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زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ایران - سال هشتم شماره 2 (تابستان 1391)
  • سال هشتم شماره 2 (تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/04/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • A. Mehraban, G. Noor Mohammady, S. Vazan, M.R. Ardakani, H. Heydary Sharifaba Page 1
    Although plants are always in threat by different elements but natural factors like microorganisms could be there saver in deferent conditions. as today using mushroom coexistence like mycorrizal white different plant weeds play a vital role in agricultural ecosystems. the special characteristics of micoriza mushroom like less expectations and plant resistance to steers factors courses the scientists to have in mind the use of it in stress environments. therefore for study purposes of the different effects of mycorrhizal incolution variation in the growth characteristics of some variation of sargom, an experiment using factorial system white complete blacks and randomness white four repetitions was done in Sistan Agricultural Research Center in sparing of 2007.hand planting was done in lines, theharvest and nersue work was done in the custom of the area and characteristics of the revenue and elements where measured. at the End the data was logic Ted using MSTATC Software. the results show that most characteristics that where tested coexistence of micoriza and variations has great meaning and the best results where in GOETANICATUM & KGS 29 in all of the variations been studied. Also the results showed that there is significant differences between cultivar of sorghum and using mycorrhiza on plant height, number of seed in spike, biomass, root colonization also the result indicates that in order augmentation of plant growth and crop yield it is necessary to choose the most effective fungus species. But. G. etunicatum species were best mycorrhiza strains among other administered ones.
    Keywords: mycorrhiza, symbiosis, sorghum variety, sistan
  • A. A. Mousavi Boogar, M. Jahansouz, M. Mehrvar, R. Hosseinipur, R. Madadi Page 11
    The aim of study was to determine the effect of tillage systems on soil moisture, soil properties and grain yield of irrigated wheat. this experiment was carried out using RCBD in split-plot arrangement including 9 treatments and 4 replicates. The studied soil related physical parameters were volumetric moisture content (VMC), bulk density (BD) and soil porosity (SP) along with the grain yield of irrigated wheat genotypes. The treatments consisted of tillage systems in three levels related to conventional, reduced and no-till methods as main plots and three wheat cultivars of Pishtaz, Pishgam and Bahar as sub-plots. According to ANOVA results main plots effect on BD in 0-15 cm top soil layer was significant (P<0.01), and conventional method had the minimum BD, while BD increased in 15-30 cm soil layer, but its amount was less in conventional method comparing to other tillage treatments. Main plots treatment had significant effect on SP and its largest measured amount (57/71%) was observed in 0-15 cm soil layer related to conventional method and the smallest amount of SP (43.9%) was measured in no-till method. Based on the results, measured VMC in 2nd and 5th days after irrigation in wheat log-phase growth stage were 0.63 and 0.34 g cm-3 in conventional and no-till methods, respectively. In the interaction between tillage systems and wheat cultivars, the overall grain yield of Pishtaz cultivar in conventional tillage (5833) was significantly higher than the other two methods (P<0.01) on the other hand the mean grain yield of Pishgam cultivar (5045), (4023) kg/ha was significantly higher than the other two cultivars in no-tillage and minimum tillage respectively compared to the conventional tillage (P<0.01).
    Keywords: Bulk density, porosity, volumetric moisture content, grain yield
  • E. Hemmati, S. Vazan, M. Sadeghi, Shoae Page 21
    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200,300,400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. The result illustrated that all weed spices, showed a positive response to the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer. The lowest weed biomass production was observed with nitrogen application rate of 200 kg ha. The responses of corn yield to N rate were similar to those of weeds as there was a close relationship between weed biomass productions and corn yields. Overall, given the economical costs and environmental consequences of fertilizer, recommended a N application rate of 300 kg ha with pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns (two rows) in term of both acceptable weed control and obtaining a high corn yield (almost 10 ton per hectare).
