فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 9 (تابستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/07/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • محمدرضا رضوانی، ناصربیات صفحات 11-30
    در دهه های گذشته، گردشگری به یکی از مهم ترین بخش های اقتصادی در بسیاری از کشورهای جهان تبدیل شده است و دولت ها سیاست های مختلفی را به منظور توسعه ی گردشگری و زیربخش های آن در مقیاس های گوناگون، از سطوح محلی تا سطح ملی، به کار گرفته اند و در این باره همکاری های بین المللی نیز رو به گسترش است. گردشگری روستایی نیز یکی از انواع مهم و روبه رشد بخش گردشگری شناخته می شود که فعالیت های مختلفی را دربر می گیرد. در دهه های گذشته به ویژه از دهه ی 1990، به دلیل رکود بخش کشاورزی و مشکلات فراروی جوامع روستایی، همواره متخصصان و برنامه ریزان توسعه ی روستایی بر اهمیت توسعه ی گردشگری روستایی، به عنوان راهبردی برای کمک به فرایند کلی توسعه ی روستایی تاکید کرده اند. مقاله حاضر با استفاده از شیوه اسنادی و تحلیل متون توسعه، جایگاه گردشگری روستایی در برنامه های کلان توسعه ی کشور با تاکید ویژه بر برنامه های پنج ساله ی توسعه را مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که تا برنامه ی چهارم (1388-1384) گردشگری روستایی جایگاه مشخص و قانونی در برنامه ی توسعه ی کشور نداشته است، در این برنامه به طور هر چند گذرا توسعه ی گردشگری روستایی به عنوان یکی از فعالیت های دارای مزیت نسبی در نواحی روستایی معرفی شده است. در برنامه ی پنجم (1394-1390)، برای نخستین بار حمایت از گردشگری روستایی در چارچوب اختیارات سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری مطرح گردید. اما در این برنامه نیز جایگاه گردشگری روستایی در چارچوب فرایند کلی توسعه ی یکپارچه ی روستایی به روشنی مشخص نشده است و به عنوان پدیده ای که می تواند، با توجه به ویژگی های متنوع سکونتگاه های روستایی کشور به صورت اشکال و الگوهای متعدد توسعه یابد به متنوع سازی فعالیت ها و توسعه ی اقتصادی روستاها کمک کند، مورد توجه قرار نگرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری روستایی، توسعه ی ملی، برنامه های پنج ساله ی توسعه ی کشور، توسعه ی روستایی
  • حمید ضرغام بروجنی، مرتضی بذرافشان صفحات 31-51
    خط مشی گذاری گردشگری، در یک نگاه جامع، شامل سه مرحله ی اصلی تدوین، اجرا و ارزیابی است. در مسیر اجرای کامل خط مشی گردشگری، عوامل و شاخص های متعددی وجود دارند که شناسایی آن ها به منظور کارآمد کردن اجرای خط مشی گردشگری اهمیت ویژه ای دارد. در این مقاله، با توجه به پژوهش های انجام شده، دیدگاه دانشمندان مختلف و نظرخواهی از خبرگان صنعت گردشگری کشور، عوامل موثر بر اجرای خط مشی های گردشگری تعیین و بررسی شدند. در جمع بندی ابتدایی، 65 شاخص استخراج شد و طی دو مرحله ی نظرخواهی از پژوهشگران دانشگاهی، این تعداد به 40 شاخص تقلیل و تعدیل یافت. تعداد 83 نفر از پژوهشگران دانشگاهی به سوال های این پرسش نامه پاسخ دادند. با توجه به تحلیل های آماری صورت گرفته به کمک نرم افزارهای SPSS و LISREL، پرسش های تحقیق بررسی شدند و مدل نهایی این تحقیق متشکل از هفت عامل که در دنباله خواهد آمد، پیشنهاد شد: 1. توجه به ویژگی های رفتاری و شخصیتی مجریان؛ 2. نظام اداری و بوروکراسی؛ 3. هدف گذاری و تدوین صحیح خط مشی؛ 4. تخصص و مهارت مجریان؛ 5. گروه های هدف و استفاده کنندگان؛ 6. حمایت از سوی مراجع قانونی–حقوقی؛ و سرآخر 7. انتخاب ابزار مناسب و منابع لازم برای اجرای خط مشی.
