فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 86 (زمستان 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/11/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • کرامت الله زیاری، صالح اسدی، طاها ربانی، محمد مولایی قلیچی صفحات 1-28
    ‎ ساختار فضایی شهرها به روابط مختلف و متقابل تمامی نیروها و عوامل موجود در شهر بستگی دارد. این عوامل می‎تواند دربرگیرنده نیروی بازار، فعالیت‎ها، زیرساخت‎های شهری و خدمات گوناگون باشد که همواره ارتباطی پیچیده و متقابل داشته و گاهی اوقات این پیچیدگی، حتی مانع رسیدن به الگوی مناسب توسعه و ساخت شهر در مقیاس کلان و برنامه‎ریزی و تنظیم سیاست‎های شهری در مقیاس خرد می‎شود. درنتیجه، لزوم نگرش جدی به برنامه‎ریزی ساختار فضایی شهر اهمیت می‎یابد و برنامه‎ریزی آن بایستی با توجه به ساختار حاکم بر شهرها انجام شود. هدف از این پژوهش ارزیابی و تحلیل ساختار فضایی شهر جدید پردیس و عوامل موثر بر آن از طریق شاخص‎های مختلف (جمعیتی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، بهداشتی درمانی، زیربنایی، حمل‎ونقل و ارتباطات و کالبدی) است. روش پژوهش از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی است. ابتدا بررسی های کلی کالبدی، ازجمله سیمای شهر و کاربری ها انجام گرفت و ساخت و کالبد شهر جدید پردیس معرفی شد. سپس به ارائه نقاط قوت، ضعف، فرصت‎ها و تهدیدهای مرتبط با ساختار فضایی شهر پرداخته و جدول مدل راهبردی تلفیقی تهیه شد. پس از آن با تحلیل سلسله‎مراتبی، به وزن‎دهی هر یک از معیارهای نقاط قوت، ضعف، فرصت‎ها و تهدید‎ها پرداخته و اوزان هر یک از زیر معیار‎های این معیارها محاسبه شد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می‎دهد که شهر جدید پردیس با وجود برخورداری از فرصت‎های مناسب برای رشد و توسعه فضایی متوازن، از عدم تعادل در ساختار فضایی رنج می‎برد و به ساماندهی فضایی مکانی نیازمند است. سرانجام در راستای حل مشکلات ساختار فضایی شهر پردیس، راهبردها و سیاست‎های مناسب برای ارتقای کیفیت محیط زندگی شهر ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار فضایی، راهبرد، برنامه‎ریزی راهبردی، شهر جدید پردیس
  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، احمد پوراحمد، حسین منصوریان، عباس رجایی صفحات 29-56
    از حدود چهار دهه پیش، جامعه‎شناسان، سیاست‎مداران، اقتصاددانان و جغرافی‎دانان، دامنه وسیعی از روش‎های آماری را برای تحلیل و سنجش کیفیت زندگی افراد و گروه ها با هدف دست‎یابی به ابزار مفیدی برای تصمیم‎گیری های اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سیاسی مورد استفاده قرار دادند. در این میان جغرافی‎دانان، افزون‎بر توسعه شاخص‎های کیفیت زندگی، درپی شناسایی و درک الگوبندی جغرافیایی شاخص‎های کیفیت زندگی در ارتباط با فرایندهایی هستند که باعث شکل‎گیری این الگوها شده‎اند. این نوشتار با تکیه بر رویکرد عینی در مطالعه کیفیت زندگی با استفاده از روش تحلیل مولفه های اصلی، به توسعه شاخص کیفیت زندگی در شهر تهران می‎پردازد. چهار مجموعه داده، شامل داده های سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن سال 1385، تصاویر ماهواره ای ETM+، داده های آلودگی هوا و لایه های خدمات شهری برای استخراج شاخص‎های کیفیت زندگی، مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. مولفه های استخراج‎شده شامل وضعیت مسکن و مهارت، دسترسی به خدمات عمومی، کیفیت محیط و وضعیت بیکاری هستند. مولفه های به‎دست‎آمده و شاخص نهایی کیفیت زندگی، به‎منظور شناسایی و درک الگوهای جغرافیایی کیفیت زندگی در شهر تهران، مورد تحلیل مکانی قرار گرفته است. نتایج تحلیل اکتشافی داده های مکانی، بیانگر وجود خوشه‎بندی (خودهمبستگی مکانی مثبت) و ناهمگنی فضایی در توزیع شاخص کیفیت زندگی و مولفه های چهارگانه آن در سطح نواحی شهر تهران است. تحلیل اکتشافی داده های مکانی، برخی از نواحی که نیاز بیشتری به مداخله عمومی مانند، تدارک برنامه های اجتماعی و زیرساخت‎های عمومی دارند، برجسته ساخته و می‎تواند سیاست‎گذاران را به‎منظور کاهش نابرابری های درون شهری هدایت کند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل اکتشافی داده‎های مکانی، تحلیل مولفه‎های اصلی، شهر تهران، کیفیت زندگی
  • مجتبی قدیری معصوم، حمیدرضا باغیانی، مطهره قدیری معصوم صفحات 57-74
    چگونگی توزیع مکانی جمعیت که در نتیجه تحرکات مکانی انسان بوجود می آید، از مباحث مهم ساختار جمعیت می باشد. اولین سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن در سال 1335، جمعیت کشور را معادل 18954704 نفر برآورد کرده است. سرشماری های بعدی در سال های 45، 55، 65، 75، 85 و 90 انجام گرفته که بر اساس آنها جمعیت کشور به ترتیب، 25788722، 33708744، 49445000، 60055000، 70495872 و 75149669 نفر بوده است. این تعداد جمعیت را برای بررسی دقیق تر می توان در قالب نواحی جغرافیایی تقسیم بندی نمود و پراکندگی آنها را مورد بررسی قرار داد. شواهد نشان می دهد که جمعیت ایران توزیعی نامتعادل دارد که ناشی از عوامل متنوع طبیعی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، تاریخی و سیاسی است. از آنجا که عوامل مذکور اثر همدیگر را تشدید یا خنثی نموده، تعیین تاثیر جداگانه آنها امکان پذیر نیست. هدف این پژوهش شناخت تحرکات مکانی جمعیت ایران و پیامدهایی که این تحرکات می تواند به دنبال داشته باشد، می باشد. روش مورد استفاده روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و منابع و اطلاعات لازم به صورت مروری از منابع کتابخانه ای و اسنادی شامل کتاب ها، مقالات و آمارنامه ها جمع آوری گردیده و در نهایت با توجه به سوالات تحقیق، مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که در توزیع مکانی جمعیت ایران، عوامل محیطی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سیاسی نقش مهمی دارند. بدین نحو که تعداد جمعیت ایران، از غرب به شرق و از شمال به جنوب روند نزولی دارد که این نحوه ی پراکنش ناشی از عوامل محیطی (توپوگرافی، بارندگی، خاک حاصلخیز و منابع آب و...)، عوامل اقتصادی (اشتغال، درآمد، فرصت های اشتغال و...)، عوامل سیاسی (سیاستگذاری های دولتی، سرمایه گذاری های دولت و...) عوامل اجتماعی (مهاجرت، پیوندهای خویشاوندی، جاذبه های مذهبی و...) و... می باشد. این نحوه پراکنش جمعیت، می تواند پیامدها و اثرات مختلفی را به دنبال داشته باشد، مثلا در برخی از مناطق افزایش مهاجرت مردم به نواحی دیگر موجب رهاشدن خدمات و امکانات شده و در نتیجه سرمایه گذاری های دولتی و خصوصی بلااستفاده رها می گردند. همچنین این نحوه ی پراکندگی جمعیت موجب بالارفتن تراکم در برخی مناطق مثل استان های تهران، گیلان، مازندران شده که این افزایش تراکم، خود می تواند فشار بر بهره برداری از منابع را افزایش داده و آسیب های زیست محیطی را به دنبال داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: جمعیت، توزیع مکانی جمعیت، تحرکات مکانی جمعیت، نواحی جغرافیایی، ایران
  • فضیله دادور خانی، فاطمه محمدزاده لاریجانی صفحات 75-102
    ‎ در بین انواع گونه های گردشگری روستایی موجود در کشور، گردشگری خانه های دوم مهم‎ترین شکل آن است. در این نوشتار تلاش‎شده عوامل موثر اقتصادی و اجتماعی حاصل از گردشگری خانه دوم با توجه به نظرات پرسش‎شوندگان از گسترش این نوع گردشگری در روستاهای مورد مطالعه، شناسایی شود. مطالعه مورد نظر در روستاهای ییلاقی بخش بندپی شرقی شهرستان بابل انجام گرفته است. پژوهش پیش رو از دید هدف کاربردی و از نوع پژوهش‎های پس‎رویدادی است. داده های مورد نیاز از طریق پرسش‎نامه‎ای گردآوری شده است که روایی آن با استفاده از فرمول کرونباخ با 80 درصد به تایید رسیده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش ساکنان دائمی روستا، ساکنان خانه های دوم در روستا و مسئولان امر گردشگری هستند. در این پژوهش از روش نمونه‎گیری طبقه‎ای نسبی با حجم نمونه 60 نفر (روش کوکران) استفاده شده و برای تحلیل متغیرهای آن، متناسب با نوع داده ها، از نرم‎افزار اس.پی.اس.اس. استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‎دهد که گردشگری آثار مثبت و منفی مختلفی در ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی منطقه برجای گذاشته است، مهم‎ترین آنها با توجه به دیدگاه کلی پرسش‎شوندگان درخصوص گسترش این نوع گردشگری در منطقه، به‎ترتیب در بعد اقتصادی، افزایش شغل‎های فصلی مرتبط با گردشگری و در بعد اجتماعی، افزایش امکانات محلی و افزایش رفتارهای ضد اجتماعی و متضاد با فرهنگ بومی است. بیشترین واگرایی در دیدگاه پرسش‎شوندگان در زمینه تاثیرگذاری عوامل اجتماعی و بیشترین همگرایی در زمینه تاثیرگذاری عوامل اقتصادی گردشگری خانه های دوم مشاهده شد. مسئولان بیشترین موافقت را با گسترش خانه های دوم داشتند و در رتبه بعدی، ساکنان خانه های دوم و مردم محلی، مخالف‎ترین گروه با گسترش این نوع گردشگری بوده‎اند. ساکنان دائم در روستا با وجود آگاهی از آثار مثبت اقتصادی حاصل از گردشگری، به‎دلیل آثار منفی آن بر ابعاد اجتماعی منطقه، با تداوم روند کنونی گسترش گردشگری مخالف هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: پیامدهای گردشگری خانه‎های دوم، روستاهای ییلاقی شهرستان بابل، گردشگری پایدار، گردشگری روستایی
