فهرست مطالب

مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 17 (تابستان 1392)
  • پیاپی 17 (تابستان 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/06/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • اسماعیل شیعه، زهرا سادات سعیده زرآبادی، ملیسا یزدان پناهی صفحات 1-20
    محیط یکی از عوامل تعیین کننده سلامت انسان هاست و در سال های اخیر نتایج حاصل از تحقیقات علمی بر اهمیت نقش برنامه ریزی و فرم شهرها و بخصوص محله های شهری؛ بر سلامت انسان ها و ایجاد محلاتی پایدار و سالم و اجتناب از پراکنده رویی شهری تاکید می ورزد. در این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی عوامل تاثیر گذار بر سلامت افراد در مقیاس محلی و نحوه تاثیر فرم کالبدی و کیفیت محیط بر سلامت افراد سعی بر این بوده است که با بررسی ادبیات مربوط به سلامت، محیط، برنامه ریزی شهری و روابط متقابل آنها، مهمترین شاخص های اثر گذار بر سلامت افراد در مقیاس محلی استخراج شده و به بررسی آن در یک محله سنتی پرداخته شود. به این منظور پرسشنامه طراحی و برای هر یک از شاخص های منتخب تحقیق، از چندین متغیر استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل آماری داده های پرسشنامه ای نشان داد که هیچ یک از شاخص های در نظر گرفته شده برای بررسی وضعیت سلامت در نمونه مورد مطالعه در حد مطلوبی نیستند. دیگر نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان دهنده آن است که شاخص های اجتماعی و کالبدی چون احساس تعلق به محله و روابط اجتماعی، میزان مشارکت در امور محله و احساس ایمنی و امنیت در محیط مسکونی، کیفیت محیط زیست و نحوه طراحی و برنامه ریزی شبکه ارتباطی، مسکن و امکانات و تسهیلات محله می توانند از عوامل تاثیر گذار بر سلامت و کیفیت زندگی افراد باشند و برنامه ریزی شهری با حوزه های مختلف اثر گذاری خود می تواند نقش موثری در بهبود هریک از شاخص های فوق و در نتیجه ارتقای سلامت افراد ایفا نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت، اجتماع محلی سالم، محله امام زاده یحیی، کیفیت محیط
  • بهرام رنجبریان، محمد غفاری، علیرضا امامی صفحات 21-36
    امروزه گردشگری به عنوان یکی از صنایع پر درآمد در سطح ملی و بین المللی مطرح است. یکی از عوامل مهم در رشد و توسعه این صنعت برنامه ریزی بهینه برای ارائه خدمات مناسب است. بخش بندی بازار یکی از پیش شرط های موفقیت برنامه ریزی گردشگری است. شناسایی و تجزیه و تحلیل انگیزه های سفر با هدف ارائه خدمات درخور و مناسب به گردشگران از مهمترین روش های بخش بندی بازار در این صنعت است. از این رو هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی و تجزیه و تحلیل انگیزه های گردشگران خارجی برای سفر به شهر اصفهان است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل گردشگران خارجی سفر کرده به شهر اصفهان است که در ماه های فروردین و اردیبهشت سال 1390 به این شهر سفر کرده اند. از این جامعه نمونه ای به حجم 200 نفر به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب شد. ابزار گردآوری داده ها به روش پرسشنامه محقق ساخته است که مشمل بر 23 سوال برای سنجش متغیرهای پژوهش است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از روش های تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، آزمون نیکویی برازش و تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش شش انگیزه سفر برای گردشگران خارجی سفر کرده به شهر اصفهان را شناسایی کرده است که عبارتند از انگیزه فرهنگی، انگیزه ناشی از اجبار، انگیزه خرید، انگیزه ماجراجویی، انگیزه بهداشتی و انگیزه استراحت. همچنین نتایج پژوهش در مورد رابطه بین متغیرهای جمعیت شناختی و انگیزه های سفر نشان می دهد زنان دارای انگیزه فرهنگی قوی تری نسبت به مردان هستند. از نظر انگیزه سلامتی و ماجراجویی نیز مردان نسبت به زنان از انگیزه قوی تری برخوردار هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، انگیزه سفر، بخش بندی بازار، اصفهان
  • محمدرضا پورمحمدی، روشن کوشانه صفحات 37-52
    فضاهای عمومی شهری یکی از مهم ترین گونه های فضاهای شهری محسوب می شود. فضاهای عمومی فضاهایی هستند که عموم شهروندان از هر قشر، سن، نژاد و صنفی بدون هیچ گونه محدودیتی حق استفاده از آن را دارا هستند. هدف از بررسی و مطالعه فضاهای عمومی شهری (نمونه موردی شهر تبریز) بطور کلی، می توان ارزیابی وضعیت کمی فضاهای عمومی در سطح شهر تبریز، تجزیه و تحلیل پراکنش و نحوه استقرار فضاهای عمومی در شهر تبریز را بیان کرد. در پژوهش حاضر سعی بر آن شده است که کمیت این فضاها که شامل مساحت و سرانه کاربری های عمومی در شهر تبریز و سطح توسعه یافتگی آن ها بر اساس شاخص های انتخاب شده، بررسی شود. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شهر تبریز است. و مناطق نه گانه شهری که تقسیم بندی آن بر اساس طرح جامع شهر تبریز است، انتخاب شده است. دوره زمانی پژوهش براساس اطلاعات سال 1385 بوده، داده های کمی مورد نظر در تحقیق بر اساس اطلاعات آخرین طرح جامع جدید (1391) است. ارزیابی فضاهای عمومی شهر تبریز به وسیله 11 شاخص اصلی و 75 زیرشاخص آن ها انجام شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل یافته های پژوهش با استفاده از روش تاپسیس و نرم افزار SPSS و GIS انجام شده است. بر این اساس هر یک از مناطق نه گانه شهر تبریز از نظر شاخص های مورد نظر رتبه بندی و سطح بندی شده اند که نتایج در جداول و نقشه ها ارائه شده است همچنین سطح و سرانه وضع موجود هر یک از کاربری های عمومی با سرانه و سطح استاندارد مقایسه و در جداول مجزا محاسبه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضاهای عمومی شهری، مساحت و سرانه، سطح توسعه یافتگی، شهر تبریز، تاپسیس
  • سید هدایت الله نوری، نصرت مرادی هوسین*، مامند خوش نظر صفحات 53-68

