal seedling, related to polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration of 5 % with 2 hours respectively as well as potassium chloride (KCl) concentration of 4 % were with 6 hours. Lowest germination in polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a concentration of 10% was obtained with 6 hours. Vigor I and II index highest as well as by priming with polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration of 5 % were with 2 hours.
    Keywords: Winter rape, seed priming, germination rate, vigor I, II indexes
  • M. Tarighaleslami*, R. Zarghami, M. Mashadi Akbar Boojar, M. Oveysi Page 161
    A field Experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement with 4 replications during 2009 growing season to study the impact of Effect of Nitrogen fertilizer and water deficit stress on physiological indexes of corn (Zea mays L.). The main plots allotted to four irrigation regimes (T1=50, T2=100, T3= 150, T4= 200 mm evaporation from the surface of evaporation basin); sub plots allotted to 4 nitrogen amounts (N1=80, N2=130, N3=180 Kg N ha-1). Physiological indicators of growth were affected by drought. With increasing drought evaporation of 50 mm to 200 mm of evaporation basin evaporation pan evaporation increased considerably in the amount of LAI, plant growth rate, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic production or net uptake, leaf area ratio and weight ratio leaves emerged. With increasing drought of 50 to 100 mm of evaporation and evaporation basin 150 to 200 mm evaporation from class A evaporation basin A significant difference was observed. Test results showed that with increasing from 80 to 180 kg per ha nitrogen significant increase in the amount of leaf area index, plant growth rate occurred. Among the indicators of physiological growth net absorption analysis, the ratio of leaf area and leaf weight ratio less affected by nitrogen fertilizer was used. Considering the importance of leaf area index, plant growth rate and relative growth rate in the performance increase can conclude that major part of the yield thus reducing drought stress, related to improving physiological can be mentioned.
    Keywords: Corn, water stress, nitrogen, yield, physiological indexes
  • M. Azimi, M. Khodarahmi, M. R. Jalal Kamali Page 175
    Some of the important agronomic characteristics were evaluated in 50 spring bread wheat genotypes under terminal drought stress and non-stress conditions-using alpha-lattice design with two replications. The experiments were carried out in Experimental Field Station, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran, in 2009-2010 cropping season. Measured traits, including maturity, maturity, days to anthesis, days to heading, grain filling rate, grain filling duration, plant height, length, second internode length, bulge out peduncle, peduncle length, spike length, grain weight a spike, grain number per spike, harvest index, seed weight, ear number per square meter, biological yield, grain yield, respectively. Terminal drought stress conditions and stress analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the yield on the 1% level is. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis and varimax rotation showed that first six factors overall justified 74.96% of variations in the studied variables and explained 77.03% of all observed variation in non-stress conditions. Simple correlation coefficients were calculated stress conditions indicate that the most positive and significant correlation with grain yield to biological yield and related traits in non-stress test spike is square. Cluster analysis was performed based on UPGMA method to classify the genotypes resulting in 5 and 4 groups in response to drought stress and non stress condition respectively.
    Keywords: Bread wheat, grain yield, yield components, factor analysis, cluster analysis
  • P. Zamani, R. Mesbah, N.Hossein Zadeh, A.R.Mahdavi Page 195
    In order to evaluate qualitative and quantitative characteristics and select one or several suitable varieties, this study carried out with 13 treatments and 3 replications in RCBD. The results of analysis combined variance(in during 2 years) showed that there were significant different among tobacco genotypes for characters;dry yield, price of 1 kilo, income per hectare, number and width of leaf, day to flowering and nicotine percentage at 1% probability level, plant height and leaf lenght at 5% probability level. According to results of mean comparison, NC7, HB4124p, NC6, HB4105p and KY907 genotypes Respectively with 3918, 3862, 3758, 3761 and 3728 kg/ha had most dry yield, burley21(check variety) with 2904 kg/ha ranked as the last. The most price of 1kg belongs to HB4105(13930Rials) and TN90LC(13650Rials) genotype, the less price of 1 kilo was in HB4124p genotype. According to income per hectare(price of 1kg * dry yield) NC7, HB4105p, NC6, NC3, O3FZ13 and ky907 genotypes were better than another genotypes, Burley 21 had less income per hectare.Generally According to income per hectare and the infection rate of Virus diseases in during 2 years, three varieties were better and selected that include NC7, HB4105p and O3FZ13 (Respectively with 44, 40, 26% increase income than Burley21).
    Keywords: Burley tobacco, male, sterile, nicotine
  • P. Farahani Pad, F. Paknejad, F. Fazeli, M.N.Ilkaee, M. Davoodi Fard Page 203
    Selection of cultivars with high genetic potential and favorable climatic adaption in each region and exact planting date for maximum utilization of effective factors are the necessary management for increase of crop yield. Therefore, the effect of planting dates of 19 May, 29 May, 8 June and 18 June on yield and yield components of four intermediate soybean cultivars i.e. Williams, Zan, L17 and M7 was studied in a randomized complete blocks design with four replicates. Analysis of variance showed that planting date affects on harvest index, total biomass and seed per plant. Effects of cultivar on harvest index, seed weight and seed number per plant were significant (p≤0.01). Interaction of planting date and cultivar on harvest and seed number per plant was significant (p≤0.01). Increase of planting date of 29 May and Cv. Williams had the most harvest index. Seed number per plant on 29 May (61.6) was significant. Seed number per plant in cvs Williams and M7 were significant. Average of seed number per plant on 29 May in cvs Williams and M7 and also, on 8 June in Cv. Williams were significant. Seed weight in Cv. M7 was the least. 8 June had the highest total biomass.
    Keywords: Intermediate cultivars, planting date, seed yield, yield components
  • R. Nasri, A. Kashani, F. Paknejad, M. Sadeghi, Shoae, S. Ghorbani Page 213
    This research was conducted to investigation of traits correlation and the cause and effect relationship among some traits and yield component in sugar beet in salt conditions, the research was conducted in the experimental field of Agriculture Faculty of Ahvaz University. The experimental design was split plot based on RCBD with three replications in determine the most important Affecting sugar yield of sugar beet (beta vulgaris) in saline soil. Main plot were two planting treatment (direct and paper pot transplanting), and sub plot were 3 cultivar (BR1 technical monogerm, monodora and BR1 moltigerm). Results showed that the simple effect of cultivation methods had significant difference and paper pot cultivation was better than direct cultivation. paper pot cultivation had sugar percentage more than direct cultivation. The highest sugar yield obtained in cultivation. According to the results the highest positive correlation between root weight and other traits depended on total fresh and dry weight and root dry weight respectively. Root yield had negative correlation with net and gross sugar percentage, and positive correlation with other traits. To remove the effects of ineffective or low impact from the performance characteristics of sugar beet roots in the regression model was used stepwise regression. In this article the important traits of sugar beet yield included root dry weight, total fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, and collar fresh weight. R2 of model was 0.9994, which means those traits can justify approximately 100 percent variation of root yield. Result of path analysis had showed fresh weight has the most direct and positive effect on produced root and by root dry weight and indirect and negative collar fresh weight traits and by total fresh weight indirect effect on yield. There was a positive correlation among accessible sugar with total dry weight and root fresh weight. Accessible sugar put three traits in to regression model based on stepwise regression model and this variation justify sugar. Root fresh weight can justify only 0.91 variations. Based on path analysis root fresh weight had direct and positive effect and sugar percent had the lowest direct and negative effect on accessible root yield.
    Keywords: Path analysis, stepwise regression, sugar beets, paper pot cultivation, quantity, quality