    کلیدواژگان: خط مشی گذاری عمومی، فرایند خط مشی گذاری، خط مشی گذاری گردشگری، اجرای خط مشی، برنامه ی پنج ساله ی توسعه ی اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی
  • بهرام رنجبریان، علیرضا امامی، سعید فتحی صفحات 52-73
    هدف مطالعه ی حاضر، عملیاتی سازی و سنجش فاصله ی روانی ادراک شده از مقصد گردشگری ایران است. فاصله ی روانی تفاوتی است که گردشگران بین مبدا خود و کشور مقصد ادراک می کنند. در این مطالعه از روش تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی برای استخراج ابعاد فاصله ی روانی ادراک شده و از روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی از آزمون روایی سازه ها استفاده شده است. جامعه ی آماری این پژوهش، اعضای شبکه ی مجازی گردشگری کوچ سرفینگ بوده اند که تجربه ی سفر به ایران را نداشته اند. به شیوه ی نمونه گیری در دسترس 620 نفر از این جامعه که به مناطق مختلف جهان تعلق داشتند، دراین مطالعه شرکت کردند. نتایج نشان می دهد که فاصله ی روانی یک سازه ی سه بعدی با ابعاد زیرساختی، فرهنگی و قانونی است. گردشگران مناطق مختلف نیز فاصله ی روانی ادراک شده ی بالایی را نسبت به مقصد ایران ادراک می کنند. نتایج تحلیل واریانس یک طرفه نشان داد بین گردشگران بالقوه از مناطق مختلف از نظر فاصله ی روانی ادراک شده درخصوص ایران، تفاوت معنی دار وجود دارد. گردشگران از مبدا خاورمیانه در مقایسه با سایر مناطق فاصله ی روانی کمتری را ادراک کرده بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: فاصله ی روانی، سطوح استنباط، مقصد گردشگری، ایران
  • رضا شجری قاس مخیلی، احمد فضلی نژاد صفحات 74-87
    گردشگری آثار مختلفی در حوزه های گوناگون دارد؛ اما تا به امروز بیش از همه به پیامدهای اقتصادی گردشگری توجه شده و کمتر به آثار و نتایج اجتماعی و سیاسی این پدیده پرداخته شده است. با توجه به این موضوع و نظر به اهمیت هویت ملی جهت نوسازی و توسعه ی اقتصادی و سیاسی مستقل کشور در آینده و تقویت موقعیت ایران در نظام بین المللی، در عصر «جهانی شدن»، ارزیابی آثار گردشگری در تقویت هویت ملی به عنوان موضوع این تحقیق انتخاب گردید. سوال اصلی این مقاله این است که: نقش گردشگری داخلی (ایرانگردی) در تعمیق و تقویت هویت ملی تا چه اندازه است؟ روش تحقیق این پژوهش، کیفی و از نوع تحلیل تاریخی است. برای پاسخ به این سوال تلاش شده است تا با به کارگیری از منابع موجود، ابتدا عناصر و مولفه های هویت ملی با تاکید بر آگاهی تاریخی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در این مقاله استدلال کرده ایم که گردشگری با تقویت یکی از مهم ترین عناصر هویت ایرانی(آگاهی تاریخی) در طول تاریخ، نقش به سزایی در توسعه و تعمیق هویت ملی در میان ایرانیان دارد. بنابراین گردشگری داخلی (ایرانگردی) از طریق تقویت آگاهی تاریخی بر هویت ملی تاثیرگذار است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، هویت ملی، هویت ایرانی، آثار تاریخی
  • مریم حسن نژاد، جواد براتی، هادی رفیعی، محمد مظهری صفحات 89-110
    باتوجه به اینکه فرایند سرمایه گذاری در حوزه ی گردشگری و از جمله گردشگری مذهبی، مقوله ای چندوجهی است و به شدت از محیط اقتصادی تاثیر می پذیرد، به منظور رسیدن به نقطه ای قابل قبول در این عرصه، باید عوامل داخلی و خارجی این حوزه ی فعالیتی را بررسی کرد، سپس به تدوین راهبرد های بهینه اقدام نمود. در این میان زیارت امام رضا (ع) به عنوان یکی از پایگاه های اصلی جهان تشیع، با توجه به تاثیر به سزای آن بر اقتصاد شهر مشهد و نیز توسعه ی منطقه، در حوزه ی گردشگری مذهبی استان و نیز کشور بیش از پیش مورد توجه برنامه ریزان و سرمایه گذاران این صنعت است. در این زمینه مطالعه ی حاضر با استفاده از ابزارهای برنامه ریزی راهبردی، ضمن تحلیل نقاط قوت، ضعف، تهدیدها و فرصت های موجود در این حوزه، راهبرد های مناسب جهت بهبود و توسعه ی سرمایه گذاری این حوزه تدوین و اولویت بندی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد مناسب ترین راه برای برون رفت از بحران ها و چالش های احتمالی حوزه ی سرمایه گذاری گردشگری مذهبی و اقتصاد زیارت امام رضا (ع) و توسعه و بهره گیری از ظرفیت های سرمایه گذاری پیش روی این عرصه، اتخاذ راهبرد های تدافعی با تاکید بر رفع ضعف ها و نگاه به تهدیدهای احتمالی و موجود در اولویت هستند که مهم ترین و موثرترین راهبرد تدافعی قابل کاربرد در این فرایند، راهبرد «بسترسازی برای جذب سرمایه گذاری های داخلی و خارجی به وسیله ی سازمان های و نهادهای مربوطه» است.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه گذاری، گردشگری مذهبی، SWOT، آنالیز IEA، ماتریس QSPM
  • سید مجتبی محمودزاده، علی میر هاشمی، مصطفی میر، فاطمه عنبر فروش صفحات 111-130
    در صنعت گردشگری، انگیزش را اصلی ترین مفهوم در شناخت رفتار مصرف کننده و فرایند انتخاب مقصد می دانند. انگیزه ها مشخص می کنند که چرا گردشگران به سفر می روند و یا یک فعالیت خاص را انجام می دهند. ارزیابی انگیزه های گردشگران به ما اجازه می دهد که نیازها و ترجیحات گردشگران را بدانیم و درک کنیم. مطالعات و تحقیقات تجربی صورت گرفته بیان می دارند که دو نیروی غالب به نام کشش و رانش بر انگیزه ها تاثیرگذارند. عوامل رانشی، نیازهای اجتماعی- روانشناختی ای هستند که افراد را به سفر تشویق می کنند؛ در حالی که عوامل کششی عواملی اند که در مقصد قرار دارند و فرد را تحریک می کنند و برمی انگیزانند تا به آن مقصد خاص برود. تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از نظریه ی عوامل رانشی و کششی به اولویت بندی عوامل انگیزشی تاثیرگذار بر انتخاب مناطق عملیاتی استان