    امروزه گردشگری یکی از بزرگترین و سودآورترین صنایع دنیا به حساب می آید و بخاطر اهمیت و نقش این صنعت، بسیاری از کشورها آن را در استراتژی ها و برنامه های توسعه گنجانده اند. یکی از جدیدترین شاخه های گردشگری، ژئوتوریسم یا گردشگری جغرافیایی است. این نوع گردشگری که شاخه ای از گردشگری مناطق طبیعی و شکلی از گردشگری پایدار به شمار می رود، روی ژئوسایت ها و چشم اندازهای ژئومورفولوژیکی تاکید دارد. این شکل گردشگری به واسطه برنامه ریزی مناسب و شناخت مزیت ها و محدودیت ها، می تواند نقش مهمی در توسعه ملی و تنوع بخشیدن به اقتصاد منطقه داشته باشد. غار سهولان به عنوان یکی از منابع ژئوتوریسمی در شمال غرب کشور، با وجود توانمندی بسیار زیاد در زمینه توسعه ژئوتوریسم هنوز نتوانسته است به جایگاه واقعی خود در این زمینه دست پیدا کند بنابراین، این سوال مطرح می شود که پتانسیل ها و محدودیت های توسعه ژئوتوریسم این منطقه کدامند؟ و چه خط مشی ها و سیاست های راهبردی می تواند، توانمندی های ژئوتوریسم غار آبی سهولان را به فرصتی برای توسعه منطقه ای و ملی تبدیل نماید؟ هدف این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و روش تحقیق از نوع تحلیلی، توصیفی و پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 20 نفر از کارشناسان مرتبط با صنعت گردشگری در شهرستان مهاباد و ارومیه بودند که با روش تمام شماری انتخاب شدند. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار SPSS و تعیین استراتژی های توسعه ژئوتوریسم منطقه از تکنیک SWOT استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که منطقه مورد مطالعه با 17 نقطه قوت و امتیاز وزنی 16/4 و 18 فرصت و امتیاز وزنی 22/4 در برابر 17 نقطه ضعف و امتیاز وزنی 54/1 و 11 تهدید و امتیاز وزنی 92/2 توانمندی های بسیار زیادی برای توسعه ژئوتوریسم در منطقه شمال غرب کشور دارد ولی ضعف ها و تهدیدهای موجود مانع از بالفعل شدن این توانمندی ها گردیده است؛ بنابراین، چنانچه نقاط ضعف و تهدیدهای داخلی توسعه ژئوتوریسم غار آبی سهولان کاهش یابد و با سیاست های مناسب و مدیریت واحد از مزایا و نقاط قوت موجود استفاده شود، می توان این منطقه را به یکی از قطب های ژئوتوریسم کشور تبدیل نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، ژئوتوریسم، غار سهولان، مدل SWOT
  • رزیتا مویدفر، مجید صامتی، سارا علومی صفحات 69-84
    عناصر و فضاهای شهری، عمری محدود دارند و با گذشت زمان در اثرفرسودگی تدریجی ناشی از عوامل انسانی و محیط طبیعی؛ به بهسازی و نوسازی نیاز دارند. در این راستا اولین مساله ای که مطرح می شود چگونگی تامین منابع مالی است. با توجه به سرمایه هنگفت مورد نیاز، باید وجوه مربوطه از طریق مشارکت بخش خصوصی و با استفاده از روش های تامین مالی مناسب و از کانال بازارهای مالی ایجاد شود. در تحقیق حاضر ابتدا مهمترین روش های تامین مالی برای بهسازی و نوسازی بافت های فرسوده شهری و عمده معیارهای تاثیرگذار برای انتخاب روش تامین مالی مناسب، از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی استخراج شده است. سپس از طریق پرسشنامه و بر اساس روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP، وزن های نسبی معیارهای تاثیرگذار و وزن های نسبی روش های تامین مالی نسبت به هر کدام از معیارها و در نهایت، رتبه بندی روش های تامین مالی بکار رفته در تحقیق حاضر، حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، با اهمیت ترین معیارها از دید کارشناسان مالی و سرمایه گذاری، معیارهای نرخ بازده بیشتر، مشارکت بیشتر بخش خصوصی و سقف تامین وجوه بیشتر با وزن های نسبی 289/0، 259/0 و 223/0 بوده است. از بین روش های تامین مالی عنوان شده، نتایج تحقیق دو روش اوراق مشارکت و سرمایه گذاری بخش خصوصی با وزن های نهایی به ترتیب 323/0 و 235/0 توصیه شده و سه روش سهامدار پروژه، فروش متری و اخذ تسهیلات از بانک وزن های نهایی کمتری به دست آورده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: تامین مالی، مشارکت، بهسازی و نوسازی، بافت فرسوده، فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی AHP
  • صادق هادیزاده زرگر، وحید هاشمی امری، محمد مسعود صفحات 85-100
    بخش مسکن یکی از مهم ترین بخش های توسعه در یک جامعه است، شناخت و بررسی وضعیت مسکن، منوط به شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل تاثیرگذار بر مسکن است. یکی از راه های شناخت وضعیت موجود، رتبه بندی است که میزان برخورداری و یا عدم برخورداری در زمینه های مختلف را با اولویتی خاص بیان می کند و می تواند به عنوان راهنمایی مناسب برای تخصیص منابع در برنامه ریزی های آتی مورد توجه قرار گیرد. پژوهش پیش رو که نوعی تحقیقتوصیفی - تحلیلی و موردکاوی است، همچنین روش یافته اندوزی براساس مطالعات کتابخانه ایی و اسنادی و مصاحبه با کارشناسان و مسئولان بوده است. که با هدف سنجش میزان توسعه یافتگی مناطق شهری اصفهان در بخش مسکن درصدد آن بوده است که با استفاده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای و روش دلفی، به بررسی و تحلیل وضعیت شاخص های توسعه یافتگی بخش مسکن، در مناطق چهارده گانه شهر اصفهان بپردازد. نتایج به دست آمده از این بررسی حاکی از وجود اختلاف قابل توجه در بین مناطق، به لحاظ توسعه یافتگی در بخش مسکن بوده است. که بر این اساس منطقه یک با کسب بیشترین امتیاز (574/0) برخوردارترین و منطقه چهارده با کسب کمترین امتیاز (719/0-)، محروم ترین منطقه شهری اصفهان به لحاظ شاخص های کمی و کیفی بخش مسکن در بین مناطق بوده اند. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند سیاست گذاران و برنامه ریزان را در تدوین سیاست ها و برنامه ریزی مناسب در جهت محرومیت زدایی و برقراری عدالت اجتماعی یاری دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه یافتگی، شاخص های مسکن، فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای، اصفهان
  • سعید گیوه چی، محمد امین عطار، اصغر رشیدی ابراهیم حصاری، نسترن نصبی صفحات 101-118
    مدیریت بحران، علمی کاربردی است که به وسیله مشاهده سیستماتیک بحران ها و تجزیه و تحلیل آنها، در جستجوی یافتن ابزاری است که به وسیله آن بتوان از بروز بحران ها پیشگیری و یا در صورت بروز، در راستای کاهش اثرات آن، به امداد رسانی وسیع و بهبود اوضاع اقدام نم ود. همه ساله در نقاط مختلف کره زمین، افراد زیادی بر اثر وقوع سوانح طبیعی نظیر زلزله و سیل جان و کاشانه خود را از دست می دهند. تامین مکان های مناسب برای استقرار مراکز امدادرسانی پس از وقوع زلزله و اسکان آوارگان یکی از موارد مهم در برنامه ریزی و مدیریت بحران است. در این پژوهش منطقه شش شهرداری شیراز با توجه به استعداد لرزه خیزی بالا به عنوان الگوی تهیه پایگاه داده مکانی به منظور مکان یابی محل های استقرار موقت جمعیت های آسیب دیده ناشی از زلزله احتمالی انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. بر این اساس در چارچوب روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی، پس از مشخص شدن معیارهای موثر در امر مکان یابی مساکن موقت که از پیشینه مرتبط با تحقیق و با توجه به محدوده مورد مطالعه و اطلاعات و داده های قابل دسترس گزینش گردید، اقدام به وزن دهی معیارها و شاخص های مورد مطالعه طبق نظر کارشناسان خبره مدیریت بحران و با استفاده از تکنیک مقایسه زوجی و نرم افزار Expertchoice می شود. سپس با استفاده از مدل AHP و نرم افزار Arc GIS، لایه های تولیدی هر معیار با توجه به وزن مشخص شده هر یک، با یکدیگر تلفیق شده که خروجی آن نقشه پهنه بندی سطح منطقه شش شهرداری شیراز برای اسکان موقت سانحه دیدگان است. نتایج نشان داد معیارهای دسترسی و خصوصیات مکانی موجود در بین سایرمعیارها و استانداردهای مکان یابی مناطق مناسب جهت اسکان موقت آسیب دیدگان از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان موقت، مکان یابی، مدیریت بحران، GIS، تکنیک AHP
  • حسین ذبیحی، تایماز لاریمیان*، حمیده پورانی صفحات 119-136

