فهرست مطالب

  • سال دهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 36، تابستان 1389)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Seyed Reza Poorseyed*, Shole Amiri, Hosien Molavi Page 113
    Objectives
    the aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a training program to reduce child bullying on the extent of bullying behavior among fifth grade elementary students in Abarkouh.
    Method
    To implement research after applying sociometry and administering the questionnaire for the relationship between homogenous students (some parts of which measures bullying among children), 20 of children classified as bullying children were randomly assigned to two 10-person control and experimental groups. Experimental group received 9 sessions (once a week) of training program to reduce bullying. But control group did not receive any training. Subjects of the study were evaluated again after 45 days. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS16, descriptive indicators and MANCOVA.
    Results
    Results showed a significant difference (P ≤ 0/001) between experimental and control group in post test stage. In follow-up stage also results showed a significant difference (P ≤ 0/001) between experimental and control group.
    Conclusion
    Regarding the significant difference between experimental and control group in post test and follow-up stage, we can say, the training program to reduce bullying among children can be used as an effective method to reduce bullying among bullies.
    Conclusion
    Results have been discussed based on the theoretical and practical implications.
    Keywords: Bullying, Training Program, Elementary Students
  • Dr. Atousa Rostambeik Tafreshi*, Ahmad Ramezani Vasookolaee Page 123
    Objective
    The present study investigates spelling errors in student's with intellectual disabilities (grades 3 to 9, primary to pre-vocational) written discourse.
    Method
    For this descriptive analytic study, the subjects were chosen through random sampling among 4 schools (2 boys’ and 2 girls’). Four pictorial stories were used and all students in the class were asked individually to write stories for the provided picture series.
    Results
    After collecting the data (2407 clauses and 10861 words), they were analyzed based on linguistic processes. 518 token of spelling errors were derived which were described considering phonetics, phonology, and orthography: Errors were classified into four basic processes: deletion, wrong use of letters, addition, and metathesis the frequency of which follows respectively: 36 %, 32%, 24%, and 8%.
    Conclusion
    Clinical implications of spelling errors in students with intellectual Disabilities were discussed.
    Keywords: Linguistic, Spelling, Intellectual disabilities
  • Alizadeh.Z.*, Bahramih., Davarmanesh Page 143
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare phobia frequency and its severity in Students with and without Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Shiraz.
    Method
    In this cross sectionalanalytical study, 140 students (70 normal and 70 students with ID) were selected by a multi phasic sampling method. Phobia evaluation was done using a test constructed and applied by H. Bahrami (2000).
    Results
    t-test, 2 Way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test showed that the difference of phobia severity and its frequency was not significant between the two groups (p>0.05). It was observed that all types of phobia was significantly higher in girls than boys (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Among all types of fears, fear of assistant administrator was higher in students with ID, and fear of failure in education and life was higher in normal students. The severity of fear was higher in fear of crowded place, crossing the street, fights, sharp things and fire among students with ID and severity of fear of sickness, failure in education and life was higher among normal students.
    Keywords: Phobia, Intellectual Disabilities, Fear
  • Hadi Bahrami*, Korosh Banihashemi Page 153
    Objective
    The present study was concerned with effectiveness of assertiveness training on self-esteem and general health in students with and without vision loss in Shiraz.
    Method
    28 students with, and 28 students without vision loss ageing 13-15 were randomly recruited and assigned to experimental and control groups, each group included 14 participants (7 males and 7 females). Coopersmith Self-esteem, and Goldberg General Health Questionnaires were completed in pretest and post-test stages, and twofactor analysis of variance was used.
    Results
    Results indicated that: 1. assertiveness training could increase self-esteem in both groups, 2. assertiveness training could increase general health students with vision loss, but not in normal group, 3. assertiveness training enhanced self-esteem. As there are many health problems in students with vision loss, and partly due to less of assertiveness, with assertiveness training, their general health status becomes better.
    Conclusion
    We conclude that assertiveness training could ameliorate some self-esteem and health problems in these students.
    Keywords: Assertiveness training, Self esteem, General health, Students, Blind
  • Mahdi Ghodrati Mirkouhi*, Bagher Ghobari Bonab Page 163
    Objective
    The aim of the current study was to study the relationship between stressors, coping strategies and stress symptoms in parents of deaf student.