  • سیمین تولایی، وحید ریاحی*، حسن افراخته، احمد شعبانی صفحات 103-118

    گردشگری روستایی در استان قم که قابلیت ویژه‎ای در گردشگری مذهبی دارد، پدیده‎ای نامتعارف جلوه می‎کند، اما این استان با داشتن 88/93 درصد شهرنشینی، دارای آلودگی های هوا و حاشیه‎نشینی و اسکان غیر رسمی در شهر قم است که در گرایش شهروندان به گردشگری روستایی موثر است. بخش کهک قم با روستاهای ییلاقی، از مقاصد شهرنشینان برای گردشگری روزانه و گاه موقت چندروزه است. روستاهای مورد بررسی با وجود جاذبه های طبیعی و انسانی در بعد منطقه‎ای، نتوانسته‎اند از فرصت گردشگرپذیری موجود برای توسعه گردشگری روستایی و درنهایت توسعه روستا موفق عمل کنند. پژوهش پیش رو با استفاده از روش پیمایشی، کتابخانه‎ای و مطالعات میدانی و با در نظر گرفتن دیدگاه سه گروه مشارکت‎کننده (گردشگران، مسئولان و خانوار ساکن)، راهبردهایی را برای توسعه گردشگری روستاهای هدف ارائه کرده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل 874 خانوار ساکن، بیش از 10000 نفر گردشگر سالانه روستاهای مورد مطالعه و 25 مسئول در زمینه گردشگری است که با استفاده از نمونه‎گیری کوکران 267 نفر از ساکنان روستا، 306 نفر گردشگر و 25 مسئول برای جامعه نمونه انتخاب شده‎اند. یافته های پژوهش، کمبود زیرساخت‎های لازم، ازجمله مکان‎های اقامتی، پذیرایی، رفاهی و ضعف مدیریت درزمینه توسعه گردشگری را نشان می‎دهد. بررسی نتایج و تحلیل‎ها از افزایش آسیب زیست‎محیطی، به‎دلیل نامناسب بودن عوامل زیرساختی و ضعف سرمایه‎گذاری در این بخش برای استفاده از آثار مثبت گردشگری روستایی در پیشبرد توسعه روستایی حکایت دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: استان قم، بخش کهک، توسعه پایدار روستایی، گردشگری پایدار، گردشگری روستایی، مدلSWOT
  • بهادر زارعی، علی زینی وند، منصور رضاعلی صفحات 119-136
    ‎ نظام فراملی جهان اسلام که مبتنی بر وحدت و یگانگی امت اسلامی است، به‎طور اصولی با نظام سیاسی موجود که بر اساس نظام سنتی وستفالیایی بنا شده متفاوت است. به نظر می رسد ناسازگاری نظام عقیدتی اسلام با نظام وستفالیایی، در ابعاد زیر قابل بررسی است: اسلام به مرزهای عقیدتی و نادیده‎انگاشتن اصل انشعاب ملی و نفی دولت ملی تاکید می ورزد. تفاوت دیگر، اختلاف در منشا قوانین سامان‎بخش و تنظیم‎کننده مناسبات بین اقوام و گروه‎بندی های انسانی است. در سطح سوم، نظام جهانی اسلام به‎دنبال کنار گذاشتن تفرقه ها و گوناگونی های سیاسی، جغرافیایی، قومی، فرهنگی، نژادی و مانند آن، برای دست‎یافتن به‎نوعی وحدت و در پناه آن، ایجاد یک قطب قدرت در چارچوب موازنه قواست؛ جهان‎گرایی با رویکرد قطب سوم که گستره آن سرزمین و مردمان آسیا، آمریکای لاتین و آفریقا است. درنتیجه، این پژوهش تفاوت های بین نظام فراملی اسلام و نظام دولت ملت وستفالیایی را شناسایی و بر تمایز آنها تاکید کرده است. اهداف نظام فراملی اسلام، جهت‎گیری سیاست خارجی ویژه‎ای را می‎طلبد و در جمهوری اسلامی ایران در شرایط کنونی، با وجود چالش های اساسی با نظام جهانی حاکم، دستگاه دیپلماسی درپی تحقق و عملی ساختن مولفه های آن در عرصه بین المللی است.
    کلیدواژگان: توجه به جهان سوم، سیاست خارجی، مرزهای عقیدتی، نظام فراملی اسلام، نظام وستفالیایی
  • عادل سپهر، اعظم صفرآبادی صفحات 137-154
    با شنیدن نام بیابان، آنچه بیش از هر چیز دیگری در ذهن عام تصور خواهد شد، محیطی خشک، بی‎آب و عاری از پوشش گیاهی است که برای آن ارزش اکوسیستمی را متصور نمی شوند، در حالی‎که بیابان چالشی بوم‎شناختی در حیات کره زمین است. درمقابل در تفکر سیستمی، بیابان نه‎تنها به‎دلیل وجود گونه هایی منحصربه‎فرد و توان اکولوژیکی ویژه نعمتی الهی به‎شمار می‎رود، بلکه قابلیت ها و ارزش های اقتصادی اجتماعی آن، توان بالایی را برای این بوم‎زیست رقم‎زده است. این پژوهش برآن است تا با نگاه به جاذبه ها و قابلیت های زیستی و اقتصادی بیابان ها، ذهن را متوجه امکان سنجی جاذبه های بوم‎شناختی قابل سرمایه گذاری در بیابان های ایران و توجه به اکوتوریسم در این نواحی کند؛ زیرا بیابان یک منبع اقتصادی بی‎مانند و مستعد است که در راستای اهداف توسعه پایدار، موجب حفاظت زیستی و سودآوری اقتصادی این مناطق می شود. در پژوهش پیش رو، به‎منظور بررسی و تعیین ابعاد مختلف اکوتوریسم پایدار بیابان های ایران با کمک الگوریتم دلفی، به تعیین اهداف مورد نظر پرداخته شده است. برای تجزیه‎وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نظرات متخصصان مختلف، شاخص های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی شناسایی و از تحلیل عاملی برای تفسیر داده ها استفاده شده است. یافته های تحلیل عاملی نشان‎دهنده آن است که پنج عامل گسترش مشارکت، تحول کالبدی، افزایش آگاهی محیطی، افزایش جمعیت و افزایش قیمت زمین با درصد واریانس 893/69، بیشترین آثار مثبت ناشی از تغییرات مربوط به پیامدهای اکوتوریسم نواحی بیابانی را تبیین می کنند و 107/30 درصد مربوط به پیامدهای منفی بوده است. این امر نشان‎دهنده اثرگذاری پیامدهای مثبت بیش از پیامدهای منفی است. با توجه به ابعاد و شاخص‎های اکوتوریسم، با اطمینان به‎نسبت خوبی می توان انتظار داشت که اکوتوریسم زمینه های رونق اقتصادی اجتماعی جوامع بیابانی و حفاطت از طبیعت بیابان را به‎همراه داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتوریسم، ایران، بیابان، پایداری، ژئوتوپ
  • سید حسن مطیعی لنگرودی، ابوذر مطیع‎دوست کومله صفحات 155-176
    پارک‎بازار پدیده‎ای جدید در عرصه شهر و برنامه‎ریزی شهری است که در آن، بازار و فضاهای تجاری در درون مجموعه‎ای بزرگتر، متشکل از پارک و فضاهای سبز تفریحی واقع شده است. مجموعه پارک‎بازار لنگرود در حاشیه این شهر، در استان گیلان واقع شده است. در این مجموعه، علاوه‎بر فعالیت روزانه واحدهای تجاری درون آن، هر هفته در روز جمعه، بازاری ویژه به‎نام «جمعه ‎پارک‎بازار» نیز دایر می‎شود که موضوع اصلی این پژوهش است. روش پژوهش از نوع مطالعات توصیفی تحلیلی است و اطلاعات مورد نیاز آن، از برداشت‎های میدانی و مصاحبه با فروشندگان و مراجعه‎کنندگان به جمعه پارک‎بازار و بازارهای سنتی استخراج‎شده است. در مجموع با 923 نفر از فروشندگان و خریداران مصاحبه (شفاهی و پرسش‎نامه) به‎عمل‎آمده و روش نمونه‎گیری هم، تصادفی ساده بوده است. برای پاسخ به سوال‎های پژوهش، هم تحلیل کیفی و هم آزمون‎های آماری به‎کار گرفته شده است که از آزمون کای‎دو، برای بررسی استقلال متغیرها و از ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن، برای به‎دست‎آوردن رابطه بین متغیرها استفاده شده است. نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که جمعه ‎پارک‎بازار با وجود برخی شباهت‎ها با بازارهای سنتی، تفاوت‎های اساسی و آشکاری نیز با این بازارها دارد. همچنین بین دو متغیر، میزان رضایت‎مندی مردم از بازارهای سنتی و تعداد دفعات مراجعه آنها به جمعه پارک‎بازار، رابطه معنادار و معکوسی حاکم است و این بدان معناست که با کاهش میزان رضایت‎مندی مردم از بازارهای سنتی، شمار دفعات مراجعه آنها به جمعه پارک‎بازار افزایش می‎یابد. مجموع این عوامل حاکی از آن است که جمعه پارک‎بازار، به‎سبب ویژگی های ارزشمند خود می‎تواند نویدبخش الگویی نوین برای به‎روزشدن بازارهای سنتی و پیشرفتی مطابق با انتظارهای و نیازهای زمان باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: بازارهای سنتی، پارک بازار، جمعه پارک‎بازار، شهر لنگرود
  • وحید قبادیان، محمود رضایی صفحات 177-196
