فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/03/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali Kazemi, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Asma Mohammad Karami, Behnam Haidari, Nabiallah Kheirabadi Page 836
    Background
    Marine pollution is a global environmental problem that its monitoring by ideal biomonitors is of great importance. Marine organisms, especially mussels, have the ability to accumulate metals from the environment; they can be considered as a biomonitoring agent.
    Methods
    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals were measured in Saccostrea cucullata collected from seven sites on Qeshm Island's Coast. To achieve a digesting sample, each soft tissue was obtained and each of the shell homogeneous powders, 0.8 g and 1 g, respectively, were mixed with 10 mL HNO3 (69%) and poured into a PTFE digestion vessel. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn by using a flame AAS Model 67OG and for Pb by using a graphite furnace AAS.
    Results
    The distributions of metals between soft tissues and shells were compared in each sampling site. For seven sites, Cd, Zn, and Cu levels in soft tissues were higher than in the shells, but Pb level was higher in the shells than in the soft tissues. In addition, the results indicated the coefficient of variation (CV) in the soft tissues was lower than the shells for Cd, and in the shells lower than the soft tissues for Pb, whereas the CV values were different in both the soft tissues and shells for Zn and Cu.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study support using these materials in S. cucullata for biomonitoring. Shells are appropriate for monitoring Pb contamination, and the soft tissues are more apt for monitoring Cd, Zn, and Cu contamination.
    Keywords: Biomonitoring, Heavy Metals, Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Saccostrea cucullata
  • Borhan Mansouri, Amir Hossein Hamidian Page 842
    Background
    Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan.
    Methods
    The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh) were obtained in 2008 and 2009.
    Results
    There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05), and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01). The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations.
    Conclusion
    The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Carbon Monoxide, Isfahan City, Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Dioxide, Urban Area
  • Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani, Sahar Kiani, Ali Akbar Rostami, Rahman Fakheri Page 849
    Background
    Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells.
    Methods
    Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay.
    Results
    MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml) of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased.
    Conclusion
    The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.
    Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Iron Oxide Nanoparticle, MTT Assay
  • Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Alireza Badsar, Afshin Shafaghi, Maryam Namakchian Namakin, Hannan Ebrahimi, Morteza Fallah Karkan Page 854
    Background
    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) or rice tablet is a common agent used as pesticides. It is cheap, widely available and highly toxic and responsible for many cases of poisoning in the agricultural communities. There is limited evidence about change of liver enzymes in patients with ALP poisoning in this region. Therefore, we decided to evaluate alteration of liver enzymes in ALP poisoning in Rasht.
    Methods
    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, all documents of patients with ALP poisoning admitted to Razi hospital of Rasht in 2008-2009 were assessed. Inclusion criteria were diagnostic clinical manifestation such as hypotension or metabolic acidosis, history of exposure to ALP during the past 24 hours and progressive signs and symptoms despite treatment (administration of sodium bicarbonate and vasopressor). Patients with past history of hepatic disease were excluded. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS software.
    Results
    Of 104 patients with ALP poisoning, 66 patients (63.5%) were men. The mean age was 33.8±14.69 years, and the mean time of hospitalization was 14.94±18.28 hours. Ninety-five patients (91.3%) needed ventilation and 93 patients (89.4%) died. Statistical analysis demonstrated that elevated liver enzymes were not significantly related with gender, age, time of admission, time of hospitalization, the need for ventilation and mortality.
    Conclusion
    It seems that liver enzymes changes is not seen widely in ALP poisoning and had lower importance than other complications. Because of limited studies in liver enzyme alterations in these patients, it is suggested that more studies with largee sample size is performed to investigate the ALP liver side effects.
    Keywords: Aluminum Phosphide, Poisoning, Transaminases
  • Abhay Singh Yadav, Anita Bhatnagar, Manjeet Kaur Page 858
    Cirrhinus mrigala, one of the important fish widely consumed in India, was used for karyological observations and to evaluate the toxic effect of butachlor, an extensively used herbicide in rice fields in terms of chromosomal aberration test.