خوزستان برای سفر، از منظر دانشجویان دانشگاه های تهران می پردازد. این تحقیق به شیوه ی پیمایش و با استفاده از پرسش نامه بر روی افرادی که در دوره ی زمانی تحقیق از مناطق عملیاتی استان خوزستان دیدن نموده اند، صورت گرفته است. پس از جمع آوری داده ها، سوال های پژوهش با استفاده از آزمون T-Student و آزمون فریدمن با بهره بردن از نرم افزار SPSS مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج بررسی ها نشان داد که در بین عوامل انگیزشی رانشی بالاترین رتبه ها به ترتیب مربوط به جستجو، تعاملات اجتماعی، عوامل روانشناختی و در نهایت عوامل فیزیکی است. در بین عوامل انگیزشی کششی نیز اولویت ها مربوط به عوامل نامحسوس و سپس عوامل محسوس است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگران داخلی، انگیزش، عوامل رانشی، عوامل کششی، رفتار مصرف کننده
  • صدیقه لطفی صفحات 131-151
    امروزه مراکز شهری گردشگرپذیر با پذیرش نقش های جدید از جمله نقش تجاری، موقعیت های جدید و بهتری را از نظر جذب گردشگر به دست آورده اند. تجارب جهانی نشان داده است که صرف داشتن جاذبه های طبیعی در درازمدت مناطق گردشگری را با مشکل مواجه می سازد. لذا، شهرهای مرزی با استفاده از مزیت نسبی خود، از جمله کانون های جدید جذب گردشگر و رونق اقتصاد محلی شده اند. شهر جوانرود در طی یک دهه ی اخیر با توجه به احداث بازارچه ی مرزی در آن مقصد بسیاری از گردشگران بوده است. این پژوهش با بررسی نقش بازارچه به بررسی آثار آن از ابعاد مختلف بر ساکنان شهر پرداخته است. روش پژوهش مبتنی بر رویکردهای توصیفی تحلیلی که با پیمایش میدانی جهت تکمیل پرسش نامه ها همراه شده است. داده ها از طریق نرم افزار SPSS پردازش شده اند و همچنین از آزمون های آماری برای تحلیل بهره گیری شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که بازارچه ی مرزی هرچند باعثرونق اقتصادی و فرصت های شغلی شده است؛ امامشکلات محیطی هم همراه داشته است. مهم ترین تاثیرات مثبت آن را می توان به ارتقای استاندارد های زندگی ساکنان شهر در زمینه های مختلف و آشکارترین آثار منفی افزایش گردشگر در تشدید ترافیک و آلودگی های محیطی بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری شهری، بازارچه های مرزی، آثار زیست محیطی، جوانرود
  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، حسن اروجی، نگین شکروی، محمد مولایی قلیچی صفحات 152-169
    امروزه برای ارزیابی جامع گردشگری شهری، نیاز به شناسایی سایت ها و مکان های گردشگری شهرها و ارزیابی آن ها از منظر معیارهای گردشگری است. شهر ارومیه به عنوان مرکز استان آذربایجان غربی، با وجود آثار تاریخی، فرهنگی و طبیعی مختلف، از شهرهای گردشگرپذیر و زیبای کشور است و هدف این تحقیق نیز، ارزیابی سایت های گردشگری شهر ارومیه با استفاده از معیارهای گردشگری، به منظور پیاده کردن برنامه ریزی لازم برای این سایت ها است. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی– تحلیلی است که پس از مطالعات اولیه، 12 سایت بر اساس معیارهای انتخاب سایت، گزینش شده و از طریق 11 معیار گردشگری شامل فاصله از راه های ارتباطی، هتل ها، میادین شهری، فضاهای سبز، پایانه ها، تعداد گردشگران، تنوع جاذبه ها، سطح جذابیت، سطح تبلیغات و خدمات، تعداد نقاط دید و اختلاف چشم انداز، مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. این معیارها از طریق روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، وزن دهی و در ترکیب با اطلاعات هر سایت به ازای هر معیار، از طریق روش تصمیم گیری COPRAS ترکیب شده و ارزش نهایی هر سایت مشخص شد. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان می دهد که سایت های مسجد جامع، پارک اللرباغی و بازار، مستعدترین سایت ها بوده و برای بازاریابی موثر هستند و ضرورت دارد که برنامه ریزی گردشگری در کوتاه مدت بر روی این سایت ها معطوف شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر ارومیه، گردشگری شهری، روش COPRAS، سایت گردشگری
  • سیمین فروغ زاده، ندا رضوی زاده صفحات 170-191
    در حوزه های مختلف مطالعات گردشگری، بسته به نیاز و کاربرد، گردشگران به دسته های مختلفی تقسیم می شوند. انواع این دسته بندی ها یا گونه شناسی ها بر مبنای معیارهای متفاوتی تنظیم می شوند. گونه شناسی جامعه شناختی کوهن بر مبنای مفهوم نهادی شدن یکی ازاین انواع است. در این تحقیق نحوه ی تامین نیازهای اولیه (سرپناه، خوراک و جابه جایی در مقصد) و میزان برخورداری از خدمات میزبانی نهادی شده در شهر مشهد، شاخصی از میزان نهادی بودن گردشگری تعریف شد. به این منظور داده های طرح پژوهشی«بررسی کیفیت اقامت و ترجیحات زائران ایرانی در مدت حضور در شهر مشهد» مبنای تحلیل ثانویه قرار گرفت. جمعیت نمونه ی تصادفی شامل1600 زائر ایرانی شهر مشهد در سال های 89 و 90 بود. با اتکا به درونمایه ی مدل کوهن، گردشگران در سه دسته نهادی، نیمه نهادی و غیر نهادی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد حدود دو-سوم زائران (3/68 درصد) به صورت غیرنهادی، کمی بیش از 20درصد به صورت نیمه نهادی و حدود 10درصد نیز به طور نهادی به مشهد سفر کرده بودند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد افراد جوان تر، شهری ها، افراد با درآمد، تحصیلات و منزلت شغلی بالاتر بیش از دیگران از خدمات نهادی گردشگری در شهر مشهد استفاده کرده اند. این نتایج دلالت هایی برای برنامه ریزی های آتی در بخش خصوصی و عمومی در توسعه گردشگری شهر مشهد دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، گردشگر، زائر، مشهد، مدل کوهن
  • جمشد عینالی، غلامحسن جعفری، اسماعیل تبیره صفحات 192-212
