فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/06/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Kamran Aghakhani, Adel Rasouli, Hamidreza Jamilian, Azadeh Memarian Page 882
    Background
    Self-immolation and intentional poisoning are two common methods for suicidal attempts in developing countries. Few studies have compared the characteristics of people who commit suicide by self-immolation or intentional poisoning. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare demographic, social, and psychological features between these two groups.
    Methods
    In the present study, patients hospitalized after suicide by self-immolation in Shaheed Motahari Hospital, Tehran, were compared to patients hospitalized due to intentional poisoning in Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, in 2011. Demographic and psychological data were collected by interviews and questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16).
    Results
    Overall, 50 patients with poisoning and 21 patients with self-immolation were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The mean age of the patients in the poisoning group was significantly lower than the self-immolation group (P=0.007). The number of married people in the self-immolation group was significantly higher than the poisoning group (P=0.014). Substance abuse was also significantly higher (P=0.048) and educational level was significantly lower (P=0.023) in the self-immolation group. However, the prevalence of anxiety disorders (P=0.001) and adjustment disorders (P=0.007) was significantly higher in the poisoning group than the self-immolation group.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study suggest the presence of differences between individuals who commit suicide by self-immolation or by poisoning in terms of demographic and psychological factors. Identification of these differences can be important in planning suicide prevention measures and education.
    Keywords: Demographic Factors, Mental Illness, Personality Disorders, Suicide, Suicide By Poisoning, Suicide By Self, Immolation
  • Thomas Ikpesu Page 894
    Background
    Paraquat dichloride is a highly toxic herbicide which is still used in many developing countries. African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) is a commercially important species in many countries and was selected assess accumulation and elimination of paraquat dichloride in its tissues.
    Methods
    Groups of ten fish with equal lengths and weights were exposed to varying concentrations of Paraquat dichloride for 28 days. After the exposure, the fish were transferred to uncontaminated water. Two fish were sampled for pesticide residue at the end of exposure period (28days) and 1, 7 and 14 days post exposure.
    Results
    In pesticide treated fish, the accumulation of paraquat increased with increases in the concentration of the toxicant and varied significantly between the treatments (p < 0.05). The herbicide depurated gradually with cessation of exposure and no pesticide was observed after 14 days.
    Conclusion
    Xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms especially fishes and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This novel approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poisons in sea food.
    Keywords: Clarias Gariepinus, Paraquat Dichloride, Pesticides, Pollutants
  • Sepideh Kamalbeik, Mehran Kouchek, Majid Baseri Salehi, Fatemeh Fallah, Mohammad Ali Malekan, Haleh Talaie Page 900
    Background
    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen which causes complications in hospitalized patients, especially those in ICU. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of class 1 and 2 integrons in multi-drug resistance A. baumannii and to investigate the association between the presence of integrons and antibiotic resistance patterns.
    Methods
    A total of 40 A. baumannii strains were isolated from 372 ICU patients from June to Oct 2012. A. baumannii was detected in 50% of tracheal cultures, 15% in blood, 15% in urine samples, and 22.5% in other locations. In accordance with CLSI 2011, 12 antibiotics were used through disc diffusion method. Existence of integron classes was investigated by PCR assay with the amplification of integrase genes.
    Results
    The most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii was polymyxin B with 100% susceptibility, followed by meropenem, piperacillin, cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime with 100% resistance; this was followed by ciprofloxacin 97.5%, tetracycline, 92.5%, imipenem 62.5%, and gentamicin 60% resistance. The presence of integron class 1 was 7.5%, class 2 was 67.5%, and non-integron was 20%.
    Conclusion
    The association between multidrug resistance and class 2 integron was not statistically significant. Other factors accounting for the lack of significance of the findings may be the impact of other resistance determinants such as transposons or plasmids, not investigated in the current study. Considering the increasing trend of MDR infections among ICU patients with critical problems in follow up, the use of appropriate infection control strategy and a regular surveillance system is necessary in our hospital.
    Keywords: Acinetobacter Baumannii, Class 1 Integron, Class 2 Integron, Multidrug Resistance, PCR Assay
  • Ali Kazemi, Habibollah Younesi, Nader Bahramifar Page 907
    Background
    The municipal solid wastes (MSWs) are disposed in open dumps, which have no leachate collection and removal system, in the Caspian region of Iran. Leachate readily reaches the nearby water resources such as streams, rivers, lakes, and sea. Therefore, understanding the quality and quantity of open dump leachate is vital to the proper treatment of leachate.
    Methods
    The leachate samples from 18 open dumps were monitored and analyzed in terms of 21 different variables, namely pH, EC, temperature, TS, TSS, TDS, VSS, COD, BOD5, PO43--P, SO42-, NH4+-N, TKN, and NO3--N based on the priority to analyze parameters as prescribed by accepted procedures outlined in “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater”. Moreover, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total Fe, Mn2+ and Zn2+ elements were determined using a Shimadzu flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Model 67OG.
    Results
    The mean values of parameters in the sites’ leachate samples of the three provinces were compared. The results of comparing the mean values of the parameters in the leachate samples from these provinces demonstrate that Golestan province had a significantly higher concentration of the parameters than Mazandaran and Gilan provinces.