    Keywords: Nitrogen rate, weeds management, maize
  • F. Aghayari, S. Vazan, A. Najiyan Tabriz, M.A. Karbalaei Page 33
    In order to study the effect of living mulch on cowpea weed management in sorghum, a factorial experiment was carried out in the research farm of Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch based on randomized complete block design with three replications. First factor was density of cowpea on three levels, optimum density (160,000 plants per hectare), 33% and 66% more than optimum density. The second factor was time of suppression of growth of cowpea in four levels, 6, 8, 10 and 12 leaves stages of sorghum(using herbicide 2,4-D) plus control treatment(weed free). Weight of weeds in the first and second harvests was measured. The result of ANOVA showed that effect of cowpea density and suppression time of cowpea growth on total dry weight of weeds was significant in both harvests. The interactions between density and suppression time of cowpea growth on total weight of weeds were not significant in first sorghum harvest but were significant in second harvest. Results of mean comparison showed that cowpea density of 66% more than optimum, has the lowest total dry weight of weeds in the first and second harvests. The result of suppression time of cowpea growth showed that the best time in terms of decreasing dry weight of weeds is until 10 leaves stage of sorghum for both first and second harvests. The interactions between density and suppression time of cowpea growth showed that lowest total dry weight of weeds is in the cowpea density of 66% more than optimum and until 10 leaves stage of sorghum. Therefore, if cowpea with plant population of about 260,000 per hectare is used as cover crop, and then converted to mulch at 10 leave stage of sorghum, it can be effective in the integrated weed management system.
    Keywords: Weed dry weight, living mulch suppressing time, cover crop
  • D. Habibi, F. Taleghani, M. Davoodi Fard, S. Vazan, F. Chamani Page 45
    Effects of salinity on growth and changes biochemical biomarkers activity in wheat inoculated with Plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid, an experiment was conducted in 2010 at research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture and plant breeding, Islamic Azad University of Karaj Branch. A completely randomized design with three replications was using analysis of factorial. experimental treatments included two levels of humic acid {(A0): control, (A1): humic acid consumption}, and salinity levels in the three levels of {(B0): Control, (B1): Low salinity of 75 mM, (B2): high salinity of 150 mM}, the use of microorganisms in the five levels of {(C0): Control, (C1): grain inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum, (C2): grain inoculation with Azotobacter chroocccum, (C3): grain inoculation with Pseudomonase putida, (C4): the mix grain inoculation with (Azotobacter chroocccum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonase putida)}.The results showed the effect of grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid consumption during exercise salinity on Grain yield, Malondialdehede, Dityrosine and Dihydroxy guanosine was significant.The highest grain yield of treatments inoculated with Azetobacter chroocccum bacteria and humic acid no consumption and the salinity was 75 mM, and Most of Malondialdehede with the treatment non grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and Humic acid consumption and salt stress of 150 mM was. And Most of Dityrosine with the treatment non grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid no consumption and salt stress of 150 mM was, while the highest Dihydroxy guanosine with the Pseudomonase putida and Humic acid consumption and salt stress of 150 mM was.
    Keywords: wheat, Lipid damage, Protein damage, Humicacid, Salinity
  • S. Kh. Rohani, S. Samavat, M. Maez, Ardalan Page 61
    Cadmium is one of the contaminant elements which inter to the soil in different ways like fertilizer. Many researchers reported the beneficial effects of zeolite on soil remediation. For this purpose a factorial experiment in complete randomized block design with two treatment, zeolite at three levels (0,1 and 2 ton.ha-1) and Cadmium at three levels (0,3 and 6 mg/kg) with three replication on lettuce plant was conducted. The results showed that to enhancing Zeolite application, Cadmium concentration declined in root and shoot. This result demonstrated that Cd had negative effect on growth of plants, however Zeloite had positive effect Also, it concluded that the most effective treatment on decreasing Cadmium concentration was obtained with 2 ton.ha-1 zeolite.