    اکوتوریسم شکلی از گردشگری دوران پست مدرنیسم به شمار می آید که با ساختارهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی جوامع محلی رابطه ی نزدیکی دارد و نقش مهمی در توسعه ی مناطق روستایی از طریق ایجاد فرصت های شغلی و منابع درآمدی و نظایر آن ایفا می کند و به عنوان ابزار قدرتمندی برای حفاظت از تنوع زیستی و فرهنگ های محلی مطرح است. هدف این مطالعه، شناخت نقش اکوتوریسم در توسعه ی سکونتگاه های روستایی دهستان اورامان تخت، از توابع شهرستان سروآباد در استان کردستان است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع کاربردی است که برای تبیین موضوع و نتایج آن، از روش های توصیفی - تحلیلی مبتنی بر مطالعه ی میدانی و تکمیل پرسش نامه بهره گرفته شده است. جامعه ی آماری تحقیق، پنج روستای دارای سکنه ی دهستان اورامان تخت است که از بین 1228 خانوار ساکن در آن حجم نمونه از طریق فرمول کوکران، تعداد 274 مورد به عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردید. روایی گویه ها با بهره گیری از روش پیش آزمون و پانل متخصصان بررسی شد و پایایی آن با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ به میزان 768/0 محاسبه گردید. برای تحلیل کمی داده ها از آزمون های آماری نظیر آزمون t تک نمونه ای، آزمون رتبه ای فریدمن، کای دو، رگرسیون چندمتغیره و تحلیل مسیر بهره گرفته شده است. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده ها نشان می دهد که میانگین عددی همه ی مولفه ها بالاتر از میانگین طیف لیکرت است و تفاوت همه ی مولفه ها از مطلوبیت عددی مورد آزمون به شکل مثبت ارزیابی و برآورد شده است. علاوه بر این، نتیجه ی تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره نشان می دهد که بیشترین میزان تاثیر مستقیم اکوتوریسم در ابعاد اقتصادی (550/0) و کالبدی (371/0) توسعه ی روستایی است و کمترین آن نیز به مولفه ی زیست محیطی (269/0) اختصاص دارد. از طرفی دیگر، نتایج تحلیل مسیر نشان می دهد که بیشترین اثر کلی مربوط به مولفه های اقتصادی (858/0) و کمترین اثر کلی به مولفه ی کالبدی (371/0) اختصاص دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتوریسم، توسعه ی روستایی، اقتصاد روستایی، شهرستان سروآباد
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  • Pages 11-30
    Introduction
    In the past decades tourism has become one of the most important economic sectors in many countries all over the world and governments are implementing various policies to develop tourism and its subdivisions in Different scales from local to national levels. Rural tourism is also recognized as an important and growing sector of tourism that includes different activities. Since 1990s، due to the downturn in agricultural sector، and problems facing rural communities، rural development experts and planners emphasize rural tourism as an economic springboard for rural development. This study explores status of rural tourism development in national five-year plansthrough documentary and text analysis methods. During the past decades، gradually and increasingly rural tourism and other tourism subjects have become one of the most important topics in scientific studies and academic literature of Iran، especially in geography،social sciencesand other disciplines. Some of the major works are: Eftekhari and Ghaderi (2003)، Rezvani (2004)، Rezvani and Safaei (2005)، Sanaei (2007)، Aligholizahed Firuzjanei et al. (2007)، Mahdavi Hajiluei et al. (2008)، Mafi and Saghaei (2008)، Amar and Brenjkar (2009)، Eftekhari et al. (2010)، Taleb et al. (2010)، Rasegh Ghezalbash (2010)، Karim Zaheh (2010)، Papzan et al. (2010)، Ghanian et al. (2011)، Jomeh Pour and Ahmadi (2011)، Faraji Sabokbar et al. (2012). Despite this condition، until now in national five-year programs and others national policies، rural tourism not been considered as a developmental strategy in relation to rural development process. As well as some incomprehensive actions of Cultural Heritage Handicrafts and Tourism Organization، such as selection of «touristic target villages» from different areas of country cannot be considered as an integrated national rural tourism development strategy. Therefore، overcome or resolve this problem، that represents a gap between academic sector on one side and national authorities and executive sector on the other side، can provide appropriate situation for implement various forms of rural tourism to contribute rural development in the framework of comprehensive national development policies and programs. Therefore، based on above discussions research questions are: how is the rural tourism situation in fiver-year national development programs of Islamic Republic of Iran─ as a new paradigm that has emerged from the world-wide in the context of rural development? Where is the initiation of rural tourism in five-year national development programs of Islamic Republic of Iran? Which programs is paying more attention to rural tourism development? And finally، whether development of rural tourism is considered in the framework for overall process of rural development?