    رویکرد امنیت از طریق طراحی، یکی از موثرترین و کارا ‎ترین رویکردها در زمینه ارتقاء امنیت شهری است که می‎تواند نقش بسزایی در ایمن سازی فضاهای شهری ایفا نماید این رویکرد تاکنون در ایران معرفی نشده و مورد استفاده قرار نگرفته است. بدین منظور، هدف از این مقاله ارائه مدلی تحلیلی برای سنجش امنیت شهری و معرفی رویکرد امنیت از طریق طراحی است. در این راستا، ناحیه سه از منطقه 17 تهران که به دلیل ویژگی هایی مانند تراکم جمعیتی بالا، فرسودگی و فشردگی بیش از حد بافت و گسیختگی کالبدی به دلیل عبور دو مسیر راه آهن از داخل بافت این منطقه دارای مشکلاتی نظیر پایین بودن وضعیت امنیت شهری و وجود احساس ناامنی در بین ساکنان است، به عنوان نمونه بررسی می شود. در پژوهش حاضر، روش تحقیق بر اساس هدف، از نوع کاربردی و براساس روش و ماهیت، توصیفی - تحلیلی و روش تجربی - پیمایشی است. بنابراین، در تبیین ادبیات و سوابق موضوع تحقیق و ارائه مدل تحلیلی از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات با توجه به ماهیت تحقیق از روش های میدانی استفاده شده است. همچنین برای ارزیابی و اولویت بندی شاخص های ارائه شده در مدل تحلیلی از تکنیک سلسله مراتبی فازی استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان دهنده تفاوت میزان امنیت شهری درمیان پهنه های چهارگانه محدوده مطالعاتی ‎است به نحوی که پهنه 4 امن ترین پهنه در محدوده محسوب می شود. همچنین از میان اصول و معیارهای مورد بررسی، اصل «امنیت فیزیکی» و معیار «دشوارسازی آماج جرم» با وزن های 0.29 و 0.68 بیشترین نقش را در ارتقاء امنیت شهری در محدوده مطالعاتی بر عهده داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: امنیت شهری، تهران، تکنیک تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فازی (Fuzzy AHP)، راهکارها و استراتژی‎ها
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  • E. Shieh, Z. Saide Zarabadi, M. Yazdanpanahi Pages 1-20
    Introduction
    Today، in developed countries the harmful consequences of modern urban development and urban sprawl phenomenon on the health of human beings is known. In this regard، attention on revitalizing urban neighborhoods and emphasizing their role in urban planning policies to enhance social capital and self-sufficient and walkable neighborhoods is important. In the majority of Traditional neighborhoods، you can see adherence of physical system to social system، possibility of face to face interaction، and proximity to market centers، relatively good access to public transport services، the low permeability of the access network for the riding، which are the capabilities of traditional neighborhoods toward achieving a healthy community. The current lack of attention to unique features of traditional neighborhoods has led to physical exhaustion، migration and decline in health indicators. Thus، continuing the current condition is not only a serious threat against the health of residents but also lead to the loss of opportunities for achieving sustainable development. Theoretical bases: Researches of the World Health Organization indicate that in addition to age، sex and genetic variables that have a definite impact on health، personal factors، lifestyle، social effects and the local environment، workplace and general economic، social، environmental and cultural status have a major impact. Scientific studies also show that physical and mental health of people in urban neighborhoods، as the dual physical and social concepts which are formed as a result of urban planning decisions، is strongly influenced by its characteristics such as housing conditions، environmental quality، function of land uses and transportation network and the way residents perceive the environment. Thus، urban planning with different areas of interventions can play an important role in improving health indicators in an urban neighborhood.
    Discussion
    In this article، in order to explore the health system and its indicators in urban neighborhoods، after auditing the conceptual model and identifying the structures affecting the health، which are derived from theoretical considerations around issue، components resulting from the conceptual model in the traditional neighborhood of Imamzade Yahya، which is one of the neighborhoods of the historic fabric of Tehran، are assessed. Given the importance of subjective indicators of environment in health and lack of health statistics and information at local scale in Iran، a questionnaire was designed to assess the health of Imamzade Yahya neighborhood’s residents.
    Results
    show the interconnected relation between physical- environmental and social indicators of health including quality of housing، neighborhood facilities and sense of belonging to neighborhood، safety perception of residents in the neighborhood of Imamzade Yahya. Another result of the study shows low level of resident’s mobility and physical activity despite mixed uses and the low permeability of the transportation network for riding، which can be caused by physical exhaustion، lack of local facilities and attractions for residents and safety and security of the neighborhood and lack of separate pedestrian and bicycle lanes and numerous barriers to walking out. Another finding suggests the desirability of social indicators of health in this area، despite the possibility of face to face contacts and physical system complementation of the social system which might be caused by the decrease in social cohesion and bonds within neighborhoods and migrant sending from neighborhood and lack of public realms in it to shape social relations.
    Conclusion
    Findings of this study indicate the importance of physical and social environment of neighborhoods on population health. According to the criteria listed for a healthy neighborhood and according to the case study، in terms of the health system، we cannot distinguish between new and traditional neighborhoods and several factors and indicators are effective in creating healthy neighborhoods. Although the traditional neighborhoods of Iran are in line with the health system، due to physical and social deterioration، they require special attention by the institutions of urban management، in order to achieve sustainable development which encourages urban sprawl.
    Keywords: Health, healthy community, Imamzade yahya neighborhood, environmental quality
  • B. Ranjbarian, M. Ghafari, A. Emami Pages 21-36
    Introduction
    Tourism is one of the important issues in global economic and an important source of foreign exchange earning for developed and developing countries. Nowadays، tourism industry has attracted considerable amount of planning efforts and investments. Tourism development depends on several factors such as transportation، living standards، tourism industrialization، and identification and satisfaction of tourist’s needs، and wants. The success of a tourist destination not only depends on qualifications of the destination، but also proper planning for attracting tourists and introducing destination and its facilities to target markets is necessary. Understanding tourists’ travel motives is one of the basic assumptions for tourism market segmenting and planning. The goal of tourist market segmentation is to provide proper services for each group of tourists. According to previous studies، studying the relation of tourists’ demographical variables with their travel motives is also very important. Theoretical
    Background
    In discussing tourism issues، the first question that comes to the mind of tourism planners، researchers، experts، and policy makers is that why people travel? What are the destinations selected? And what are the motives and reasons for selecting specific destination? Studying travel motives is an important issue، because it helps tourism planners and policy makers to understand which destination is proper for a specific tourists group and what specification should a specific destination have to attract tourists. Travel motives may include leisure، the level of expenses، shopping opportunity، adventure، handicrafts، visiting ancient and historical places، learning about new culture and trade.
    Discussion
    Exploratory factor analysis is a technique used for exploring dimensions of a phenomenon and used to decrease the items of its measurement scale. Factor analysis technique has been used to identify the travel motives of tourists who visited Isfahan. After performing a pilot study، a number of 200 foreign tourists have been selected in a convenient sampling method. For the purpose of the study a self-administered questionnaire has been provided to the respondent. After applying the principal components analysis technique and Equamax Rotation Technique to the surveyed data، six principal motives for traveling to Iran have been identified. It is should noticed that for higher accuracy، the elements with factor loading of less than 0. 5 have been eliminated. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis، five items including، improve personal knowledge، visiting ancient places، visiting museums، visiting historical and cultural attractions and learning about new places are grouped in one dimension and since they are about cultural activity، it has been named as cultural motive. These items have explained 61. 45% variance of new factor. Based on results، three items of professional purposes، friend’s persistence and inexpensive costs are placed in one group and based on their content it has been named as coercion motive. These three items have explained 75. 7% variance of new factor. Two items are about cleanness standard and perfect weather. These items have explained 60. 7% of variance of the dimension which is named as hygiene motive. The items of shopping and handicraft are grouped in one dimension which explained 84. 1% variance of the dimension and is named as shopping motive. Two items were placed in a group which explained 61. 