فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:1, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/12/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zeynab Abedi, Mohammad Kazem Khalesi, Sohrab Kohestan Eskandari Page 782
    Background
    In natural waters and/or aquaculture facilities, fish are often exposed to chromium waste and demonstrate cumulative deleterious effects. To our knowledge, there are no studies concerning the effects of trivalent Cr on C. carpio hematology. This study presents hematological and some biochemical parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, affected by sublethal concentration of trivalent chromium.
    Methods
    The fish in the experimental aquaria (three replicates each) were exposed to a sublethal chromium chloride concentration of 2 mg L−1, which was prepared as stock solution and added depending on the volume of the aquaria to obtain the required concentration. After a period of 28 days, parameters such as hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocytes (Lym), neutrophils (Neu), total protein (TP), albumin, immunoglobulin M (IgM), glucose, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were examined.
    Results
    Chromium exposure for 28 days significantly (P<0.05) reduced the amounts of Hct, Hb, RBC, WBC, MCH, and MCHC, whereas albumin and glucose significantly (P<0.05) increased in the examined fish as opposed to the control. The levels of Lym, Neu, MCV, IgM, and TP were not significantly different (P>0.05) between the Cr-exposed fish and the control.
    Conclusion
    Hematological indices of fish, caused by chromium toxicity to C. carpio, can be secondary responses to toxicants, including exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, which reflect the launch of stress reaction in the affected fish.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Chromium, Common Carp, Hematology
  • Saeed Afzali, Seyed Kazem Taheri, Saadat Torabian, Mehri Jamilian Page 793
    Background
    Hormonal changes as a factor influencing the emotional state of women have an important role in the incidence of suicide. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in FSH-LH, Estrogen, and Progesterone hormones in women attempting suicide by drugs and chemicals.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, women of reproductive diagnosed with drug and chemical poisoning who were hospitalized in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, were assessed regarding LH, FSH estrogen and progesterone hormones over a period of six months in 2011. Overall, 80 patients were studied with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    Results
    The highest rate of suicide was in the age range of 14-25 years (47 patients, 60.1%). A significant relationship was observed among the blood levels of hormones FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen. The association of hormone levels and LMP and attempted suicide was significant. The LH level was significantly lower in patients with substance abuse. The estrogen level was significantly lower in patients with the history of self-injury. Most patients (67.5%) were in the follicular phase which was statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    According to the obtained results, there was a significant relationship between the levels of different hormones. The significant relationship was positive in some cases but negative in other.
    Keywords: Menstrual Phases, Sex Hormones, Suicide, Hamadan
  • Alireza Badsar, Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Alireza Amir Maafi, Melina Rouhi Rad, Gelayol Chatrnour, Sina Khajeh Jahromi Page 798
    Background
    Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challenging problem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms in Iran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest region of the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in this region.
    Methods
    This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referral department in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.
    Results
    The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were male and the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning cases occurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported between September and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients with tachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%) were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of the patients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.
    Conclusions
    This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptoms that were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroom species in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish what toxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.
    Keywords: Abdominal Pain, Iran, Mushroom Poisoning, Nausea, Transaminases, Vomiting
  • Ali Banagozar Mohammadi, Maryam Zaare Nahandi, Hassan Solhi Page 804
    Background
    Intoxication with aluminum phosphide has been prevalent in Iran recently. Lab confirmation of the poisoning is needed in clinical and post-mortem settings. Present study was conducted to determine efficiency and validity of silver nitrate test for detection of aluminum phosphide in samples.
    Methods
    Information about dead patients with history of aluminum phosphide poisoning referred for medicolegal autopsy was collected during 18 months. Their relationships with result of silver nitrate test was assessed statistically.
    Results
    24 patients were studied. Silver nitrate test on samples of intra-abdominal organs was positive in 75% of autopsies, while the test on gastric content was positive in 50%. Relationship between number of ingested tablets and silver nitrate test was statistically significant (p value=0.017).
    Conclusion
    Results of present study showed that silver nitrate test can be used as a preliminary method for evaluation of patients or dead bodies suspected to be intoxicated with ALP. However, even negative result of silver nitrate test would not preclude ALP poisoning and more definitive quantitative tests such as HS-GC should be ordered, if feasible.
    Keywords: Aluminum Phosphide, Diagnosis, Intoxication, Silver Nitrate, Test
  • Mohammad Karami, Sodabah Saeidnia, Farshad Naghshvar Page 808
    Background
    Corn silk (CS) is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective activity of CS by Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System (IRLP).
    Methods
    Hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, and 100 mg kg-1) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity by IRLP. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve, respectively. IRLP system is ideal for studying biochemical alterations of chemicals with minimum neuro-hormonal effects. In this study, the liver was perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentration of hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, 50,100mg/kg), added to the buffer, and perfused for 2 hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including amino-transferees activities and the level of GSH, were assessed as indicators of liver viability. Consequently, sections of liver tissues were examined for any histopathological changes.