    پرسش بنیادین در این پژوهش، اینکه نخستین میدان شهر تهران که ویژگی های سازمان فضایی شهری مدرن در آن پدید آمده کدام است و ویژگی های آن چیست؟ در این نوشتار میدان سنتی و میدان مدرن تعریف و ویژگی های فضایی آنها استخراج خواهد شد. سپس سیر پیدایش نخستین میدان‎های شهر تهران بررسی شده تا مشخص شود در کدامیک از آنها برای نخستین‎بار ویژگی های میدان مدرن پدیدار شده است. این پژوهش به‎روش تاریخی و تفسیری، متمرکز بر محدوده مرکزی شهر تهران از عصر صفویه تا دوره مدرن است. بررسی موردی دربرگیرنده میدان‎های اولیه تهران است که در بازه زمانی بیان‎شده قرار داشتند. این میدان‎ها عبارتند از سبزه‎میدان، میدان ارگ، توپخانه، بهارستان، مخبرالدوله، راه‎آهن و حسن‎آباد. طرز تفکر استنتاجی و مقایسه‎ای، رویکرد و روش اصلی تفسیرها بوده است؛ به این معنا که ویژگی های کلی با نمونه های موردی مقایسه و نتیجه گیری انجام شده است. مکان، زمان و ویژگی های فضایی سه مولفه اصلی، شناسایی نخستین میدان مدرن تهران در این پژوهش است. ویژگی های فضایی میدان در هر دوره، پس از استخراج از چهار دیدگاه ارائه شده است: 1. عملکردهای (پیرامونی و درونی) میدان؛ 2. گونه و نحوه دسترسی و اتصال راه ها به میدان؛ 3. شکل و قرارگیری میدان در بافت (مورفولوژی)؛ 4. گونه معماری و عوامل کالبدی بصری موثر در فضای میدان. برای کشف شاخصه های اصلی تحولات فضایی میدان در دوره های مختلف، نقشه ها و متونی که به بررسی سیر تحولات فضاهای شهری و گونه‎شناسی میدان‎ها می‎پردازند، پایه اصلی این مطالعه هستند. نتیجه به‎دست‎آمده در این پژوهش، اینکه میدان توپخانه که در دوره قاجاریه و زمان سلطنت ناصرالدین‎شاه شکل گرفته، نخستین میدان احداث‎شده در تهران است که ویژگی‎ فضاهای شهر مدرن در آن پدیدار شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تهران، توپخانه، سنت و تجدد، فضای شهری، میدان
  • میرنجف موسوی، محمد حسنی، ایوب منوچهری میاندوآب صفحات 197-200
    سنجش کیفیت زندگی، پیچیده و تحت تاثیر عوامل فراوانی است. در این پژوهش از تاثیر شاخص‎های سرمایه اجتماعی بر کیفیت زندگی شهروندان استفاده شده است. بر این اساس با توجه به مطالعه ادبیات نظری مربوط به کیفیت زندگی و سرمایه اجتماعی، چارچوب مفهومی متشکل از پنج مولفه برای سرمایه اجتماعی که متغیرهای مستقل و نه مولفه برای کیفیت زندگی که متغیرهای وابسته پژوهش هستند، برای تحلیل تاثیر شاخص‎های سرمایه اجتماعی بر کیفیت زندگی شهروندان محلات شهر میاندوآب، تدوین و مبنای پژوهش قرار گرفته است. درواقع هدف پژوهش، سنجش تاثیرپذیری سطح کیفیت زندگی شهروندان بر مبنای شاخص‎های سرمایه اجتماعی است. نوع پژوهش کاربردی و روش بررسی آن، توصیفی تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری را سی محله شهر میاندوآب شکل داده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز برای بررسی رابطه سرمایه اجتماعی و کیفیت زندگی که شامل سی‎ونه شاخص سرمایه اجتماعی (متغیر مستقل) و سی‎وپنج شاخص کیفیت زندگی (متغیر وابسته) است، از ابزار پرسش‎نامه و سرشماری عمومی نفوس مسکن، سالنامه های آماری، سازمان ها و نهادهای مربوطه جمع آوری شده است. نتایج نشان می‎دهد از دید سطح سرمایه اجتماعی، محله های 20، 22 و 17 در بالاترین سطح و محله های 16، 13 و 23 در پایین‎ترین سطح قرار دارند. همچنین از دید سطح کیفیت زندگی، محله های 20، 7 و22 در بالاترین سطح و محله های 13، 23 و 16 در پایین‎ترین سطح قرار دارند. یافته ها نشان می‎دهد که محلاتی که سطح سرمایه اجتماعی بالاتری داشتند، از سطح کیفیت زندگی بالاتری برخوردار بودند. همچنین از پنج مولفه سرمایه اجتماعی، مولفه مشارکت اجتماعی بیشترین تاثیر (612/0) را بر کیفیت زندگی داشته و چهار مولفه دیگر سرمایه اجتماعی نیز، رابطه معناداری با کیفیت زندگی داشته‎اند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل فضایی، سرمایه اجتماعی، شهر میاندوآب، کیفیت زندگی
  • علیرضا جمشیدی، داود جمینی، معصومه جمشیدی، رامین چراغی صفحات 221-242
    طی دهه های اخیر، اندک‎اندک محلات نابسامان و سکونتگاه های غیر رسمی، به طور عمده در حاشیه شهرهای بزرگ کشور، خارج از برنامه رسمی توسعه شهری و به صورت خودرو شکل‎گرفته و گسترش یافته است. این پدیده در مطالعات شهری یکی از آسیب های شهری معرفی شده است. تجمع اقشار کم درآمد و مشاغل غیر رسمی در سگونتگاه های غیر رسمی، شیوه ای از شهرنشینی ناپایدار را به‎وجود آورده و زمینه‎ساز بسیاری از آسیب ها و ناهنجاری های اجتماعی شده است. در فرایند آسیب‎شناسی شهری یکی از مراحل بسیار مهم، شناخت دقیق و همه‎جانبه از آسیب است. به‎گفته‎ای، تنها با شناخت دقیق از عوامل ایجاد آسیب است که می‎توان راهکارهای حل آن را نیز ارائه کرد. چالش های حاشیه نشینی را می‎توان به پنچ دسته کلی تقسیم کرد، چالش های اقتصادی، چالش های اجتماعی، چالش های آموزشی، چالش‎های بهداشتی و چالش های مربوط به امور رفاهی که مبنای کلی این مطالعه است. بنابراین، هدف این پژوهش شناخت و اولویت بندی مسائل و مشکلات موجود پدیده اسکان غیر رسمی در محله جعفرآباد شهر کرمانشاه است که برای این امر از روش پژوهش پیمایشی استفاده شد. جامعه آماری آن شامل1500 خانوار حاشیه نشین محله جعفرآباد شهرستان کرمانشاه است. در این پژوهش با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و با احتمال خطای 1/0، تعداد 128 خانوار برای نمونه مورد مطالعه، به‎روش نمونه گیری تصادفی انتخاب شد. اطلاعات مورد نیاز به‎کمک ابزار پرسش‎نامه جمع آوری شد. یافته های پرسش‎نامه با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله‎مراتبی (AHP) و نرم‎افزار Expert Choice مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان می دهد که عامل اقتصادی، اصلی ترین چالش در منطقه است و عوامل اجتماعی، آموزشی، رفاهی و بهداشت در رتبه های بعدی قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان غیر رسمی، اولویت بندی، تحلیل سلسله‎مراتبی، جعفرآباد کرمانشاه، چالش ها
  • محمود یعقوبی دوست، حلیمه عنایت صفحات 243-278
    پیامد گسترش شهرنشینی سریع در ایران، پیدایش شهرهای بزرگ و ایجاد مناطق حاشیه‎نشین با بافت نابه‎سامان و مسکن نابهنجار است. حاشیه نشینی در چندین سال گذشته، علاوه‎بر اینکه مشکلات اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، امنیتی و زیست محیطی فراوانی را در کلان‎شهرهای ایران به‎وجود آورده است، سبب رشد و گسترش خشونت‎های خانگی نسبت به زنان و به‎طور خاص کودکان، در مناطق فقیر و پایین‎دست جامعه به‎دلایل مسائل مالی، فرهنگی، وضعیت مسکن و موارد دیگر شده و همچنان این پدیده رو به افزایش است. هدف این پژوهش سنجش الگوی همبستگی شاخص‎های سکونتی حاشیه‎نشینان و غیر حاشیه‎نشینان با میزان خشونت خانگی آنها علیه فرزندان در شهر اهواز است. این پژوهش از نوع پیمایشی است و جامعه آماری آن، شامل کلیه دانش‎آموزان پسر و دختر مقطع دبیرستان در مناطق حاشیه‎نشین و غیر حاشیه‎نشین شهر اهواز و والدین آنها بوده است که با روش نمونه‎گیری خوشه‎ای چندمرحله‎ای، تعداد 384 نفر آنها برای حجم نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار سنجش این پژوهش پرسش‎نامه های کودک‎آزاری و ضربه (CTQ) (برنستاین، 1995(، پرسش‎نامه محقق‎ساخته شاخص‎های سکونتی حاشیه‎نشینان و پرسش‎نامه جمعیتی بود. بعد از تکمیل پرسش‎نامه به‎دست پاسخ‎گویان، داده ها در دو سطح آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی مورد پردازش قرار گرفت. برای تجزیه‎وتحلیل داده ها از شاخص‎های آماری درصد، میانگین، انحراف استاندارد، همبستگی پیرسون، آزمون تی. و تحلیل رگرسیون استفاده شد. نتایج تجزیه‎وتحلیل داده ها نشان داد که بین متغیرهای وضعیت واحد مسکونی، پایگاه اجتماعی اقتصادی، سابقه سوءمصرف مواد مخدر حاشیه‎نشینان و غیر حاشیه‎نشینان با خشونت خانگی آنها علیه فرزندان رابطه معناداری وجود دارد؛ ولی بین متغیر قومیت حاشیه‎نشینان با خشونت علیه فرزندان، رابطه معناداری مشاهده نشد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایگاه اجتماعی، اقتصادی، حاشیه‎نشینان، خشونت خانگی، شاخص‎های سکونتی، فرزندان
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  • Keramatollah Ziari, Saleh Asadi, Taha Rabbani, Mohammad Molaei Qelichi Pages 1-28
    Introduction Currently، many efforts to improve the guidance and control of the urban transformation، has remained inconclusive. The complexity of urban spatial structure prevents the implementation of many attempts to analyze the communication between the city and the city’s policy. Along with the increase in urban population، the structure and form in the cities and towns spread changes has emerged. Content expressed by the authors was decided to investigate the spatial structure of a new City in Pardis، and adjusting strategies to improve the spatial structure of urban problems that provider. Theories about the spatial structure of the city mainly reflect the order of spatial structures in areas. Basically، the Theories of urban structure، focus on physical features and functional space settlements، and create a framework for land use and order of urban elements and Ingredients. Urban spatial structure is conclusion of historical، economic، social processes and political change. Urban spatial structure، composed manner consistent over the elements of nature and how to establish the connection between them with a certain degree of discipline and functional capacity will be organized.