1% variance of the dimension which is named as Leisure Motive. Three items of physical activity، nature beauty and finding new experience are placed in one group and named as adventure motive. These three items have explained 58. 9% variance of new factor. Applying Xi Bartlett statistic as goodness of fit test، we examined the quality of grouping the items and extracted factors. The values of Bartlett''s chi-square، significance and morality rates Kiasar Olkin are presented in Table 8. The Kiasar Olkin value should pass over 0. 5 and Bartlett''s chi-square with specified degree of free indicate fit goodness of factor Analysis and exploit of respective factor. In Table 8، results of Test of fit goodness for each exploited factor have been shown. Since the Kiasar Olkin value for each factor passes 0. 5، this shows that the samples size (200) is good enough for factor analysis. Also، the significant values show that all exploited factors have goodness of fit in factor structure. In order to examine the relation of demographic variables with tourists'' motivations، analysis of one-way variance has been used. Results of the analysis indicate that no significant relationship (Sig. 0. 238) exist between tourists’ nationality and attention level which tourists pay for cultural، coercion، shopping، and adventure motives. But the relation between tourists'' nationality and the level of attention which they pay for hygiene motive was significant (Sig. 0. 02). In other words، tourists with different nationality pay different level of attention to hygiene، and the minimum average was for Japan، Colombia، and Korea and maximum average was for Turkey، and Irish. Also، the results show that the level of coercion، leisure، cultural and adventure motives is different for males and females. Females had stronger cultural motive and the level of coercion، adventure، and leisure motives was stronger for females than males. Results also indicated that there is significant relationship between marital status and cultural، coercion، and leisure motives. Among studied population tourists who were single had shown stronger motive to visiting cultural attraction than married tourists. Also، married tourists had shown stronger coercion and leisure motive than singles. Moreover، there was no significant relationship between marital status of tourists and their shopping and adventure motives. Also، no significant relation was found between tourists’ education levels and their coercion، leisure، shopping، and adventure motives. But the average of cultural motive was more significant for tourists with university education than tourists with lower educational level. In order to examine the relation of duration of staying in destination with tourists'' traveling motives، we divide the duration into four intervals: 3 to 7، 7 to 14، 14 to 28، and more than 28 days. Results indicate that there is no significant relationship (Sig. 0. 055) exists between duration of staying and cultural motive. Also، tourists who had 3 to 7 days and 14 to 28 days stay at Iran had more leisure motives than other groups. Tourists who had 3 to 7 of days of stay at Iran had more shopping motive than other groups. Also tourists who stayed at Iran for more than 28 days had more adventure motives than other groups. Finally، the results indicated that 77. 5% of respondents had cultural motive، more than 40% of respondents had hygiene motive and 15. 5% of them had coercion motive for visiting Isfahan. Also 40% of respondents seemed to have shopping motive and 41% adventure motive for travelling to Isfahan.
    Conclusion
    In this article the motives of inbound tourists for traveling to Isfahan have been examined. The results of exploratory factor analysis identified six main motives for traveling to Isfahan which include coercion، cultural، shopping، leisure، adventure and hygiene. Also، the relationship between demographic variables and traveling motives has been examined، and results indicated that there is a significant relationship between these variables and tourists'' motives. Tourism planner and manager can utilize this typology in order to categorize tourism market and serve them receptive services. Based on the results of the study، it is believe that the Isfahan tourism planners and managers must recognize their target market and plan according to their needs.
    Keywords: tourism, traveling motives, market segmentation, Isfahan
  • M.R. Poormohammadi, R. Kooshaneh Pages 37-52
    Introduction
    Public spaces، which belong to all the individuals of different ages، occupations، cultures، and races with no restriction، are one of the most important parts in a city. Today، the importance of the studies on these spaces، considering the needs of the citizens، is more evident. Study and evaluation of urban public spaces، is an urgent necessity in planning the urban management and improvement، and it is a sign of the reproduction of these spaces which is done to improve the city in cultural، social and structural aspects. The approach to the study of these spaces includes 3 perspectives that are considered problems in literature related to urban society: a) Surfaces or areas devoted to public occupancy: the discussion here is the fact that how much of the general net area is devoted to public occupancy. b) Distribution of these spaces over the city: In this part، the dispersion and accumulation of each one of the public occupancies in a specific area، is compared to its standard ratio. The purpose of researching and studying urban public spaces (in this case، Tabriz) is as follows: a) Evaluation of quantitative status of public spaces in Tabriz; b) Analyzing the settlement of public spaces in Tabriz and the dispersion of these areas; c) Comparing the different public spaces in distinct regions of Tabriz; d) Presenting required strategies to improve the general status of public spaces in Tabriz. The following research discusses these two assumptions: a) There is a meaningful relationship between the area and per capita public space in Tabriz and the current existing standards of the country; b) There is a meaningful difference between different regions of the city in terms of development. The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical. Statistical research population is the city of Tabriz which، based on the general pattern of the city، is divided into 9 urban areas. Evaluation of urban public spaces of the city of Tabriz is done by means of 11 main indices and their 75 sub-indices. Analyzing the data of the research is done by using TOPSIS scientific method and SPSS and GIS softwares. Theoretical bases: The current study first discusses concepts like space and urban space، different perspectives on urban spaces and a variety of different notions، different kinds of urban spaces، urban typology and urban theorists، content and functions of urban spaces; and finally it discusses the importance of these spaces.
    Discussion
    Based on the goals of the current study and also the acquired results، it can be understood that according to the different mentioned indices، there is development inequalities and physical imbalance between distinct urban areas of Tabriz. Also، based on the results which were shown in charts and in addition to them، the maps of different areas of Tabriz that were researched according to each and every one of the study indices، the previously mentioned research assumption were proven to be correct. Thus، based on the results of the study it can be comprehended that in order to improve and expand the city of Tabriz in upcoming decades، acquiring improvements in decision making and executing the urban projects in the best optimized approach، regarding how the urban functions are settled and their fair distribution over the 9 urban areas of the city، is essential.
    Conclusion
    Urban public spaces are important factors in a city and in the field of urban occupancies، they are considered to be the field of physical and social communication. In general، citizens need spaces to meet their needs. Nowadays، we do not pay enough attention to these spaces and we have difficulties when it comes to their production or organization. Current study، based on urban public space indices، intended to illustrate the physical imbalance and also the improvement differences between urban areas of Tabriz. Suggestions: According to the ever growing population of Tabriz during the recent decades and the imbalance and inequality of public spaces in 9 different urban areas of Tabriz، study and assessment of population density in all of the 9 urban areas by related organizations and finding and executing proper strategies that produce balance between public spaces and the present population of a given urban area، is more urgent than before. So regarding the lack of urban public spaces in Tabriz in most of the introduced indices، it is imperative to produce required spaces in each one of the regions that، based on the indices، suffers a lack of urban public spaces. Urban traffic is one of the problems that can be seen in most of the cities، in Tabriz، especially in downtown and the old parts of town، there is a heavy traffic during daylight time. It can be inferred that if the distribution of public spaces is done properly، it is only logical that the number of the people who، because of the lack of a required space، go from one region to another district، will decrease.
    Keywords: Public Urban Spaces, Area, the Area for each Individual, Development Space Tabriz, TOPSIS Method
  • H. Nouri, N. Moradi Hovasin, M. Khoshnazar Pages 53-68
    Introduction