    Keywords: Zeolit, Cadmium, yield, lettuce
  • M.Davoodifard, D.Habibi, F.Davoodifard Page 71
    Salinity is one of the main obstacles to the production of crops in dry regions of the world Crop yield to the influence of the different methods. Reduction in leaf area as the effect of salinity, Potential for plant photosynthesis hash will work. Similarly, degradation of chlorophyll by the toxic ions from including sodium, photosynthesis would decrease, and humic acid, as an organic acid obtained from humus and organic sources without any environmental destructive effects and Plant growth promoting bacteria through the effects of hormonal and nutrient improve uptake to raise grain yield in wheat, especially in terms of salinity can be effective. For this purpose an experiment was conducted in 2010 at research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture and plant breeding, Islamic Azad University of Karaj Branch. A completely randomized design with three replications was using analysis of factorial. experimental treatments included two levels of humic acid: (A0): control, (A1): humic acid consumption, and salinity levels in the three levels of: (B0): control, (B1): Low salinity of 75 mM, (B2): high salinity of 150 mM, the use of microorganisms in the five levels of: (C0): control, (C1): grain inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum, (C2): grain inoculation with Azotobacter chroocccum, (C3): Grain inoculation with Pseudomonase putida, (C4): the mix grain inoculation with (Azotobacter chroocccum, Azospirillum lipoferum, Pseudomonase putida).The results showed the effect of grain inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and humic acid consumption during exercise salinity on Grain yield, Biologic yield, Number of spiklet and chlorophyll a, b Content was significant. The highest grain yield of treatments inoculated with Azetobacter chroocccum bacteria and humic acid no consumption and the salinity was 75 mM, and Most of biologic yield of treatments with Pseudomonase putida and humic acid consumption and the salinity was 75 mM. And Most of the number of spikelets per plant of treatments inoculated with the mix grain inoculation and humic acid consumption and no salinity stress. While the highest chlorophyll a, b Content of treatments with Azospirillum lipoferum and humic acid consumption and salt stress of 75 mM was.
    Keywords: Wheat, chlorophyll, salinity, plant growth promoting bacteria, humic acid
  • M. Bakhtiari Moghadam, S. Vazan, M. Esfini Farahani, S. Azizkhani, K. Rezaei Page 87
    In order to evaluate the effect of Time and Location Management of weed control on yield and some agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an experiment was done as a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three blocks in Research Field of Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University in March 2011. Experiment has two factors that the first factor was different time of weeds control in seven levels (control at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 day after chickpea emergence) and second factor was different locations of weed control in three levels (in burrow, in furrow and in burrow and burrow together). Results indicated that effect of weed control time had significant effect (P>0/01) on grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, plant height and 1000 grain weight. Also effect of weed control location had significant effect on grain yield and plant height (P>0/01), and significant effect on biological yield (P>0/05), but had no significant effect on harvest index and 1000 grain weight. Interaction effect of weed control time and weed control location had significant effect (P>0/05) on grain yield, plant height and 1000 grain weight but did not the same effect on biological yield and harvest index. Highest level of grain yield obtained at treatment which controlled in burrow and furrow together at 30 day after chickpea emergence, with average of 946.34 kg/ha and lowest level of grain yield obtained at treatment which controlled in burrow and furrow together at 60 day after chickpea emergence, with average of 393.14 kg/ha. It is needed to attention that on base of this study’s results we can be able to saying; it seems that the best weed control time in chickpea is 30 days after chickpea emergence. Also totally it can be said that there is no difference between the control on furrow and in burrow, but control of burrow and furrow together will be capable to affect yield and most agronomical traits of chickpea plant.