    Method
    To obtain the stated goal two hundred parents (100 mothers, and 100 fathers) of deaf students haven been selected by means of cluster sampling and the following instrument were used to collect data: Questionnaire of Resource and Stress- Short Form (Friedrich, Green berg, & Crnic, 1983), Ways of Coping (Lazarous, & Folkman, 1984) and Stress Symptoms Indicators (Seyyed khorasani,1998). Analysis of data using correlation coefficient, multiple regression, and "t" test have been accomplished to address the stated questions.
    Results
    Analysis of data revealed that there was a significant correlation between sources of stressors (familial factors, temperament of the child, and physical limitations) and stress symptoms (in behavioral, cognitive, affective, and physiological domains) in parents of deaf children. Moreover, data revealed that using emotionally oriented coping style increased stress symptoms in parents, whereas, utilizing problem oriented coping strategies reduced psychological stress of the parents. In addition, comparison of mothers and fathers revealed that fathers were higher than mothers in reaction to stressors, and showing behavioral symptoms of stress (i.e. aggression, and other hostile behaviors) fathers also were higher in using emotionally oriented coping strategies.
    Discussion
    Utilizing problem oriented coping strategies can reduce stress symptoms in parents of deaf children.
    Keywords: stressor, coping strategies, stress symptoms, deafness, parents
  • Leila Hajiesfandairy*, Gholam Ali Afrooz, Haydar Ali Homan, Fereadoun Yaryari Page 175
    Objective
    The current research conducted a comparative study on the frequency of the six types of cross cousin and non-cousin marriag among the parents of exceptional childrens and parents of normal student in karaj.
    Method
    356 subject of exceptional childrens parents (mental retarded، blind, deaf and handicap) and 1395 subjects of normal students parents in 3 groups (elementary, guidance and high school) were selected randomly. The instrument used in the study was the checklist which has been provided and edited by professional in the field. The obtained results were analyzed using X2 test.
    Results
    The result showed cross cousin marriage rate was more among the parents of exceptional childrens compare with the parents of normal students.
    Conclusion
    There was a significant difference between exceptional childrens brith and parents cross cousion marriag; the result also showed in exceptional children parents intersecthing cross cousin marriage rate was more compare with other types of cross cousin marriage.
    Keywords: types of Cross Cousin Marriages, biological, cognitive impairments
  • Mohammad Ahmadpanah* Page 185
    Objective
    This study reviewed past and new models of reading and compared development of reading skills between blind, those who are starting learning to read through touching (Braille) and normal readers.
    Method
    valid and scientific books and articles relevant to the objective published from 1970 to 2009 were reviewed, based on their findings and results the processes of learning to read in visually impaired children was conceptualized, compared and analyzed. Regarding to which Se, Ne Chall's model of reading has been supported by different studies in this study also comparison has been done in perspective of Chall's model of reading.
    Results
    Processes of learning to read among visually impaired people is comparable to the processes of learning to read print in normal readers but visually impaired people have to learn Braille symbols, abbreviations and the others characteristics of Braille. Processes of learning to read are based on having phonological awareness skills and orthographic skills which are prerequisite for reading in normal and blind readers.
    Conclusion
    according to which there is no experimental research that had been investigated learning to read in visually impaired Persian readers(Persian Braille Writing system) in perspective of universal models of reading, doing empirical studies with Persian visually impaired readers would be useful to develop new model or extend current models of reading.
    Keywords: learning to read, reading models, blind children, normal children
  • Hamid Alizadeh* Page 199
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to review briefly related literature on nature, diagnosis, and treatment for nonverbal learning disorders (NVLD).
    Method
    Related research and text literature were reviewed for this purpose, and the most important pivots were emphasized. Results and
    Conclusion
    As a result, we can suggest that NVLD is a condition including deficits in visuo-spatial, sensory, motor, and social abilities. It has various features in different stages of development, and may be misdiagnosed. Brain white matter has been claimed to be responsible for the condition. The intervention guidelines stress on individualized, concrete, and paced therapeutic techniques.
    Keywords: Nonverbal Learning Disorders(NVLD), Visuo, spatial, Sensory, Social, Motor