    Materials And Methods
    The approach of this research is based on documentary methodology. First theoretical subjects and related concepts in tourism and especially in rural tourism development have been discussed. Then separately the national five-year development program lows texts of Islamic Republic of Iran were analyzed; based on this extract and obtained related data to research. Then rural tourism data analyzed in relation to each of national development programs. In this regard، time sequences of national development programs were considered. Finally، the total of research finding discussed and based on this proposed some solutions. Discussion and
    Results
    Result shows that until forth plan rural tourism has not remarkable and considerable importance in five-year national development programs of Iran. But، has been introduced one of the activities that have a comparative advantage in rural areas. In fifth plan for the first times supporting of rural tourism considered within authority of Organization of Cultural Heritage Handicrafts and Tourism. But also in this program rural tourism is not clearly considered and defined within the overall process of integrated rural development. In general، what being understood from the content of the fourth and fifth five-year national development programs indicate that، as yet not exist comprehensive perspective on development of rural tourism as a national strategy.
    Conclusion
    This research with emphasis on successful experiences of rural tourism development in different parts of the world، and growing trend of rural tourism studies in global and national scales، study situation or status of rural tourism development in fiver-year national development programs of Islamic Republic of Iran. Result show that until now rural tourism not considered as a comprehensive approach to rural tourism development in five-year national development programs of Iran. Finally، Based on research result، for fill the gap between academic and administrative sectors، also for access and achievement of rural tourism as a comprehensive and integrated policy in framework of national sustainable rural development strategy، it is necessary to overcome structural barriers that restrict or prevent access to rural tourism development in national level and its subdivisions.
    Keywords: rural tourism development, national development, five, year national development programs, rural development
  • Pages 31-51
    Introduction
    There are some pieces of research on tourism policy، policy analysis and factors influencing the implementation process. Due to extension of studying planning، policy making and tourism، reviewing and examining such a complex and incoherent literature is difficult (Scott، 2011. P. 6). the importance of this article is somehow linked to the importance of studying tourism policy. Goeldner and Ritchie (2009) enumerated the functions that tourism policy has: It defines the rules of the game- the terms under which tourism operators must function. It sets out activities and behaviors that are acceptable for visitors. It provides a common direction and guidance for all tourism stakeholders within a destination. It facilitates consensus around specific strategies and objectives for a given destination. It provides a framework for public/private discussions of the role and contributions of the tourism sector to economy and to society in general. It allows tourism to interface more effectively with other sectors of the economy (Goeldner and Ritchie، 2009. P. 415-16).
    Material And Methods
    In order to determine the factors influencing the implantation of tourism policies in Iran، different policy models which could be used as the basis were examined. In this regard، a model proposed by RezghiRostami (2004) in the field of Industrial Policies of Iran was extracted. The model had seven factors which encompassed the variables influencing the implementation of tourism policies. Reviewing the other models and the related literature resulted in recognizing 65 influential variables. These variables were modified into 40 after considering the thoughts and comments of tourism policy experts. These variables were actually the questions of the research questionnaire with the scale of 0 to 10 (0، extremely unimportant to 10، extremely important). 83 tourism policy experts، both from academic society and tourism organizations) answered the questionnaire. Discussions and
    Results
    The results of confirmative factor analysis by the use of LISREL، such as T-value، Standardized Coefficient as well as Goodness of Fit Indexes confirmed that there are 7 factors that are influential in the implementation of tourism policies of Islamic Republic of Iran. These factors with regard to the priority of them are: 1. the characteristics of the executives، 2. administrative and bureaucratic system، 3. skills and knowledge of the executives، 4. plain goal setting and appropriate policy formulation، 5. target groups and stakeholders، 6. legal and civil support and 7. appropriate instruments and resources.