    Conclusion
    These results may be due to the warmer weather conditions in Golestan province in comparison with other provinces. Furthermore, relatively low pH (6.15-6.90), high COD concentration (2607-25307 mg/l), high BOD5/COD ratio (0.56-0.87), and high heavy metal concentration indicated that the open dumps were representative of the acid phase and/or the end of the acid phase and the beginning of the methanogenic phase.
    Keywords: Caspian Region, Iran, Open Dump Leachate, Solid Waste Management
  • Ghafar Ali Mahmudi, Khatereh Anbari, Zia Obeidavi Page 915
    Background
    Poisoning is considered an important public health issue. Considering the high prevalence of poisonings and the diversity of their ensuing symptoms, this study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of the clinical symptoms of poisoning in children admitted to Shahid Madani and Ta''min Ejtema''i hospitals of Khorramabad in 2011.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, the data was collected from the records of the children hospitalized with a diagnosis of poisoning in the referral hospitals of Khorramabad in 2011. Collected data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software.
    Results
    Of the 230 hospitalized patients whose age ranged from 30 days to 11 years (with a mean age of 3.1 years ± 2.4), 117 (50.9%) were male and 113 (49.1%) were female. Neurological (43.5%) and gastrointestinal (21.3%) symptoms ranked as the most common clinical symptoms of poisonings. At P<0.01 level of significance, drug abuse (42%) was identified as the most prevalent cause of neurological symptoms, and hydro-carbonic poisonings (40.81%) stood as the most frequent causes of gastrointestinal symptoms.
    Conclusions
    Neurological complications are viewed as one of the main threats to pediatric health and the high incidence of such complications in the sample of poisoned children in this study suggests that the issue of pediatric poisoning needs to be taken into serious consideration. Furthermore, high priority needs to be accorded to the careful training of the personnel of healthcare centers and the correct treatment of the poisonings which result in neurological complications.
    Keywords: Children, Drugs, Epidemiology, Hydrocarbon, Poisoning
  • Morteza Rahbar Taromsari, Alireza Badsar, Keyvan Aminian, Habib Allah Abiar, Morteza Fallah Karkan, Sina Montazeri, Keyvan Abbasi Page 921
    Background
    Caustics produce one of the most serious complications of poisonings. This research was aimed to study demographical, clinical and endoscopic findings in patients with corrosive injury.
    Methods
    In a retrospective survey, all records of the patients who had been admitted to Razi and 17th Shahrivar hospital in Rasht city due to the ingestion of caustic agents during 2002-2009 and endoscopy had been performed for them in the first 24 hours after ingestion were studied. The information was analyzed by descriptive method using SPSS 16 software.
    Results
    Among 258 patients in Razi Hospital, 174 (67.4%) were female with mean age of 29.33 years old. 127 patients (61.1%) had intentional ingestion. 208 patients were finally studied. Among them, 175 patients were hospitalized for 2 days (average 1.73 days). Among 45 patients of 17th Shahrivar hospital, 24 (53.3%) were female. All of them had accidental ingestion. The most frequent site of injury in adults was esophagus (37.2%) and in pediatric population was the mouth (66.6%). Of all pediatric patients, one case had grade IIb endoscopic injury. Among cases who underwent endoscopy (in adults),20.8%, 16.7%, 41.6%, 16.7%,4.2% had grade zero, I, IIa, IIb and III injury, respectively. In all cases, bleaches were the most frequent consumed material.
    Conclusion
    In both studied groups, female patients were more affected by corrosive agents and in adults, intentional ingestion was approximately 1.5 times more frequent than the accidental cases; while all of pediatric patients had accidental poisoning. Most of the lesions had been received only medical treatment without any surgical interventions.
    Keywords: Caustics, Corrosive, Poisoning, Rasht
  • Hossein Sarmadian, Reza Ghasemikhah, Fatemeh Mirmoradi Page 926
    Background
    Hydatidosis it is a zoonotic disease which is caused by the larval stages of different species of the tapeworms (Cestoda) of genus Echinococcus. Currently, the surgery is most definitive method of treatment for Hydatid Cyst, but always there is the risk of leakage or rupture during the surgery, therefore it is considered unreliable method.
    Methods
    Protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were placed at the center of 1.5 Tesla magnetic fields in 3 different intervals of 15, 30, and 60 minutes. In each stage, they were exposed to the magnetic field four times and the viability rate of protoscoleces was measured after each exposure period.
    Results
    The results showed a significant difference between viability rates for protoscoleces in case and control groups (P=0.004).In the first stage, when protoscoleces were exposed to the 1.5 Tesla magnetic field for 15 minutes between 1 and 4 times, it did not reveal any significant differences between case and control groups (P=0.793). In the second and third stages, protoscoleces were exposed to the magnetic field for 30 to 60 minutes respectively, it showed significant differences between case and control groups (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed a decrease in the viability rate of protoscoleces exposed to the 1.5 Tesla magnetic fields for 30 and 60 minutes.
    Keywords: Hydatid Cyst, Magnetic Field, Protoscolex