    Today، tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations، this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran، including calcareous (karst)، salt، ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development، geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development? Theoretical Bases: Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology، and the natural resources of landscape، landforms، fossil beds، rocks and minerals، with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally، geotourism can be beneficial for both the tourist and the host because it can provide the tourist with an “authentic” experience while holistically sustaining the destination’s unique qualities. There are five characteristics that are considered to be essential for a product to be regarded as geotourism: - Geologically Based - Sustainable - Geologically Informative - Locally Beneficial - Tourist Satisfaction Caves are one of the most important attractions of geotourism. Cave tourism is likely to be preferred، especially by those who have great interest in enjoying the picturesque and wondrous scenery of caves and their surrounding environment، and who are interested in the conservation of geological landscapes or features. In addition، cave tourism is likely to be enjoyed by those who have a desire to gain new knowledge related to geology، geography، mineralogy and anthropology.

    Discussion

    In this study، after preparing indicators list and refining and classifying them، collection of this indices are separated in the four thematic categories which includes economic، social، environmental and institutional factors. Then، the data are analyzed in terms of weight، relative weight and weight score. After that، for determining the status of four indices the final score is offered. Finally، current situation with aggregating of four indices in terms of internal and external factors are conceived. Comparison of internal and external factors shows that there are 17 strength against 17 weakness and 18 opportunities against 11 threats against the development of Sahoolan watery cave. Totally there are 35 strengths and opportunities as advantages and 28 weakness and threats as limitations and obstacles against Sahoolan geotourism development. Analysis of the interior factors shows that the highest strengths for development of Sahoolan geotourism associate with economic factor. Institutional factors constitute the highest point of weakness for Sahoolan Geotourism development. Analysis of external factors، which include opportunities and threats، suggests that while the region enjoy opportunities in all dimensions of economic، social، cultural، environmental and institutional for geotourism development but serious threats include social-cultural and institutional threaten Geotourism in this region.

    Conclusion

    In vestigating internal and external factors by using SWOT model shows that the study area with the sum of 17 strengths and with weight points of 4. 16 and 18 opportunities with weight points of 4. 22 against 17 weakness with weight points of 1. 54 and sum of 11 threats with weight points of 2. 92 has many potentials and capabilities for geotourism development in northwest of Iran but current weakness and threats are the main obstacles of geotourism development in this region. Suggestions: After analysis of the internal and external factors and composition of them، the most important strategic factors for Sahoolan geotourism development have been offered. These factors have been used as the basis and groundwork for determining Sahoolan Geotourism development strategies.