    Conclusions
    With regard to the results of confirmative factor analysis، the above mentioned variables were proposed for implementation of tourism policies. Considering the prioritizing of these factors as a result of this article is useful in successful implementation of tourism policies. Moreover، the following suggestions can be proposed: Formulating the tourism policies in the ground of micro economic policies and considering the interrelationship between tourism policies and the other fields such as education، social welfare، employment and etc. Promoting social trust can also be useful for implementation of tourism policies with regard to increase in investment of private sector. More attention should be paid to staffing and skills of executive managers. More flexible burucratic systems are also needed. Considering the requirements of stakeholders also can facilitate the process of implementing tourism policies. Appropriate instruments and resources as undeniable factors in implementation of tourism policies.
  • Pages 52-73
    Introduction
    In international marketing، the concept of psychological/psychic distance has been applied widely; for instance، it has been used as an influential factor over managers’ decisions in investing in a foreign country. It is applied at tourists who are the investors during a trip. Their final decision obviously is a destination with less psychological distance as this reduces “Uncertainly Avoidance” factor and increases “Security and Reassurance”. International tourists may perceive tourism destinations differently from their home countries. The concept of psychic distance refers to perceived similarities or differences between specific destinations and a tourist''s home country. The unique attributes of destination، which make it different from a tourist’s home country، may be an important factor during tourists’ decision-making but it is essential for tourist marketers to know to what extent tourists have perceived the gap. when the psychological distance exceeds its acceptable level، it will result in dissatisfaction and this is what should be eliminated from travel experience (Abooali، Mohamed،2012). Psychological distance in tourism context should be measured using the items which are related to tourism nature. There is no rigorous study to investigate psychic distance in tourism industry. The aim of this study is to conceptualize psychic distance in tourism context.
    Material And Method
    In this study، exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was conduct to extract and validate dimensions of psychic distance in relation to Iran as tourism destination. The members of couch-surfing virtual community (www. couchsurfing. com) took part in the study. This virtual community has different members from all over the world. In this virtual community، members share their previous travel experiences and discuss different destinations before traveling to those destinations. The data of this study were gathered by convenience-sampling method and the sample included non-traveled people who were eighteen years of age or elder. In July - August 2013، 620 respondents participated atthisand they were the ones who visited the virtual tourism community. In this study، a second order factor analysis was used to explain the phenomenon of psychic distance. The average variance extracted (AVE) was calculated for all constructs and the results showed that construct validity was achieved. Discussion and
    Results
    The result of fit indices (RMSEA =0. 059،RMR=0. 049،CFI=0. 954، GFI=0. 928) showed that the measurement model was fitted and it revealed that the construct of psychic distance contained three dimensions of infrastructure، culture and legal distance. The dimension of infrastructure included seven items at the level of political development، level of industrialization and modernization، level of literacy and education، level economic development، communication infrastructure، tourism infrastructure، and development of hospitality service. Six items measured the second dimension (cultural dimension of psychic distance). These items contained language، religious beliefs، core value systems، life style of citizens، cultural symbols and traditions and life rituals. The third dimension (Legal dimension of psychic distance) consisted of four items. The Items of tourism laws، legal system، degree of personal freedom and international policies measured the third dimension of psychic distance. Furthermore، international tourists perceive high psychological distance in relation to Iran as a tourism destination. The result of ANOVA test showed that tourists from different regions perceived different levels of psychic distances about Iran. Tourists from Middle Eastern countries perceived lesser psychic distance than other regions.
    Conclusion
    This study contributes to the body of tourism knowledge by measuring psychic distance construct in tourism context. Based on the results of the current study، potential international tourists perceive psychic distance about Iran as a tourism destination. On the other hand، there are major differences between Iran and a tourist’s country of origin. These differences are referred to as cultural systems، legal systems and infrastructural factors. These differences indicate the deterrents which are useful in developing Iran''s tourism industry. These findings have several managerial implications. Tourismpolicy makers must manage the perceived image of Iran in order to decrease the perceived psychic distance. Furthermore، Iran should modify some social and legal rules to change the perceived psychic distance and develop its tourism industry. The results showed that developing tourism infrastructure can lead to a decrease of perceived psychic distance and expand Iran''s tourist market share. In addition، the results showed that tourists from Middle Eastern countries perceived lesser psychic distance than tourists from other regions. These findings revealed that Iran''s tourism organizations should target Middle Eastern countries as attractive potential markets.
    Keywords: tourist perception, psychic distance, Iran destination, international tourists
  • Pages 74-87
    Introduction
    Tourism has different effects on a wide range of areas; however، most focus has been on its economic and financial consequences whereas its social and political aspects have been neglected up to this time. As a result، because of the importance of the promotion of national identity towards the reconstruction and alsothe future economic and political development of our country، this subject was chosen. It is hoped that discussion of such issues can improve Iran''s position in international relations. In the current article it is argued that by strengthening one of the basic elements of Iranian identity، i. e. history awareness، tourism can have a fundamental role on shaping and deepening national identity among Iranians. Hence، domestic tourism can enhancehistorical awareness among people and can support national identity.