    Keywords: Competition, interference, yield, weeds management
  • M. Fallah Qazaani, D. Habibi, A. R. Pazoki, K. Khavazi Page 97
    This research was conducted to assess the effects of three spices of Azotobacter chroococcum bacteria, under influence of humic acid and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of wheat in experimental station of Islamic Azad University Karaj branch, located in Mahdasht. The experimental design was split factorial, based on a randomized complete block design with four replications, in a crop year 1388 - 89. nitrogen fertilizer in Three levels (recommended soil test, 75 and 50 percent of the recommended soil test, respectively, 150, 112/5 and 75 kg/ha), as main factor and Azotobacter chroococcum spices (9, 15 and 20) and humic acid (application and non application) proportional two in thousand for wheat grains, has considered as sub factors. Results showed significant different on auxin hormone, seed yield, biological yield and plant height, with using bacteria, different nitrogen levels and humic acid. Maximum effect of treatment was shown on recommended nitrogen levels and bacteria spices number 15 with application of humic acid. Tottaly, based on this results, was determined that some spices of Azotobacter bacteria, that are plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, with application of humic acid, had positive significant increase on auxin hormone, hence maximizing of seed and biological yield were observed. Result, also showed bacteria strain number 15, with biological fixation of nitrogen decrease 25 percent of nitrogen fertilizer.
    Keywords: Azotobacter chroococcum, yield, wheat, nitrogen, humic acid
  • M. Mousavi, A. Baghizadeh², F.Aghayari, D. Afzali Gorouh, N. Mohammadi Page 111
    Soil contamination risks to human health and the environment has become increasingly. Among the most important pollutants are heavy metals that are highly regarded a large number of researchers. One of the economical methods is phytoremediation that can help to removal of heavy metals from the soil. The aim of this work was to investigate the accumulation of lead element in different parts of garlic. Also the plant response to oxidative stress was studing. The experiment was performed in a compeletly randomized design with four level of PbNo₃ (0,500,1000,1500 mg/kg) and four replication, in the research greenhouse of the international center for science, high technology & environmental sciences of kerman. Results showed that when garlic exposed to different concentrations of lead, can accumulate the highest amount of lead in the root.Measuring levels of catalase and peroxidase enzymes revealed that there are significant difference between the levels of catalase in different treatments. While no significant difference was found between the levels of peroxidase in different treatments. Results showed that garlic can accumulate high levels of lead in root by rhizofiltration.
    Keywords: phytoremediation, garlic, lead, oxidative stress, catalase, peroxidase
  • Mohammad Sibi, Mohammad Mirzakhani, Masoud Gomarian Page 119
    In order to Study of cell membranes instability of ssfflower under water stress, application of zeolite and salicylic acid, this experiment was performed as a split factorial based on a randomized complete block with four replications in 2010. In this experiment water stress as a major factor in three levels according to I0 = irrigation water requirement plants (control), I1 = 85 % of the amount of irrigation water requirements of plant, I2 = 70 % of the amount of irrigation water requirements in the plants and the main plot consume different amounts of zeolite at three levels Z0 = not using zeolite (control), Z1 = zeolite amount consumed 4 ton ha-1, Z2 = zeolite consumption amount consumed 8 ton ha-1, and two levels of salicylic acid not consumed SA0 = salicylic acid SA1 = consumption and salicylic acid (sprayed) as a minor factor in a factorial combination of sub-plots were placed. The results showed that the effect of different levels of water was significant stress on boll diameter of main boll characters in the 5 % level of statistical and characters such as: the Economical yield of un-direct boll, amount of water, Initial water content, Leaf internity water and Cell Un-stability Memberant in a statistically 1 %. Also, different levels of zeolite was significant on Biological yield of main boll in the 5 % level of statistical and Economical yield of un-direct boll, amount of water, (water %), Initial water content, Leaf internity water and Cell Un-stability Memberant in a 1 %. Salicylic acid used in this experiment on the characteristics such as: boll diameter of main boll, amount of water, Initial water content and Cell Un-stability Memberant in a statistical 1 % and on 1000 seed mass of un-direct boll and Leaf internity water the 5 % level statistical means was significant.