    Keywords: Tourism, Geotourism, Sahoolan Cave, SWOT Model
  • R. Moayedfar, M. Sameti, S. Oloomi Pages 69-84
    Introduction
    Aging and building of old texture، in various forms، including the reduction or loss of viability conditions and safety problems as well as physical، social، economic and infrastructural can be received and identified. The essential need for reconstruction and rehabilitation of the urban old textures is the development of environment for humans. The necessary requirements are socio - cultural and economic (Shamaei and Pourahmad، 2006:43). Theoretical bases: The required capital for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the whole old urban textures، according to rehabilitation organization of Tehran''s estimates، is 5 times bigger than government budget in 2010 and 59 times bigger than all Municipalities of Iran in 2008. This subject demonstrates that providing required capital is not merely in capabilities of the public sector or Municipality (Ranjbarian، 2010، p. 142). But it needs the widely usage of financial markets and the financial tools which is possible via more cooperation between both public and private sectors. From a theoretical perspective، the concept of the cooperation between public and private sectors is related to the «X-efficiency» theory which was introduced in 1966 by American economist Harvey Leibenstein (1922-1993). According to his view، until the public economic institutions and enterprises receive official blessing of financial resources and enough monetary policy for release، offset and limit their possible failure، they will never go bankrupt.
    Discussion
    The final results of this research show that the private sector participation with final weight of 0. 323 is the best financing method for reconstruction and rehabilitation of urban old textures according to the research''s criteria. The risk in this method is much less than in other financing methods. Also، the private sector participation in higher return rate criteria with the relative rate of 0. 319 is in first place. The cost of this method is low and only the cost of the money providing process is higher in this method comparing to the others. But the relative weight of the cost of money providing criteria in comparison to the other ones is lower; thus in general، it has not changed the private sector participation rank.
    Conclusion
    Although government officials are aware of the importance of executing the project، but government aids to this community is at least and the rules are not supporting using government facilities. As the results showed، the method of private sector participation with total weight of 0. 323 is the best method for reconstructing and rehabilitating old urban texture. Thus، government officials need to consider this and provide required facilities to supply bonds. Also، according to results، the private sector investment with final weight of 0. 235 is in the second place in financing methods priority. On the other hand، considering the advantages of this method and also its high place in ranking due to criteria، more attention is needed. The bank funding method with relative weight of 0. 129 has the last or fifth ranking. The results do not suggest applying this method comparing to the other financing methods used in this research. Suggestions: The results show that the private investment with final weight of 0. 235 is in the second place in financing methods priority. On the other hand، considering the advantages of this method and also its high place in ranking due to criteria، more attention should be given to it.
    Keywords: Financing, Partnership, Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, Old texture, Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP
  • S., Hadizadeh Zargar, V. Hashemi Amri, M. Massoud Pages 85-100
    Introduction
    Development is a multidimensional and complex process that involves making changes in social attitudes and national institutions as well as accelerating the economic growth، reducing inequalities and eradicating poverty. Housing is considered as an integral part of development in a society. With its large economic، social، cultural، environmental، and physical dimensions، this sector plays a pivotal role in presenting the characteristics and improving the appearance of the society in general. Identifying and assessing the housing condition in a country depends on the detection and analysis of the factors affecting housing، which can be considered as guidelines for the resource allocation in future planning and for promoting justice and sustainable development. Isfahan city، with a population of over one million people، is the third most populous city in the country and has fourteen districts. This research can help policymakers and planners alleviate the poverty، promote the social justice and formulate appropriate policies by looking into the indicators of the housing sector in the fourteen districts of Isfahan and their ranking using analytic network process. Theoretical Bases: Housing is an extremely complex and extensive issue with different spatial، architectural، physical، economic، social، financial، psychological and medical aspects. As such، in this study various definitions have been proposed that، for example، deal with housing as a physical location and as a shelter، considering it as one of the basic needs of the households. In addition to the physical location، the housing includes the entire residential environment، which has various dimensions and goes beyond the physical shelter. Housing is the first unit of society and the most important unit of human settlements that represents the smallest unit of the planning. Most governments، in response to the importance of housing، incorporate the housing planning in national، regional and urban planning. The analysis of the housing indicators is one of the techniques that can help identify effective procedures in the field of housing. The indicators of the housing sector are the key to housing planning. The scope، complexity and diversity of housing indicators and their role in housing planning necessitate the classification of these indicators based on their role and performance. Housing indicators not only describe the current state of the housing in different aspects، but also they can be used to rank different districts and provide a clear picture of the housing in the past، present and future، leading to adoption of appropriate policies and strategies in the future.
    Discussion
    Indicators for the assessment of housing development in districts of Isfahan were determined based on a review of the literature on housing indicators and available data. These indicators were classified in three categories، i. e.، economic، social and physical. The economic indicators included the extent of the state funds allocated to the housing sector، the rate of employment generated by the housing sector، the annual production capacity of housing for 1000 population، the share of different stakeholders (state and housing cooperative) in housing construction and land prices.
    Conclusion