    Materials And Methods
    The key question of this research is to what extent domestic tourism can deepen and increase the concept of national identity. To answer the main question of research the quality approach has been used and for the data collection the documentary method has been employed. Discussion and
    Results
    Throughout history the basic elements of national identity has been land، geography، government، religion، myths، history، the Persian language and its culture. Among the abovementioned elements، the one which has proved most essential feature amongst all othersis a common background or history and its awareness. A good way to raise the sense of national identity،especially during times of defeats and crises، isthe attempt at finding a refuge in our past history and talking about our past achievements and triumphs. Among the causes which can raise historical awareness، factors such as historical buildings and their objective manifestations from the past legends، myths، collective memory of Iranians and recorded sources of Iran''s history can be mentioned. Definitely tourism industry can acquaint interested individuals to historical buildings and constructions as objective symbols of their past.
    Conclusion
    Currently tourism can play a significant role in the progress of social plans. Accordingly،different countries follow different programs to enhance tourism in order to raise national identity. Studies show that historical awareness through advancing tourism can significantly deepen and increase national identity.
    Keywords: tourism, the national identity, Iranian identity, historical effects
  • Pages 89-110
    Introduction
    Since investment process in the field of tourism in general and religious tourism in particularis a multi-faceted concept، itcan be affected through economic environment and in order to achieve an acceptable point، the internal and external factors in this fieldshould be properly investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    Strategic planning is a process planning. In dealing with such aphenomenon، it should be planned in such a way that it can have the ability to adapt to the new conditions. In order to take advantage of this planning process the first step used was bringing in the SWOT tool for the sake of identification، classification and analysis of strategic factors for internal and external environment. Discussion and
    Results
    The results show that the best way for moving out of the current crises and challenges in the field of religious tourism investment is the elimination of the current weaknesses، limitations and potential threats.
    Conclusions
    Most experts of the field are of the opinion that the most effective strategies that can be used to enhance infrastructure can be done through attracting foreign and domestic investments by organizations and relevant institutions.
    Keywords: Investment, religious tourism, SWOT matrix, IEA analysis, QSPM matrix
  • Pages 111-130
    Introduction
    Tourism industry is considered as the largest and most diverse in the world. Tourists are attracted by the new marketing structure. Why do people travel? This is because of two different reasons or factors. From the important Pull and Push factors، Pull factors are taken into consideration (Chuck Vsvla، 1382.) One type of trips that takes place in the country، traveling to battlefields in Khuzestan province. An important factor that must be considered in this type of travel is that the researcher should consider their motivations and goals in traveling to those areas. Therefore، the aim of this study is to identify the incentives and priorities of the inner and outer packaging in order to be considered for future planning.
    Materials And Methods
    The research method or methods used were descriptive. The population of the study included students from the spring and summer of 1391 who were in those battlefields. For data collection، 150 questionnaires were distributed and 122 questionnaires were returned. The purpose of the library research was to collect data from field studies through distributing questionnaires for measuring operation by using a Likert seven-item scales. After collecting the research data and verifying the first hypothesis which states that «the same factors that affect traction and driving people to travel to war zones،» according to a Likert t-test was used to estimate the average answers. Discussion and
    Results
    To test the second hypothesis، which states that «tangible and intangible factors affect the trips to war zones، equally important»، the Friedman test was used to test the results and it showed intangible factors. Among the factors that affect the motivational drive operational areas of Khuzestan province as a tourist destination of students، the highest average ratings related to Intangible and tangible factors. The tension between motivational factors affects the operational areas of Khuzestan province as a tourist destination of students، the highest mean rank order of search، social، and psychological factors، physical factors، and these factors in order of highest priority motivational factors are in tension.
    Conclusions
    For pull and push factors that influence students to travel to operational areas of Khuzestan province، using the spss software the requirements were analyzed through which the first hypothesis was confirmed. The journey of these factors can affect the operational areas of Khuzestan province. Test results for the second hypothesis suggests that the motivating factors that thrust، intangible factors are more effective on the journey of the operational areas of Khuzestan province. For the third hypothesis and the stretching of the highest points of the search، the social، the psychological and physical factors like revolution and war are introduced to them and tell them the realities of war.
    Keywords: domestic tourists, motivation, push factors, pull factors, consumer behavior
  • Pages 131-151
    Introduction
    Today، tourism industry has a key impotance for economic development in many counties، especially the developing ones (Azmi et al، 2001:106; Kaffashi، 2009:142; Mirzaei، 2009:51). The interest in tourism is mainly due to public demand for trade-based journeys، exploration of new places، and visiting holy sites. Iran with its various attractions and capacitiesis one of the richest destinations for tourism; indeed it was ranked tenth by UNSCO. So far the country has been successful in attracting about 0. 07 to 0. 09 percent of tourism market; it is planned to reach 2 percent in 2025 (Zandi Moghadam، 2009:4). However، Iran earned only 0. 6 percent of total revenues of world tourism market (Shayan et al، 2007:156). An important and new attractionof tourists is travelling to the western provinces of Azerbaijan، Kurdistan and Kermanshah in order to visit border markets along with other historic and natural sites. There are several border markets in these areas; some of the most famous ones are in Mahabad، Marivan، Baneh and Javanrood. The goods are smuggledinto Iran from neighboring countries and are then sold at much lower prices. The main goods brought in are cosmetics، sanitary materials، audio-visual systems and home appliances. In Javanrood border market there were only 70 small booths in late 1370; but this has now increased into 300 transforming the socio-economic status of the area. This study aims to evaluate the impact of this market on the city of Javanrood and its residents. Methodology of the research: The methodology of the research is based on descriptive and analytical approaches and the data were collected by conducting a fieldwork to complete the questionnaires. The data were processed using SPSS and then analyzed via different statistical models. The statistical society of the research included all of the residents of the cityfrom whom 150 samples were selected randomlythrough Cochran model. Additionally،a constructive method was used for obtaining clearer information from the owners of malls and other market executive players. The self-designedquestionnairewas evaluated by several experienced experts; itcontainedeight questions about economic impact، eleven questions targeted socio-cultural impact and nine questions addressed the physio-environmental impacts of tourism development with regard to the growth of commercial business in the city. All of the questions were designed with four answer options on the basis of Likert range. The city of Javanrood is 87 km away from the city of Kermanshahand 1345m above sea level in a mountainous location. The city has a population of 43492 which ranks sixth among the urban centers of the province. The city became the commercial hub of the province as it attracted the highest number of tourists in the region. An important natural asset of the city is its famous cave of Qouri-ghaleh which is in the vicinity of the city; it is about 65 million years old and is considered as one of the seven natural heritage sites of the country.