    Keywords: cell membrane instability, Initial water content, Leaf Water Content, safflower, salicylic acid, zeolite
  • M. H. Jahanbakhsh Pour, F. Paknejad, D. Habibi, M. Aghaeezadeh, M. Shahsavan Baghdadi Page 137
    Stem going in sugar beet at first years is call bolting. Bolting is undesirable physiological phenomena that almost occurred in planting of winter sugar beet. Planting of winter sugar beet required to resistance cultivars to bolting for avoidance of flowering in spring harvest time. Aim of this experiment using of cycocel for avoidance of flowering in winter sugar beet. Experiment carry on in form of factorial in base of randomize complete block design with three replication in winter 2009. We have two cycocel factors comprise of foliar application in two levels 0 and 1000 ppm and foliar application time with seven levels comprise of control seed sprayed, 6th November, 6th December, 6th November & 6th December, seed sprayed &6th November & 6th December,6th February, 6th November & 6th December&6th February.Result showed that application of cycocel reduce bolting percentage and caused delay of flowering process but winter cold severe condition in Karaj have been effects dominant on cycocel treatments as at the end of sampling date was not significant different between cycocel and control treatments on bolting. Percent of bolt in control treatment and cycocel was 48.59%,43.38% respectively.The best time for spraying cycocel was 6th february with the lowest percent of bolt (39.2%).
    Keywords: sugar beet, bolting, cycocel, autumn planting
  • M. Pourebtehaj, D. Habibi, F. Paknejad, F. Fazeli, M. Davoodi Fard Page 147
    using of Bio fertilizers asplant growth promoting bacteria, silicic acidandamino acids for reducing of drought stress in plants and improving physiological parameters such as antioxidant enzymesand thus raising the level of plant yield in arid and semiarid areas are emergency management for drought control agriculture and also in barley agronomy.Thus, this study was carried out in 2009 in Agricultural Research station, Karaj Islamic Azad University with irrigation factor at two levels, Includes A1:full irrigation and A2:cut irrigation after flowering stage and second experimental treatments at The five levels, includes B1: control, B2: seed inoculated with bacteria, B3: seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid, B4: seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed amino acids and B5: seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid and sprayed amino acids in randomized complete blocks design with four replicates using analysis of split plot. Analysis of variance showed that the irrigation effect on all traits in the1 percent level is significant. The highest seed yields were related to the normal irrigation. The highest levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase related to cut irrigation after flowering stage. The interactions showed that the highest seed yield related normal irrigation and seed inoculated with bacteria + sprayed silicic acid and sprayed amino acids, respectively. The highest levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase belonged to cut irrigation after flowering stage and seed inoculated with bacteria and sprayed silicic acid+ sprayed amino acids (472/8, 156/1 and 222/9 U/ g protein)respectively.
    Keywords: Barley, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, silicic acid, amino acids, grain yield
  • Reza Nasri*, Ali Heidari, Moghadam, Ataallah Siadat, Farzad Paknejad, Mehdi Sadeghi, Shoae Page 161
    In order to determine the correlation between some traits and yield components in three chickpea cultivars as well as cause and effect relationships between them, The experimental plots once crushed (Split plot) the base of a randomized complete block design with four replications in the Shirvan Chardavel region of Ilam,1387-1388 was conducted during the crop year. The main factor of four irrigation treatments, irrigation control, irrigated once in 50% of budding, Irrigation at 50% flowering, and Irrigation filling pods, and sub-factor 3 genotype. Analysis of variance based on the effect of irrigation treatments on grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, The number of fertile pods per plant, seed number per plant and seed weight was significant at the one percent level. Generally performed in a water pod filling stage and the flowering of the 41/3 and 29/3 percent Yield was higher than control. Observations showed that the highest yield significant positive correlation with other traits of biological function and harvest index belonged Grain yield and protein yield had a negative correlation. To remove the effects of ineffective or low impact on yield traits in the regression model, stepwise regression was used. Important traits in grain yield in this study, harvest index, seed weight and seed number per plant, respectively The model has a coefficient of determination(0.999), respectively. Path analysis results showed, harvest index and the highest positive direct effect on grain yield had and the seed weight and number of seeds per plant and a negative indirect effect on performance can be applied.