    Methodology
    The method used in this research is descriptive and analytical. This study sought to assess and identify the spatial location of Pardis new town. For this، a field study of the area has been studied. Studies of land use، including religious use، sports، entertainment، culture and more. Also، the strategic model، the combination of the new city campus has been provided to indicate the status of the city structure. Then، the weight of each criterion، strengths، weaknesses، opportunities and threats are determined by AHP model.
    Results And Discussion
    The design of the Pardis new town، based on the limits of the city expands، have been affected in different directions. Generally Pardis new town، haven’t integration because of dispersion of the phases and separation by Tehran-Roudehen Freeway. Pardis has five-phase that it hasn’t integration between the phases. The first and second phases of Pardis are located in west and third and fourth phases are east. Further construction can be seen in Phase one and two and this has led to more features and utilities are concentrated in these phases. Low mobility of residents in the city because of basic shortages، has led to city do not have exuberance and because of dense texture of blocks، contact with avenue passing is difficult. Being directly of Main Street، has led to vehicles traveling with high speed. Minibus station، the city''s public vehicles with high dispersion is distributed throughout the city. Minibus terminal is located in North West (Phase II). Scattering phase four has led would be difficult to access. After general introduction and presentation of the construction of Pardis، has been paid to points of strength and weaknesses، opportunities and threats related to the spatial structure of Pardis.
    Conclusion
    The fundamental problem of the today’s urban planning facing is unchecked growth of large cities. The major weakness of the spatial structure is often overlooked. Equilibrium spatial structure of Pardis must be improved using increase opportunities for balanced spatial development and implementation of appropriate strategies with these opportunities and in turn، reduce the threat of urban spatial structure.
    Keywords: New Town of Pardis, Spatial Structure, Strategic Planning, Strategies
  • Hossein Hataminezhad, Ahmad Poorahmad, Hossein Mansourian, Seyed Abbas Rajaei Pages 29-56
    Introduction
    For more than four decades، sociologists، politicians، economists and geographers have used a wide variety of statistical techniques to analyze and measure Quality of Life of individuals and communities. This was with the aim to obtain useful instruments for social، political and economic decision making. Quality of urban life has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of Quality of Life studies in monitoring public policies and also due to the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. In addition to development of Quality of Life indicators، geographers seek to identify and understand the geographical patterns of urban Quality of life indicators in relation to the processes that give rise to those patterns. Urban QoL is usually measured by either subjective indicators using surveys of residents’ perceptions، evaluations and satisfaction with urban living or by objective indicators using secondary data and relative weights for objective indicators of the urban environment. This paper relying on the objective approach in study of Quality of life and also using principal component analysis method is developing the Quality of life index in Tehran city.
    Methodology
    Use of census data، satellite images، quantitative GIS، GIS mapping and statistical analysis are powerful tools to investigate the variability of Quality of Life indicators among 117 municipality divisions of Tehran city. Four sets of data were used for the analysis of urban spatial structure in Tehran city. Census data (year 2006) were used for the analysis of socioeconomic condition. ETM+ satellite images (year 2009)، air pollution layer consisting of carbon monoxide (year 2009)، and urban services dispersion layers (year 2006) were used for the spatial analysis. To measure the vegetation cover، the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Landsat 7 ETM+ image dated on summer 2009 were used. The NDVI is a simple numerical indicator that can be used to analyze remote sensing measurements، typically but necessarily from a space platform، and assess whether the target being observed contains live green vegetation or not. Using the Landsat ETM+ 7 satellite image، we therefore calculated the normalized difference vegetation index. Thermal infrared band of ETM+ provides the source to extract surface temperatures. The procedure to extract land surface temperatures involves three steps: (i) converting the digital number of Landsat ETM+ band 6 into spectral radiance; (ii) converting the spectral radiance to at-satellite brightness temperature، which is also called blackbody temperature; and (iii) converting the blackbody temperature to land surface temperature. The average values for the air pollution and specially carbon monoxide were calculated and mapped، using zonal statistic function in GIS. The amounts of air pollution were calculated and analyzed for each area. Accessibilities to six types of urban services were measured for 117 zones of Tehran. These 6 types of urban facilities: educational centers (day care centers، elementary schools، schools for talented students، middle schools، high schools and universities); emergency services (fire stations، emergency centers، and police); health services (hospitals، health and treatment centers); recreation and sport centers (parks، sport clubs، sport grounds); cultural services (libraries، mosques، cinemas، and cultural centers) and subway stations، all analyzed using Arc GIS. Distance was used as criteria for accessibility. In this research، a 500 meter distance was considered as an optimum distance to urban services. These distances were standardized (0 to 1). The value given to a areas reduces with the increase in distance. When the distance reaches 5000 meters، the value given is zero. After calculating the mean value of distances to mentioned urban services، separately and for every zone، the degree of optimum distance of each zone to urban services were measured with weighted linier index. To give weights to these six indicators، Analytical Hierarchical Process was used on the basis of paired comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to extract factors related to socio-economic، environmental and accessibility variables. Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to determine the number of underlying dimensions contained in a set of observed variables. The underlying dimensions are referred to as factors. These factors explain most of the variability among a large number of observed variables.
    Results And Discussion
    Exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) is a subset of exploratory data analysis (EDA) that focuses on the distinguishing characteristics of spatial data-specifically on spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. More specifically، ESDA is a collection of techniques to describe and visualize spatial distributions، identify atypical locations or spatial outliers، discover patterns of spatial association، clusters or hot spots، and suggest spatial regimes or other forms of spatial heterogeneity. By using these methods we can identify spatial effects، which can be classified into two general types: spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. Extracted components are «housing and skill»، «access to public services»، «environmental quality» and «unemployment». Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis have been used to identify and understand geographical patterns of QoL in Tehran city. The results of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis indicate the presence of clustering (a positive spatial autocorrelation) and spatial heterogeneity in distributions of Quality of life Index across the districts of Tehran city. Results show that spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity are detected in the spatial distribution of urban Quality of Life components in Tehran city. Therefore، intra-urban inequalities exist with respect to urban Quality of Life components.
    Conclusion
    The results of this explorative research of spatial data showed that there is a clustering (positive spatial autocorrelation) and unequal distribution of urban Quality of Life components in urban areas of Tehran. The results of the analysis approve the un-equality of socio-economic، environmental and accessibility variables among different areas of the Tehran city. The provided maps show the areas that need intervention and development of public infrastructure. The results of the analysis can guide policy makers and planners to reduce the city’s unequalities. Understanding of these variations can help to develop more realistic models، which are critical for Quality of Life planning.
    Keywords: Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, Quality of Life, Tehran City
  • Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum, Hamid Reza Baghiyani, Motahare Ghadiri Masoum Pages 57-74
    Introduction
    Spatial structure of population is an important issue in regional studies. Iran population has unbalanced and unsuitable distribution. In some places population is dense and in some other areas it is sparse. The unbalanced and disproportional distribution can be attributed to various factors that can be divided into a variety of categories such as natural، economic، social، political، historical، cultural and etc. Development of car industries and promotion of trade، construction and development of rural areas and new towns in different ways has a new era of development and population displacement. Influx of rural migrants to urban areas and concentration of population in cities and small towns led to numerous inconsistencies in the distribution of population in Iran. The high population growth in one hand and the implications and consequences of large population on the other hand are important factors influencing population-based studies and population movements in the geographical areas. In this study، an attempt has been made to study the geographical areas with population change and effective factors. The consequences of this change are analyzed. The questions considered in this study are as follows: 1. Are crucial demographic factors such as population growth and the youth literacy rate in terms of active population and employment rates various in different areas? 2. Is the process of migration in recent decades influencing environmental policies and planning? Could the current trend of population distribution in different regions lead to an increase in the gap between wealthy and deprived areas?