    Results
    Histopathological changes in liver tissues were related to hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Also, 50 and 100mg/kg doses caused significant (P<0.05) histopathological changes. Level of GSH in samples perfused with hydro-alcoholic extract increased compared to the control group.
    Conclusion
    Hepatoprotective effect of CS is due to decreased lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms might also be involved.
    Keywords: Glutathione, Krebs, Henseleit, Liver Injury, N, Methyl, 3, Zea Mays, 4, Methylenedioxyamphetamine
  • Borhan Mansouri, Rahimeh Baramaki, Maryam Zareh, Alireza Pourkhabbaz, Amir Hossein Hamidian Page 816
    Background
    This study aims to investigate the patterns of bioaccumulation and depuration of copper in the selected kidney and liver of Capoeta fusca.
    Methods
    The fish were collected between September and November 2010 from a qanat in Birjand. They were exposed to two types treatments with copper (0.25 and 0.75 mg/L) for a period of 41 days. The fish under study were exposed to the above-mentioned sub-lethal concentrations separately for 14 and 21 days (accumulation period). At the end of this period, the remaining fish were kept in tap water (elimination period) for 31 and 41 days.
    Results
    The findings showed that the accumulation of copper in lower and higher sub-lethal concentrations was higher in kidney as the mean accumulation of copper on day 21 was 1.9±0.1 μg/g and 2.93±0.47 μg/g respectively, in 0.25 μg/g and 0.75 μg/g concentrations. On the other hand, the results also showed that the depuration level of copper in the given concentrations was higher in liver than kidney. The bioaccumulation and depuration of copper significantly increased in the kidney and liver of C. fusca (P<0.01).
    Conclusion
    Based on the present work, it is concluded that C. fusca has a potential for the rapid accumulation and depuration of copper in freshwater. Also, the results indicate that the fish C. fusca, as representative fish species in the East of Iran, can be a useful bioindicator organism of water contamination with copper.
    Keywords: Copper, Elimination, Long, Term Exposure, Toxicity, Uptake
  • Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Nobuo Suzuki, Ajai Kumar Srivastav Page 823
    Background
    The present study investigated the effects of lead nitrate on the histo-cytological changes in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS) of Heteropneustes fossilis.
    Methods
    Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis were subjected to 657.6 mg/L and 164.4 mg/L of lead nitrate for 96 h and 28 days, respectively. Blood from fish was collected on 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in short-term and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood was collected for analysis of calcium levels and CS were fixed for histological studies.
    Results
    Plasma calcium levels of the fish remain unaffected at 24 h. The levels decrease after 48 h which persists till 96 h. Plasma calcium levels of the fish exposed to lead for 7 days exhibit a decrease which persists progressively till 28 days. After 96 h, AF-positive cells of CS exhibit increased granulation. No change in the nuclear volume of these cells has been noticed. An increased nuclear volume has been recorded in the AF-negative cells of CS of 96 h lead exposed fish. After 14 days, the nuclear volume of AF-positive cells decreases. Heavy accumulation of secretory granules and decrease in the nuclear volume of AF-positive cells have been recorded after 21 days which pronounced after 28 days. Moreover, few degenerating cells have also been encountered. AF-negative cells of CS exhibit an increase in the nuclear volume after 21 and 28 days lead treatment.
    Conclusion
    Present findings suggest that exposure of the lead to catfish Heteropneustes fossilis caused CS inactivity.
    Keywords: Corpuscles Of Stannius, Heavy Metal, Lead, Plasma Calcium, Teleost
  • Martin Anazodo Nnoli, Nwidu Lucky Legbosi, Paul Alozie Nwafor, Ijezie Innocent Chukwuonye Page 831
    Background
    Cyanide poisoning is frequently lethal, Because of the early onset of severe symptoms and difficulty in the diagnosis. Case: The case was a 29-year-old boy who collapsed suddenly after taking a bottle of beer in a bar. Samples, such as peripheral blood, stomach contents, bile fluid, urine and mouth swabs, were prepared using standard autopsy procedure and were subjected to analysis for cyanide using visible spectrophotometric method. The cyanide contents in samples, included stomach content (260 ppm), bile fluid (272 ppm), blood (256 ppm), and mouth swab (265 ppm).
    Conclusion
    The cause of death was acute myocardial infarction following acute poisoning from ingestion of cyanide salts. Its lethality was related to the rapid onset of toxicity, non-specific nature of the symptoms, and failure to consider the diagnosis. Regarding the absence of pathognomonic symptoms for its toxicity, delay in acquiring a full history and unexplained sudden collapse or acidosis which worsen the prognosis, cyanide intoxication needs to be expeditiously diagnosed and managed.
    Keywords: Cyanides, Myocardial Infarction, Poisoning, Shock, Sudden Death