    The main criteria as well as sub-criteria considered in this study are both interdependent and interrelated. Moreover، in cases where the interrelation of the indicators is an issue، the analytic hierarchy does not include such relationship and may thus lead to the misleading results. In such cases، the analytical network can be used as an alternative. The application of analytical network process even in presence of interrelated indicators does not interfere with the model. Thus، given the interrelation of the indicators in housing sector، analytic network process can be utilized. Recommendations: In order to assess the urban development of Isfahan districts in the housing sector، after the compilation، analysis and assessment of the most important indicators and considering the nature of the housing development the assessment of which requires a variety of quantitative and qualitative indicators، and given the various roles and functions of these parameters in this study، a combination of ANP and Delphi methods were used as a technique for comparing these indicators. Then، drawing on the ideas of experts and professionals، the indicators were weighed. After determining the final value of each index using analytical network model، the assessment matrix was created to determine the extent of development of each district in terms of housing. The district with lower development scores fell into the lowest ranks، namely the deprived and highly deprived groups (Districts 7 and 14). These areas need to take priority in poverty alleviation plans and the construction funds in coordinated policies should be allocated in fitting with the needs and requirements of such districts. It is because they have a larger number of negative indicators that need to be address properly. Detailed case studies and special plans such as organizing projects، development-oriented plans and specific economic plans aimed at alleviating poverty are among the strategies that can be proposed for these districts. The districts with higher development scores، however، need to take lower priority in terms of funds allocation، and maintaining the status quo should serve as a model for future planning. Further comprehensive studies still need to be carried out in the areas surveyed in this study with the aim of improving the structure، current state and housing quality in near future.
    Keywords: Development, Housing Indices, Analytic Network Process (ANP), Isfahan
  • S. Givechi, M.A. Attar, A. Rashidi, N. Nasbi Pages 101-118
    Introduction
    Crisis management is a useful science that by observing the crises systematically and analyzing them is in searching for the equipment that can prevent the crises or if they have happened، in order to decrease the effects of it، it could assist and improve the situation enormously. In other words، the goal of crisis management is planning، organizing and doing the jobs in the way that decreases disaster effects on damaged people and environment. One of the most important matters that responsible organizations in crisis management always consider is choosing a place for emergency or temporary establishments of damaged masses from the events. Every year all over the earth planet، much people due to incidence of the natural events like earthquake and flood lose their lives and homes. Providing appropriate places for establishing the assistance centers after the earthquake and housing wanderers is one of the important items in planning and crisis management. In this research، the sixth region of Shiraz Municipality has been chosen and studied because of its high seismic potential as the sample of preparation of place database in order to locate temporary housing of damaged masses caused by probable earthquakes. Theoretical bases: Habitation is one of the human''s primary requirements. So after each disaster that causes losses and harms to the permanent settlements، and since building home for wanderers needs much time and cost، the discussion of temporary housing has been introduced. In fact، the temporary housing is residential units with low price or free that is given to stricken people and they can continue living there for the required time until gaining the necessary facilities for rebuilding their normal and permanent home. So for selecting appropriate places for site selection of these temporary residential units، we must consider several criteria and standards. The sociological studies of disasters and the existing experiments show that the damaged masses of people have some tendencies about their selective place for temporary shelter that approximately mentioned below:
    Discussion
    In this research، according to analytical – descriptive method، after clarifying the effective criteria in positioning the temporary houses that has the record pertaining to research and are selected based on the studied region and available information and data، the studied criteria and indicators were weighted according to the idea of the crisis management experts and by using the couple comparison and Expertchoice software. The output of this step is weights value table of the studied criteria، in terms of importance in studied region. Then، using the AHP model and Arc GIS software، production layers of each criterion as for the specified weight of each، were combined together and their output is the surface zonation map of the sixth region of Shiraz Municipality for temporary habitation of damaged masses.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that according to the population of the sixth region of Shiraz Municipality، 51949 specified sites in this research for establishing the temporary houses، not only will supply the needs of current and predicted population of this sector in 1395، but also can be used for overflowing population of the other sectors of Shiraz City. In addition، in case of any unpredictable population changes، unexpected events and etc.، we can take advantage of the other highlighted levels that have lower rating than chosen places for temporary housing of damaged masses. In addition، we must say that according to the idea of experts two criteria، the availability and the existing specifications، both with 33. 6 % of importance are the most significant in comparison to all other criteria and after that the distance of river criterion with 18. 6 %، the distance to risky installation with 5. 6 %، the density of population with 5. 4 % and the distance to fault with 3. 1 % of importance are in the following steps. These numbers show that considered hypothesis in this research namely «it seems that the availability is known as the most effective factor in site selection of temporary housing after the event in the sixth region of Shiraz Municipality.» is not acceptable، and the crisis management experts and specialists in addition to the availability factor، pay attention to the other factors as for the studied region and they cannot consider the availability factor as the only most effective factor in selecting place for temporary housing. Suggestions: Considering the necessary equipment and services in the chosen places for temporary habitation specially parks and gardens such as specifying the landing spot of helicopter، rest rooms، water resources and etc.، so that if a disaster happens، there will be no need for much time for providing them and there will be no disturb in the faster helping process.
    Keywords: Temporary housing, site selection, Disaster management, GIS, AHP Method
  • H. Zabihi, T. Larimian, H. Poorani Pages 119-136
    Introduction