    Methodology
    The method of this research is descriptive - analytic. To obtain information in the research we used library documents and statistics as materials. Then، demographic data were used individually and based on comparisons between different periods.
    Results And Discussion
    According to the findings and discussions، the following research questions are discussed. 1. Are crucial demographic factors such as population growth and the youth literacy rate in terms of the active population and employment rates various in different areas? Population growth: based on the last General Population and Housing Census in 2011، population of Iran was 75. 149 million. This show an increase of 4. 65 million compared with 2006 Census. In other words، the annual population growth was 1. 2 percent in the same period. Young people: the young population increased from 2. 918 in 1956 to 17. 738 2006. The proportion of young population to total population to come in the year 1956 was 15. 4%، and for the year 1966 it was 15. 2%، for 1976 it was 19%، and for 1986 it was 19%، for 1996 about 25. 5%، and 25. 2% for 2006. The literacy rate: In Tehran province (83. 8 percent)، Semnan (80. 8 percent)، Isfahan (80. 2%)، Yazd (79. 2 percent) and Mazandaran (78. 4%) and the highest number allocated to 6 years old and more educated in provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan (57. 3 percent)، Azarbayjan- Gharby (69. 9 percent)، Kurdistan (70. 3 percent)، Khorasan Jonobi (71 percent)، Koohkiluyeh Boyer Ahmad (72. 9 percent). The lowest number has been 6 years and more literate. Growth rate of the active population is characterized byyoung and educated in Sistan- Baluchistan province. This shows the highest rate of population growth and lowest levels of education and low levels of the active population. The high percentage of unemployed is about 16. 8 percent. 2. Is the process of migration in recent decades influencing environmental policies and planning? Recent immigration trends are more in the provinces of Tehran، Khorasan Razavi and Isfahan. Due to unique political status، more income and employment opportunities، easy access and etc. Tehran has attracted the largest number of immigrants. Government policy was so that caused many people to migrate to Tehran because of more facilities available.. So، it is clear that immigration trends are influenced by environmental factors، and planning policies. 3. Could the current trend of population distribution in different regions lead to an increase in the gap between wealthy and deprived areas? Current trends indicate that the population distribution is mainly concentrated in metropolitan centers due to the concentration of material and social capital. Different migrant groups have a variety of living conditions. Most cities have immigration such as Tehran، Mashhad and Isfahan. The high populated areas have more job opportunities for people and attract more people from remote areas.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the distribution of population of Iran، from West to East and from North to South is influenced by environmental factors (topography، rainfall، soil and water resources and etc)، economic factors (income، employment opportunities، etc.)، political factors (government policies، government funding، etc.)، and social factors (migration، kinship ties، religious attractions، etc). The distribution of population may lead to different effects. For example، in some areas، increased migration of people to other areas has led to a situation that the facilities and services by public and private investments are left unused. The distribution of population density is increasing in some areas such as the provinces of Tehran، Gilan، Mazandaran. These increases in density could increase pressure on the utilization of resources and environmental damage. In this review، in the form of three questions listed above we have tried to check the movement of population and geographical areas and their consequences. The results show that the geographic distribution of the population is strongly influenced by environmental، economic، social، and political factors. Each of these aspects will consequently lead to different effects.
    Keywords: Geographic Area, Iran, Population, Population Movements, Spatial Distribution of Population
  • Fazileh Dadvar- Khani, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh Larijani Pages 75-102
    Introduction
    Among various types of rural tourism، one of the most important types is second home tourism. This article is going to analyse the effects of development of second homes as a consequence of tourism development in rural areas of Eastern Bandpay villages، one of the township of Babol countryside. Despite the growth of Second Home Tourism (SHT) in North of Iran، particularly over the past 2 decades، there are a few researchs about the nature of such effects. The main approach of the article is sustainable developmeant of tourism. It focuses on assessment of economic and social effects of tourism on the area. These include both negative and positive effects.
    Methodology
    The research has carried out on the basis of descriptive and exploratory method. The statistic population of the reserach are local people in rural areas، second home owners and rural managers and dicission markers. According to Cochrane Method a Sample Size of 60 participants has been chosen. The data have gathered by a questionnaire that had been made by authors. The validaty of the questionnaire has been estimated by chronbach method and was about 0. 8 which is reliable. For analysing the data we have used Spearman Correlation test and other descriptive methods by SPSS software.
    Results And Discussion
    This research has been conducted in Babol district in North of Iran. So، in this article the negative and positive effects of second homes from view point of local communities and tourists and rural managers have been argued. The results show that tourism has had different positive effects on the economic and social aspects. It also shows that there are different ideas about tourism economic effects، between three groups of the research participatiants. Meanwhile there are the highest disagreement in the case of social effects.
    Conclusion
    The research findings indicate that rural managers had the most agreement about tourism extension in the villages. In second level there is second home owners who admiredtourism as a means for rural development. However، despite their knowledge about positive effects of tourism، local people disagereed about tourism development in the current shape. They belive that this process of tourism development will demolish social structure of their village. Therefore، they emphasize on changing process of rural tourism development.
    Keywords: Consequences of Tourism, Rural Tourism, Rural Villa City of Babol, Second Homes, Sustainable Tourism
  • Simin Tavallaei, Vahid Riyahi, Hasan Afrakhte, Ahmad Shabani Pages 103-118
    Introduction

    Rural tourism in Qom province – that have special feature of religious tourism - the may seem an unusual phenomenon. But the province with 93. 88 percent of urbanization، after Tehran province has the second rank It is as a metropolis with 6 percent growth that has urbanization problems including traffic and air pollution and marginalized and informal settlements where may affect rural tourism. Kahak District of Qom province has villa villages (Vashnoveh، Karmejegan and Fordo) for tourism purposes. The present paper survey method is a library and field studies، with regard to participants views in three groups (tourists، officials، families living in). We first determine strengths، weaknesses، opportunities، and threats in rural parts of Kahak (Vashnoveh، Karmejegan and Fordo) for Rural Tourism by the SWOT method. Tourism development strategy has provided the target villages. Community households in the survey included 874 residents، more than 1000 tourists and 25 persons are responsible for tourism in the area. Sampling method of Cochrane helped select 267 people and 306 rural residents and 25 tourists as statistical population. Research findings indicate a lack of necessary infrastructure including residential locations، catering، recreation and tourism development in the field of management of weaknesses. Review and analysis of the results from increasing environmental damage due to inadequate infrastructure and poor agents to invest in this sector for the use of positive effects in promoting rural tourism is a tale of rural development. Rural tourism may have significant economic effects such as preventing the flow of rural migration، raising income levels of rural households and creating demand for agricultural products and handicrafts. In Kahak (Qom province)، three target villages have the necessary capabilities in the field of tourism، but have been unable to benefit from tourism in creating jobs، increasing income and building service locations. It is while; tourism is the most suitable choice for rural development. This is especially important when the tourists are residing in the second homes during the warm seasons. This provides an opportunity for tourists who plan to strengthen rural areas، while there are no negative environmental effects. This study is seeking to answer these questions: Do we have target villages foundations for environmental and rural tourism development that can require us to attract tourists? Is there any relationship between lack of appropriate infrastructure (including roads and access to residential and entertainment venues) and the amount of tourists? To answer questions، strengths، weaknesses، opportunities and threats in the area were assessed by two internal and external factors using the SWOT analysis model.

    Methodology

    The aim of this study is to examine the hospitality and the foundations of rural tourism in the three interested villages of Kahakto provide strategies for tourism development in this area. Hence، information was provided through observation، questionnaires and interviews. The population of the study was more than 10،000 thousand people (tourists annually three villages) and rural population، which has 874 households، and 25 persons of authorities. Population samples were studied in three groups: tourists with 306 people، 267 households living in villages and 25 patients and associated persons in charge. Sampling in the study was Cochrane formula. Questionnaires were distributed among the tourists using random sampling and among households living in targeted areas by qualitative methods. After completing the questionnaire، the SWOT model was used to develop strategies and provide solutions. In this model، four concepts of strengths، weaknesses، opportunities and threats from the main foundation of the model. they are the internal (domestic) and external (foreign) fields that were studied on rural tourism.

    Results And Discussion

    Internal and external factors affecting rural tourism in the study area (Tables 5 and 6 which are provided) shows that among the internal factors that influence rural tourism، there are nine strong points against 12 weaknesses. On external factors influence، there are 8 opportunities against the 8 threats. Total of 17 strengthes and opportunities are considered as an advantage. Up to 21threats are as disadvantage to pull constraints for developing rural tourism. In Table 7، the total weight for each of the factors، were set based on questionnaires frequencies، as well as weight and concepts from the viewpoint of the four respondents. Finally، in Table 8، there is the priority of each effective internal and external factors; Table 7 shows that the most important strengths is the most beautiful landscapes. The weakness is the poor inadequate facilities and services. Increasing and becoming more motivated to travel to the villages is the main opportunities and environmental damage is the main threats of the area.

    Conclusion

    The main result is the necessity for more researches in rural tourism planning in Iran. The necessity is more in some villages like those studied in this article. Tourism development in the study area can be at two levels of long-term and short term. 1-long-term programs includes: − To create and develop infrastructures such as accommodation and welfare facilities، catering facilities and service facilities. − To prepare a comprehensive tourism plan and set plans for developing tourism and attracting tourists، which is proportional to the ecological conditions of the region and prevent environmental degradation. − Provide a suitable ground for private sector investment in regional tourism activities. 2 - Short-term programs includes: − Tourist attractions and advertising recognition to mark them with different methods، like TV shows in the province and marketing to attract tourists and become a regional pole of rural tourism in the province. − Holding training classes for the villagers interested in interacting with tourists، tourism and education. − Create partnerships in rural areas for rural development. − Revival of handicrafts and production of local handicrafts for offering to tourists using the experiences of people with skills. − Install warning signs and collect accurate and automated garbage and rural sanitation to prevent environmental pollution.