    Methods
    Fishes were collected from “National Fish Seed Farm” Jyotisar with mean body weight of 20-50g. The experimental fishes were kept in two treatments each with replicate of two. There were 15 fish each in the control group (T1) without exposure to butachlor and in T2 where fishes were exposed to butachlor.
    Results
    Karyotype revealed the 2n=50 chromosome from the somatic cell. Chromosomal aberrations were reported after 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, and 96 hrs from kidney cell preparation in fishes exposed to 1.0 ppm, sublethal concentration of butachlor. Frequencies of chromosomal aberration revealed a significant (P<0.05) time-dependent response. Stickiness and clumping appeared at 24 and 48 hrs of exposure, end to end joining appeared after 72 hrs and chromosomal fragmentations were observed after exposure for 96 hrs.
    Conclusion
    These studies clearly revealed the genotoxic potential of butachlor even at low dose level (1.0 ppm) and suggest that butachlor interferes with cellular activities in fishes at genetic level, inducing chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, the results of these investigations suggest a serious concern towards the potential danger of butachlor for aquatic organisms and the environment suggesting judicious and careful use of this pesticide in agricultural area. These aberrations in chromosome from kidney cell preparation illustrate the risk that butachlor possesses.
    Keywords: Chromosomal Aberrations, Clumping, End to End joining, Karyotype, Stickiness
  • Seyed Kazem Taheri, Saeed Afzali, Saadat Torabian Page 866
    Background
    Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning caused by alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead to acute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted to poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics, or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratory data were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS software version 16.
    Results
    Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twenty-two cases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the most common cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain (51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum creatinine, and aminotransferases (AST,ALT) levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to the others (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and without proper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure and even death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually not present simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests have important role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have an important role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.
    Keywords: Ethanol, Kidney Injury, Narcotics, Psychotropic Drugs, Rhabdomyolysis
  • Iman Zarei, Alireza Pourkhabbaz, Hadi Babaei Page 871
    Background
    The pollution of the aquatic environment with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem during recent years, due to their potential toxic effects and ability to bio-accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals are sensitive indicators for monitoring changes in the aquatic environment.
    Methods
    In this study, total concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe were measured in water and sediments from nine sites, based on ecological conditions and human activities and the effects of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on bioavailability of selected metals were determined. Modified degree of contamination (mCd) was computed in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination.
    Results
    Mean concentration of metals in water found to be in the following order: Pb > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples it was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. The average content of examined metals in water was higher than the chronic values in marine surface water guideline values. Mean content of Cr, Pb and Fe in sediments were higher than average of the less contaminated sample but Cu and Zn were lower than this guideline value. In the study area, mCd values were less than 1.5 with values ranging from 0.71 to 1.02.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicated with a decrease in organic matter and pH in sediments, the concentration of copper and iron increased. Base on modified contamination degree, the sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve are considered to be in the zero to very low contamination status.
    Keywords: Bio, Accumulate, Copper, Heavy Metals, Lead, Mcd, Water Pollution
  • Majid Heidary, Keyvan Malekpour, Mostafa Hosseini, Sima Karbalaei, Esmaeili, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar Page 878
    Background
    Infections include soft tissue infections are notable reason for hospital admission among IDUs, owing to unsterile injection techniques and equipment, contamination of drugs with organisms, and poor hygiene. In present case report a patient with profound limb infection is introduced. Case: A 32 years old man was transferred to the emergency department. He was IDU with Iranian for 3 years. Gangrenous deformity of left lower extremity below the knee was seen. Live maggots were moving around the limb freely. The patient underwent before knee amputation (BKA) to remove the infected tissues of the limb.
    Conclusion
    In order to evaluate and treat the serious infectious disease problems, drug abuse treatment programs will need to develop appropriate procedures. It is important that physicians, nurses, and other health care providers become better educated about drug abuse. Workers in drug abuse treatment should be well informed about infectious diseases and other complications of drug abuse.
    Keywords: Crack, IDU, Iran, Soft Tissue Infection