    Safety and security have been significant issues throughout history، from early prehistoric cave-dwelling societies to medieval and modern cities (P. Cozens، 2008). Crime is a part of our way of living. It is tied to the physical distribution of people and objects، to the routine activity patterns of daily life، and to the ways in which people perceive and use information about the environment (Brantingham & Brantingham، 1993). Theoretical bases: Secured by design is a UK based initiative which was devised in1989، with the aim of countering the rise in household burglary، reducing crime through the design of the environment and encouraging urban designers to design out crime at the planning stage (Armitage، 2004). SBD also aims to achieve security for the building shell and to introduce appropriate internal and external design features that facilitate natural surveillance and create a sense of ownership and responsibility، in order to deter criminal and anti-social behavior within the cartilage of the business. New opportunity theories of crime and crime prevention measures such as situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design largely affected the principles of SBD. These theories assume that crime is a response to opportunity، therefore removing the opportunity can reduce crime. An emphasis is also placed upon the role of the environment in creating or impeding these opportunities. The principles of SBD fall largely into the following categories:

    Discussion

    This study follows two targets: First، determining the relative importance of criteria and sub-criteria of SBD approach and second، evaluating urban security in four areas of the case study using the results of the previous step. The proposed fuzzy AHP model to achieve mentioned targets is composed of the following steps:

    Conclusion

    This study has been proposed a hierarchical model to evaluate the rate of environmental security which decomposes the 5 principles of SBD into 12 criteria and 29 sub-criteria. To our best knowledge، this is the first time that factors affecting main principles of SBD are determined and prioritized. This may help urban designers to consider the most important factors affecting crime reduction in their designs and decision makings. This model is based on determining the most important factors affecting 5 principles of SBD which can lead to urban security in the case study. For this purpose، fuzzy AHP method is adopted in order to assess the relative importance of the factors and sub factors of the model. This method has the ability to capture the vagueness of human thinking style and effectively solve multi-criteria decision making problems.

    Keywords: Urban Security, Secured by Design (SBD) approach, Region 17 of Tehran, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), Guidelines, Strategies