    Keywords: Kahak, Qom Province, Rural Tourism, Sustainable Rural Development, Sustainable Tourism, SWOT Model
  • Bahodor Zaree, Ali Zaynivand, Mansour Rezaali Pages 119-136
    Introduction
    According to the teachings of Islam، jurists and scholars are providing a global picture of the transnational system which is clearly different from the current political system evolved since the Westphalia treaty. The first feature of such a system is to ignore the national government and the states territory. Islam recognizes the ideological borders and a nation state based on ideas or principles that leads to mutual coherence and unity among Muslims. According to these intelligentsia، dispersion and scattering in Muslim world، is the result of the direct manipulation of the imperialist powers that divided it into diverse nation states. Therefore، the thinking trend towards the third world among major decision makers of Islamic republic of Iran and the efforts for uniting such various and scattered block are due to the religious insights of decision makers and the historical experience of imperial power in the Islamic world. The aim of this study is to compare two different political thoughts known as Islamic thought which believes in a nation-centered system and nationalism which is called Westphalian from which national state is generated. This study attempts to evaluate the following hypotheses: a. Due to the divergence of nationality، Islam pays attention to ideological boundaries، the principle of national divergence، and ignorance of national government. It rejects geographic and political diversity in the human communities (ethnic، cultural، racial) and tries to establish a unified community with a powerful center. b. the above mentioned components need a particular foreign policy for Iran or any Muslim country which pays attention to Muslims، oppressed countries and the third World countries.
    Methodology
    In the present study، we have tried to identify the differences between two approaches of transnational system of Islamic world and the Westphalian system. It was also attempted to investigate the reasons of relatively stable foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran resulted from such an approach. To do so، we have tried to make use of an integration of different Humanities subjects such as political science، international relations، international law and geopolitics to develop a clear framework to deal with contradictions of the national government with Islamic government. Therefore، the research method was descriptive-analytic using deduction at large scale. We have also tried to make extensive use of library information including Islamic sources، Islamic political thought، and political and International law resources.
    Results And Discussion
    With the exploration of historical data relating to the foreign relations of the past decade، we can find out that trends، decisions، actions، and foreign policiesof Iran in a dynamic and changing range has gone through different historical changes including thorough rejection of the foundations of Westphalian system and reconciliation and tolerance and acceptance of the existence of such a society and acting within the rules of the game. Accordingly، in the early stages of the revolution and the establishment of a new political system in Iran، maintaining the principles of international societies such as national government were ignored and the establishment of an ideal system controlled by global government of Islam was emphasized. In the second decade of the Islamic republic of Iran، while using some of the past experiences، developing relationships and partnerships with other governments، active participation in international institutions، utilizing of external resources، especially in technical and economic fields as vital factors، were emphasized. However، the transnational system of Islamic world at present is supported by Islamic republic of Iran and some of Muslim countries. It has components such as the trend towards establishing an Islamic block، attention to the third world countries، supporting the poor in the world and replacing Islamic international Law as a base for political behavior of Islamic governments.
    Conclusion
    It could be concluded that there is a clear difference between the two trends of transnational systems of Islam world (which is built on ideological principles) and national branching principle. Transnational system of Islam world ignores national government and territories of the other governments and instead recognizes ideological boundaries and divides the world into two blocks: Islam and Blasphemy. In contrast to this system we can findWestphalian system which is built upon geopolitical hierarchy. The most important feature of such system is the emergence، growth and development of the national governments which extends all around the world even the world of Islam. Political behavior and foreign relations of Islamic republic of Iran during the last three decades indicate the absolute rejection of Westphalian system. Thus، in the first decade of revolution، the maintaining principles of International system، including national governments، international institutions، the balance of power، the role of international forces were rejected and ignored. But in the second decade، while keeping some of the previous components، developing relations and cooperation with other states، active participation in international institutions، using external sources particularly technical and economic ones were highlighted as very necessary.
    Keywords: Attention to the Third World, Foreign Policy, Ideological Borders, The System of Transnational Islam, Westphalian System
  • Adel Sepehr, Azam Safarabadi Pages 137-154
    Introduction
    By hearing the name of desert، more than anything else، cruel، coarse and dry environment is imagined. In the general approach، desert is known as an ecosystem with water scarcity، rare of plant cover and sand covered areas. The opposite of this approach rises from a systematic approach to the desert landscape which involves high potential of desert with special socioeconomic conditions and eco-geomorphic landforms. In the cultural perspective، the deserts are cradle of prophets of Allah. Revelation voice has been received by messengers in the sand dunes، desert caves and dust storms. So، deserts are natural-cultural heritages for each land. In this article، the capability of desert as a great source for ecotourism activities which leads to sustainable development of these environments has been reviewed. In order to analyze the data، indicators of economic، environmental and social have been recognized using expert opinion. Factor analysis was used for interpreting the data. The results of the factor analysis showed that five factors contribute to the development، physical development، environmental awareness، population growth and rising land prices.
    Methodology
    The present study was designed to investigate and assess various aspects of ecotourism، sustainable desert، while taking advantage of a library of information and resources. This research was carried out with the help of the Delphi algorithm to determine the objectives and various aspects of sustainable ecotourism in Iran. Taking advantage of the experts، dimensions and indicators of ecotourism was determined according to Table 3. For the method 15 experts in five universities (Tehran، Mashhad، Isfahan، Yazd and Shiraz) were selected and a questionnaire was filled. People were asked to answer the aspects (both positive and negative) of developing ecotourism in arid desert country in three ecological (environmental)، economic and social issues. The data of experts، the economic component of 11، 23 and 14 elements of environmental and social factors were identified and separated.
    Results And Discussion
    As mentioned in the methodology، in order to examine ecotourism impacts on wilderness areas، 11 economic components، and 23 social components and 14 environmental components were identified. Factor analysis was used to determine their effects. The first step is to ensure the correct application of this method. KMO of the tool was equal to 0. 795. The value demonstrates acceptable internal consistency of the components. Bartlett''s test with a significance level of acceptable (sig <0. 000) components showed suitable for performing factor analysis. Table 1. Results KMO and Bartlett''s test for performance analysis Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0. 759 Bartlett''s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 1. 312 Df 435 Sig 0. 000
    Conclusion
    Ecotourism potential in arid areas is important to achieve stable development and become an important component of economic development in the deserts. The recent spread of tourism in desert areas has resulted in many positive and negative effects. The present study examines the effects of ecotourism on the sustainable development of desert areas. Thus، 44 elements in three groups of economic، social and environmental issues were studied. Results showed that the first factor، the development of partnerships، particularly with the amount of 8. 355، 24. 325% of the total variance is explained by the components. The highest value of this factor that increase people''s participation in natural resource management on the sustainable development of ecotourism is for desert. The amount of 6. 534، 17. 031% of the variance components are allocated to managing physical changes. Therefore، this component represents the physical changes that may contribute to the development of ecotourism in desert areas. Increase in the environmental awareness has the value of 5. 721، 12. 304% of the total variance and factors influencing its components are associated with providing public and professional educational opportunities. Population growth factor with a value of 3. 598، explain about 8. 5% of the total variance. Ultimately، increase in the amount of land prices، especially 2. 3، accounted for about 7. 6% of the total variance of the variables. Evaluation results show that ecotourism combine positive and negative impacts and host communities and local natural heritage. The challenges of ecological tourism expand it، without destroying the natural attractions. Obviously، the development of ecotourism in sensitive natural areas with a lack of proper planning and management can be a threat to the integrity of ecosystems and cultures.
    Keywords: Desert, Ecotourism, Geotop, Iran Sustainable
  • Seyed Hasan Motiee Langroodi, Abouzar Moteidoust Koumle Pages 155-176
    Introduction
    Park-Bazaar is a new phenomenon in the field of City and Urban Planning. In this phenomenon، commercial spaces are located within a larger collection that consists of park and special green space. Langeroud’s Park-Bazaar is located on the edge of this city، in Guilan province. In this collection، in addition to the daily activities of business units، there is a special market called «Friday Park-Bazaar» every week on Friday. This study is carried out by descriptive- analytical method. Information required for this study has exploited from field surveys and interviews with sellers and customers of Friday Park-Bazaar and traditional markets. This research attempts to answer the following questions: What are similarities and differences between Friday Park Bazaar and traditional markets; What is the relationship between people satisfaction of traditional markets and the times they visit Friday Park-Bazaar?
    Methodology
    It has been interviewed with 923 persons of the sellers and buyers (oral interview or questionnaire) totally. Sampling method is simple random sampling. The qualitative analysis and statistical tests are used to answer the research questions. For data analysis Excel and SPSS software have been applied. Chi-Square test is used for independence of variables، and then Spearman correlation coefficient is used to determine relationship between variables.
    Results And Discussion
    Some of the similarities of Friday Park-Bazaar with traditional markets are: Similarity in apparent structure of Park-Bazaar; Similarity in the presence of small and big sellers; Similarity in the space racket and noise; Similarity in social functioning markets; Similarity in quality of the relation between buyers and sellers. Some of the differences of Friday Park-Bazaar with traditional markets are: Differences in the composition of the job markets sellers; Differences in the sex composition of sellers; Differences in the age composition of Sellers; Differences in the education of Sellers; Differences in the sex composition of visitors to markets; Differences in the age composition of visitors to markets; Differences in the education of visitors to markets.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicate that: 1. Friday Park-Bazaar has fundamental differences with traditional markets despite some similarities. 2. There is a significant and inverted relationship between people satisfaction of traditional markets and the times they visit to Friday Park-Bazaar. In other words، decreasing of people satisfaction of traditional markets increases number of times they visit to Friday Park-Bazaar. On the whole، Friday Park-Bazaar because of its valuable properties can be promising as a new model to update traditional markets (improving the expectations and needs).