    Keywords: Irrigation supplemental, path analysis, stepwise regression, yield, chick pea, trait correlation
  • S. Harasani, P. Nouroozi, Kh. Mostafavi, M. Aghaeizadeh Page 173
    In the present study selected indicator from previous studies (non-placental markers AM2), on DNA of single plants of modification mass obtained by cross breeding wild species Beta maritima (having resistance gene Rz2) with sugar beet were called to F2BC1 mass were investigate. To do this first about 1160 seeds of target mass were planted and after one month plants preparation, about 100 Seedling applied to evaluate the phenotypic resistance to the rhizomania contaminated soil was moved to the greenhouse and two months were maintained in this soil. During this period, DNA of plant leaf samples was extracted. Then the quality and quantity of extracted DNA spectrophotometrically was determined. Next, AM2 markers related- primer on single plant DNA with PCR-RAPD method was used to amplify fragments of DNA template. After electrophoresis, RAPD-PCR reaction products in one percent agarose gel and staining gel and observation of the band pattern, presence or absence of markers in a single plant was marked. Then the resistance level of plants cultivated in soil contaminated by the virus concentration in plant roots with Elisa serological tests in the laboratory was determined. Thus the resistant and susceptible plants were identified. The relationship and degree of correlation and agreement between markers (based on molecular data) and resistance (based on ELISA data) in desired single plants was found. By comparing the mean and variance analysis for non-balanced completely randomized design, it was found that the average values of absorbed ELISA of dominant heterozygous and homozygous genotypes has no significant difference. Also comparison of the results for the existence percentage of markers traits as a balanced completely randomized design with four genotypes, including mass F2BC1 (having resistance gene Rz2), Regina (Rhizomania susceptible control varieties), Paulleta (Rhizomania resistant control varieties) and breeding mass S1 (with Resistance gene Rz1) showed that there is no significant differences between genotypes and reproducibility of non-placental markers AM2 in different genotypes was confirmed.
    Keywords: Sugar beet, Resistance, Rhizomania, Molecular marker, RAPD
  • B. Shahbaz, Panahi, F. Paknejad, D. Habibi, M. Sadeghi, Shoae, M. Nasri, A. Pazoki Page 185
    In order to investigation of the effects of irrigation regimes on yield and yield components and some physiological parameters on different genotypes wheat and lines under field conditions on experiment was conducted. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot in base of randomized complete block design on four replications in agricultural research center of Islamic Azad University Of Karaj on 2007. First factor was consisted of 4 different irrigation regimes including a control treatment (T1), irrigation after 60 and 75 percent of soil moisture depletion during from the start of flowering to ripening (T2 and T3, respectively) and non irrigation from start of flowering to ripening (T4) at four wheat cultivars consist of Pishtaz (V1), Shiraz (V2), Bahar(V3) and Chamran (V4) and a line including WS-82-9(V5). The determined parameters were yield, its components, biological yield, harvest index, height of plant, length of peduncle and spike. The results showed that yield and its components, biological yield, harvest index, height of plant and length of peduncle were reduced significantly by stress and length of spike wasn’t sensitive to that. So that the highest and lowest yields were obtained in control and T4 respectively, T2 and T3 treatments were shoed 12.5 and 23 yield reduction percentages in compare to control. Among the cultivars and lines, Pishtaz(V1) and Shira (V2) had the highest and lowest biological yield respectively. Results showed that non irrigation from start of flowering to ripen caused the most reduce yield.
    Keywords: Irrigation regimes, drought stress, yield, yield Component, wheat