    Keywords: Friday Park, Bazaar, Langeroud City, Park, Bazaar, To Update, Traditional Markets
  • Vahid Ghobadian, Mahmoud Rezaei Pages 177-196
    Introduction
    While forms of cities in Iran have been transformed from traditional structure into modern one، in the same line، the urban elements including squares changed and appeared in a totally new characteristic. Traditional squares in Iran have normally been vast open spaces enclosed with public traditional uses such as public baths، cisterns، mosques، bazars، palaces and governmental buildings. All of these squares have coherently been articulated with the city fabric for people. Since the first Pahlavi، urban fabric of Tehran، and accordingly its squares، has changed specifically for using cars or applying new modern infrastructures. Thus، from this time on in Tehran، two types of development overlays each other: The traditional layer consisting of organic and narrow roads and the modern layer with orthogonal and grid roads. To some extent، the same prototype has been followed in other big or small cities and settlements. The roundabouts or so-called modern squares emerged at the intersection of road networks across the cities. Therefore، the main usage and scale of these squares was defined for vehicular transportation. Around this new urban element at the crossroads some modern functions were emerged: municipality، post and telegraph office، hotels، banks، national police office، county authorities and province governor buildings which all were، less or more، relevant to the governmental uses. In the middle of the squares itself there was regularly either a statue of the first Pahlavi or any other urban landmark. It is historically significant to figure out the first modern square in Tehran city. Most probably it has been the origin of modern squares and main pattern for the other squares in Tehran and all other Iranian cities. The main objective of this research is to discover the first modern crossing point in the new development layer of Tehran which is imposed to the traditional city. This cross point will demonstrate architecture and urban design issues related to modern and traditional developments in Iran. As Michael Web noted: “We cannot bring back the past، but we can learn from it. An older square that is an organic part of its community usually serves present needs better than a new space ordained by a planner or developer. Cities are learning to preserve، improve and adopt the squares they have، rather than opening up more. People have always enjoyed coming together، and this survey celebrates the different ways in which that impulse can be fulfilled.” (Web، 1990)
    Methodology
    This is an explanatory and case study research that focuses on the central city of Tehran within Naseri’s Fortification and its proximities. The mode of the research is historical and it explores Tehran city from the origins to the end of Modern period. It investigatealmost all the primary squares of the city in that period including Sabze Meydan، Arg، Topkhaneh، Baherstan، Mokhber-al-dole، Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad. Moving from the more general to specific observation the research explanation has basically got a deductive or top-down approach. The research approach inherently avoids any normative interpretation and deals with positive statements. In addition to time and location، the spatial characteristic has been another main component for discovering the first modern square of Tehran. Spatial characteristics، in here، include: • Land uses and functions of the squares and surroundings• Type of access and the articulation of roads and squares• Morphology، orientation and the layout of the squares• Architectural prototypes and physical-visual aspects of the squaresIllustrations and texts dealing with urban space analysis and square evolutions as well as specific studies on architecture and urban design of Tehran have made the main data and materials for this research.
    Results And Discussion
    Comparing the traditional and modern factors of city squares، the first modern square of Tehran city will be hopefully discovered. Thereby، the research discusses and analyzes the first squares of Tehran city in three periods: • From establishment of the city to demolishing Tahmasbi’s fortification and the city development through Naser-Aldin Shah dynasty. • From above-mentioned period to the first Pahlavi. • New development of Tehran central part during the First Pahlavi to 1933. The transformation of squares in Tehran through the years and toward modernization is discussed in different aspects: Land use، Access، Morphology and Architecture Style. The discussions indicate that squares are reshaped from irregular to regular shapes and are interlinked to urban vehicular streets at all. Furthermore، diagonal and defined spaces are amongst the main square characteristics in modern period. Locating new and modern land uses and widening the scale of mass and solid spaces around the squares are other distinctive changes of modern city development in Tehran. Moreover، squares are connecting to one another with regular، diagonal and linear streets while sculptures and water features are vastly added to their landscape. The architecture style in proximity of squares follows more extroverted rather than introverted development and it، in turn، reduces the enclosures of the squares.
    Conclusion
    The outcome of this research shows that Topkhaneh Square which is made during Qajar period، dynasty of Naserdin Shah، is the first square in Tehran which has acquired modern characteristics of urban spaces. The location of the square at the focal point of the city from which the city has been developed as well as the spread of modern functions including bank and telegraph offices around the square have made this segment different from all traditional squares in Iran.
    Keywords: Modern, Square, Tehran, Topkhaneh Square, Tradition, Urban Space
  • Mir Najaf Mousavi, Mohammad Hasani, Ayoub Manouchehri Pages 197-200
    Introduction
    Regarding only physical aspects by engineering approach، regardless of social and economic values and goals، made philosophy of cities as a place to live faced with serious doubts. There are criticisms against this type of planning that focuses on the goals and values. Prevalent thinking about «livable city» has made a major revision of the goals and methods of planning and alternative thinking to deal with this phenomenon. This is because of profound changes in contemporary urban areas such as changes in housing styles، leisure، communication، etc. In the past half century، there were changes in decision-making procedures and policies in urban planning from the foundation. No way is left except a fundamental reconsideration of the content and methods of rational planning. Therefore، city has an index of human life in the form of structured and methodical. Humans interact with their environment، such as containerized within the urban environment. This interaction requires the provision of basic aspects of life in order to make a sustainable living environment in the city. Such a change in the attitude of urban life led to new concepts in the literature of urban planning. Following this process، the concept of quality of life was stated for the first time in 1966 in a book titled «Social Indicators» by Raymond Bauer. Since of quality of life is a multifaceted concept، partially influenced by time and individual and social values، it includes objective and external، conceptual and internal aspects. Each of the studies has focused on aspects of quality of life. In previous studies، it is one of the components of less interest in the effects of social capital on quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to analyze quality of life and effectiveness of social capital theory. In Other words، this study has tried to analyze the effects of social capital on quality of life of citizens. In other words، the main question is، therefore، whether is there any differences between social capital and quality of life in neighborhoods of Miyandoab? What is the connection there?
    Methodology
    According to the research objectives and components، the type of this research is practical and the methodology is descriptive- analytical. A survey of 30 neighborhoods in Miyandoab، according to the administrative division - is political. Data collection tool is quenstionnaires for the study of the relationship between social capital and quality of life that includes 39 indicators of social capital as independent variables and 35 indicators of of quality of life as the dependent variable. Survey method is used to collect the data. The instrument used was a questionnaire study. Since the aim was to investigate all City Neighborhoods separately، we used stratified random sampling method. First، based on the total population the number of samples was specified. Cronbach''s alpha was used to obtain the reliability of the research instrument. The value of 0. 77 for the tool suggests that this tool has very good reliability. To obtain validity of the questionnaire we used for factor analysis by KMO. KMO value of 0. 75 for this tool indicats a good level of validity. Some of the information has been gathered from the Population Census of Housing، data from annals، organizations، and institutions concerned. For data analysis TOPSIS model was used to evaluate the ability of neighborhoods of Miyandoab City. The relationships between the variables were also tested using inferential statistical tests such as correlation، multiple regression and path analysis. The statistical population was 123،081 people according to the 1390 census. Cochran''s formula was used to determine sample size. The sample size was with 95% confidence for the 382 questionnaires. This number is collected as a percentage of the neighborhoods population.
    Results And Discussion
    Using TOPSIS model with entropy weighting method to rank the City Neighborhoods Miyandoab was revealed to be in the venture capital community. Based on the studies done neighborhoods of 20، 22، 17، 29، 7، and 26 were identified as the most desirable neighborhoods. These neighborhoods in terms of components of social capital were the highest in the City Neighborhoods of Miyandoab. Neighborhoods of 23، 16 and 3 as marginal neighborhoods have been identified as low levels in social capital. TOPSIS model has also been used to assess quality of life in urban neighborhoods of Miyandoab. For this assessment، the first step is weighting demographic characteristics، education، leisure، engagement and solidarity، health and safety، economic، physical، and environmental infrastructure. Neighborhoods utility rates were determined for each of the indicators. Studies show that neighborhoods 20، 7 and 22 as neighborhoods with high levels of social capital than other neighborhoods have now high quality of life. Results show that when the components of social capital in the neighborhoods of the situation are favorable، these neighborhoods are more desirable in terms of of quality of life. According to what was stated in the discussion of social capital، this can be concluded that neighborhoods in terms of social capital indicators are more favorable thanin terms of quality of life. As a result، there is a direct relationship between these two factors and it can be recommended for future researches.
    Conclusion
    What can be concluded from this study is that the way of life of local communities are desirable. In this study it was found that the neighborhoods in terms of social capital indicators have more favorable position and in terms of quality of life are better. What is the social capital that one neighborhoon more favorable relative to others. One of those is dating of neighborhoods and the number of years that the residents living in those neighborhoods. Homogeneity of these neighborhoods in economic، social and cultural aspects has led citizens to have more social interaction. These characteristics have led to a general index of social capital such as trust، cooperation، and adjacency relations. As a result، indirect effect is to create a better quality of life. According to the results، it can be proposed that the preservation of local communities dating can be attempted A new city neighborhood has been appeared in recent decades، because most of these neighborhoods residents are young couples. In terms of social capital indicators are these new neighborhoods are weaker than the neighborhoods anymore، and the quality of life of these neighborhoods is lower than others.
    Keywords: Miyandoab City, Quality of Life, Social Capital, Spatial Analysis
  • Alireza Jamshidi, Davood Jamini, Masome Jamshidi, Ramin Cheraghi Pages 221-242
    Introduction
    During the recent decades unorganized and informal settlement neighborhoods gradually developed on the fringes of large cities. They formed outside of the official program of urban development. This phenomenon in urban studies is considered as one of the urban injuries. Informal settlements are mainly concomitant with informal occupancy of land and housing، lack of rules، formal and conventional regulations of construction، shortages infacilities and equipment and urban infrastructural services، fast physical and demographic growth، dominant informal employment، structural and infrastructural instability، low services per capita، income instability and ultimately physical grounds for growth of social damages and formation of deviate subcultures and providing shelter for offenders. Accumulation of low income and informal employment in informal settlements has developed a type of unsustainable urbanization that underlying many of the injuries and social abnormalities. Comprehensive and accurate understanding of the damage is one of the important aspects in the process of urban pathology. In other words، only with the exact knowledge of the factors some strategies can be presented for solving these problems. Challenges of marginalization can also be divided into five general categories: economic challenges، social challenges، educational challenges، health challenges، and challenges related to welfare are general basis of this study. Iran as a developing country is faced with the problem of informal settlements، as well as how to deal with this phenomenon. Origin and the formation of informal settlements in Iran can be similar to those in the developed and underdeveloped countries. However، the comparison of the intensity and unity is not the same. The traditional way of informal settlements in Iran from the beginning of 1941 until late 1971، with relatively high intensity، has spread its trend over time. After the revolution in terms of the formation intensity، this is argued as one of the fundamental problems of cities in Iran. During this period، following the growth of capitalist relation and relationships، there were political، economic، social developments and changes. Based on Studies on marginalization، we can say that the most important features of this phenomenon is poor construction، social، economic and cultural poverty، unemployment، false employment، non-compliance with social and individual health، lack of access to health and educational facilities، increased crime، corruption، prostitution، drug overdose compared with other urban areas and etc. On the other hand، the growth and development of marginalized areas can now be observed around the large cities such as Tehran، Mashhad، Shiraz، Kerman، Isfahan and other cities. Kermanshah City، due to its rapid economic development in recent decades، especially in 1990s saw the presence of large population in native villages and nonnative villages (the provinces of Ilam and Lorestan). These people for taking advantage of economic opportunities migrate to the city. The high rate of immigrant population and lack of services and the lack of control، on the other hand، create a broad range of disorganized and informal settlements around the city. The formation of this phenomenon، along with a number of issues that is not limited to marginalized areas affects the whole of a city. So، the outcome of this phenomenon is the incidence of abnormalities in the context of urbanization. Marginalized people، employment in informal and false jobs، presence of unauthorized constructions، inability of municipalities to provide adequate services in these areas، environmental pollution، unfavorable cultural، economic، social، political effects of these area on the whole urban area are destructive and harmful effects of marginalization and informal settlements. Thus، study and investigation of these challenges and how to reduce them are important for urban planning. Given the importance of marginalization، as well as the importance of historical and cultural city of Kermanshah، it is necessary to pay attention to the understanding of this subject and its trend.
    Methodology
    The purpose of this research is to identify and prioritize issues and problems of informal settlement in Jafarabad neighborhood، in city of Kermanshah. For this we used survey research method. The population of this study is comprised of 1500 households in Jafarabad marginalized neighborhood. In this study، using Cochran''s formula and the error probability of 0. 1، 128 households were selected as samples by random sampling method. Information was collected through questionnaires. Results were analyzed using Analytic Hierarchical Approach (AHP) and Expert Choice software in 8 steps in order to prioritize the challenges and problems of the marginalization in the economic، social، health، welfare and education dimensions.
    Results And Discussion
    At first، the comparative study was conducted according to included criteria as pairwise comparisons. At this stage a couple of criteria، according to the study were compared pairwise. According to the results، unemployment criterion with 0. 289 and standard income criterion with 0. 179 are the greatest problems in this area. In the final stage، for weighting the choices، the integration took place. Results of the combined problems of marginalization، in the study area، indicated that among the challenges in the study area، the economic factors with ratio 0. 334 have more importance than other factors. In contrast، the health factor with ratio 0. 101 has the lowest priority. Welfare and social factors have the second and third priorities.
    Conclusion
    Finally، it can be concluded that the challenges of Jafarabad marginalized neighborhood are the social، economic، education، health and welfare factors in order. To justify these rankings it can be said that as more than 70 percent of residents in this region are illiterate or with primary education، thus enabling them to find work for non-union jobs is impossible. Furthermore، most of the people are immigrants from the villages around the city that migrated due to unemployment or reduced farm income، which is caused by drought.
    Keywords: Challenges, Informal Settlement, Jafar Abad, Marginal Setting, Prioritizing
  • Mahmoud Yaghoubi Doust, Halime Enayat Pages 243-278
    Introduction
    One of the most important consequences of social developments in the second half of the past century is expansion of urbanization. The accelerated development of urbanization has been associated with different consequences and numerous urban pathologies. One phenomenon appeared in parallel to the rushed urbanization was the expansion of marginalization، which has been overgrown around the big cities. Marginalization، in Iran، in the past years has created social، economical، cultural، security and environmental problems in the metropolitans. It has unprecedentedly caused a plenty of crimes and delinquency، in particular the domestic violence against children and women in poor areas and lower classes of society due to economical and cultural issues as well as housing conditions and other factors. These social harms are continually increasing in such areas. So، this issue not only has faced the judicial system with a great challenge، but it is also very hazardous culturally، socially، economically، mentally and politically. Hence، the present research focuses on the two following questions: first، how is the rate of domestic violence against the children in the Ahwaz- marginalized area? Second، to what extent the residential indicators of marginalized and non-marginalized areas (housing conditions، socio-economic status، ethnicity and previous record of substance abuse) are related to domestic violence against children?
    Methodology
    The methodology of this study is a combination of descriptive (survey one) and analytical، for which the exploratory studies were performed through library search and preliminary visit and field study using research tools. The population is whole the students (14-18 ages) attending in second school and are now living with their parents in 8- zone districts of both Ahwaz- marginalized and non marginalized areas in 2013-2014. Assessment Tools: 1. Child Abuse Questionnaire: in the present study، the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Brainstein 1995) was used. It is a self-reporting tool and is used for assessing the abusing of childhood. The CTQ measures the abusing in five subscales and gives a total score، indicating the Global Maltreatment scale. The five subscales of CTQ include Emotional Abuse (EA)، Physical Abuse (PA)، Sexual Abuse (SA)، Emotional Neglect (EN)، and physical Neglect (PN). 2. The Residential Indicators of Marginalized: This author- made questionnaire is dedicated to assessing the housing circumstances and its quality (house area، ownership، number of rooms). 3. Socio-economic Status Questionnaire: In order to measure the socio-economic status، the Duncan (1986) ’s socio-economic status scale، the most widely used scale in the social research، was employed and the three factors were considered as the basis of socioeconomic status of the subjects: job، income and education level. 4. Ethnicity: In this research the ethnicity means one of the ethnicities of Fars، Arabs، Lurs، Turks and others which are measured by one item. 5. Previous Record of Abuse Substance: This means the dependence of one of the parents on substances that are frequently used by them. In this study، the previous records of abuse substance is assessed on the basis of two items of addict record and regular drug use such as opium، morphine، heroin by one of the parents. 6. Demographics Questionnaire: This questionnaire is employed to collect the demographic data and independent variables such as age، gender، education and number of family members. To analysize the data، the statistical parameters like percentile، mean، standard deviation، Pearson correlation، T test and regression analysis were used. In order to measure the validity of questions، 40 questionnaires were first filled by the subjects and the validity coefficient was measured by Chronbach Alpha، so that the strength of the items is consistently specified. After having filled the questionnaires by respondents، the data were processed by using the SPSS software at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics.
    Results And Discussion
    The results show that there is a significant correlation between total residential indicators in conditions (house area، ownership and number of rooms) of marginalized and non marginalized people with rate of domestic violence against their children. The findings were consistent with those of Mohsani Tabrizi (2004)، Mohammad Khani 2008) Mansoure Aazamzadeh (2006)، Shahab (2004)، Mary (1981)، Fisher Nasl & Greenberg 1992)، Ruhr & Williams 1982) who believes that the life in the margin areas and living in the house with small spaces result in distress، anomie and poor social bonding and loss of social support. The findings also indicate there was a significant correlation between socio-economic status of marginalized and non-marginalized with rate of domestic violence against children. The findings of this research are consistent with some of the sociology theories of deviations، social disorganization، ecological theory and structural strain theory as well as with Merton (1975) and Shaw Mc kay (1942) who believe that the feeling of deprivation in the families with lower socio-economic status، lack of conditions appropriate to life، job status، education level and parent’s income should be taken into account as family indicators. This is because they have a significant effect on outbreak of dispute and violence in the families and finally they make an individual violent. The results also showed that there was no significant correlation between ethnicity of the marginalized and non-marginalized with rate of domestic violence against children. The possible reasons for rejecting the above hypothesis is that: i) each of ethnics (Lurs and Arabs) in the population was not very low minority، ii) both Lurs and Arabs were equal in the most of features and their mean violence was also generally equal by iii) lack of suitable basis for comparing both of the ethnics in committing violence against children. The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation between records of drug abuse of marginalized and non-marginalized with domestic violence against children. The present results are consistent with those of Mohammad Khani (1998)، Ahmadi 2004)، Sotode (1997) Prak & Burges (1928) who showed that the high rate of crime and delinquency among adults، increases the addict to drugs and lead to maltreatment and violence against children and spouses
    Conclusion
    Generally، the results from present research، which are consistent with ecological، social disorganization، deprivation and structural strain theories، found that people residing in the margins tend to commit crime and violence because of having socio-economic problems such as poor subsistence status، low income، and unsuitable housing and so on. Therefore، it is recommended that urban facilities and services and job opportunities should be equally distributed and that enhancing the life quality of marginalized neighborhoods and the parents must be given social and relational education in order to treat accurately with children.
    Keywords: Domestic Violence, Marginalized, Residential Indicators, Socio, Economic Status