    Results And Discussion
    The research addressed three different impacts of tourism development on the city; namely the economic، socio- cultural and physic-environmental impacts. - The economic impacts of tourism development on the city To investigate the economic impact of tourism on theresident of the city، nine items were used. The results showed that tourism increased income and job opportunities. From this view the city now is the commercial center of the region. Tourism development has، however،had some negative economic impacts. The soaring price of land and housing due to the increasing level of demand which itconsequently enhanced land speculation. The local authorities decided to open new market in the entrance of the city especially in New Year of 1390 which lowered the rent of booths and housing. Findings from T-test showed that tourism had positive and negative impacts on its residents. -The socio-cultural impact of tourism development Urban tourism in Javanrood impacted differently due to its diverse cultural and social characteristics. The positive effect of tourism is the increase of general knowledge of residents about the value of their cultural assets. And in contrast to other parts of the country، the native residents have attached strongly to their dress customs. The major negative impact of tourism is the increase of drug abuse and alcohol dinking. It should be noticed that these abnormality is not only confined to this area but other parts of the country harmed severely during the recent years. Also tourism has motivated rural urban migration as many rural residents moved to the city in search for better jobs. - The physic-environmental impact of tourism development Perhaps one of the most visible impacts of tourism is the destructive effect of this industry on the environment. The main problems of the city which threaten its sustainability are environmental pollution، traffic congestion; dramatic change of urban land use. There is a significant increase of issued housing permissions which encouraged physical expansion of the city.
    Conclusion
    With respect to the given discussion based on field work and data analysis، the residents and market section of the city are satisfied with the prosperity which is brought by tourism; as it created job opportunities and better income. Also tourism development boosted the housing prices and housing rent. The positive impact of tourism is visible on the quality of life، and improvement in the architecture of buildings and promotion public awareness about socio-economic and cultural issues. The main damaging impact of tourism has been the environmental problem in different forms such as noise، air and visual pollution. Based on what was said above، it seems the following recommendation can prevent further negative impact and promote a constructive tourism development in the area: - Education of tourists via useful brochureswhich are handed in to them right before they enter the city. - Promotion of tourismamenities and accommodation such as hotels and inns. - Creating and developing car parking and effective management of police in the city. - Regular control on the market to prevent price hikes. - Preventing unauthorized construction and encroaching on agricultural lands. - Renovating urban furniture to preserve the natural beauty of the city.
  • Pages 152-169
    Introduction
    Since1970s، cities have witnessed reduced economic activities. This issue has led planners to think of new ways to enhance income and employment opportunities. Since 1980s، tourism strategies of cities have developed. Cities are now geographical areas where we can see concentration of population، ideas and cultures. They also play an important role in the political، economic، cultural activities. One of the basic functions of cities is to create pleasure and fun for their residents and tourists who visit them. Cities usually have some of the most important historical attractions such as palaces، squares، shrines and museums. In recent decades، in order to assess the efficiency of urban tourism، urban tourism sites have attempted to identify and evaluate them through various indicators of tourism. An important point in terms of planning is prioritizing the development and quality of life. Urmia is an ancient city with a history of 2،000 years. It has been known for a long time among different nations. It has been the center of many historical events. There is a highly diverse racial and ethnic pattern in the city; this is largely due to its climate and its beautiful nature. Ecotourism of Urmia is highly dependent on Urmia Lake. Lack of adequate income from tourism، and shortage of tourism infrastructure and lack of trained manpower are among issues that need to be addressed in order to assess tourism potentials of this city. The main purpose of this study is to detect the urban tourist sites of Urmia and an attempt to assess its potentials.
    Materials And Methods
    Several descriptive-analytical methods were considered. Survey and documental methods were used for collecting data. And in order to assess the tourism of the city، first urban tourism sites were identified and finally، on the basis of the distribution، diversity of attractions، and the importance of the attractions twelve sites were selected. Masjed Ja’ameh، Bazaar، Moozeh، Borj She-Gonbad، Yakhchal Noh-peleh، Shahrbani Department، Park Allarbaghi، the 6000 people Salon، Khaneh Ansari and Madreseh Hedayat، Jahad Daneshgahi، Naneh Maryam church were among the sites that were included in this research. Eleven tourism criteria were selected in conducting this research. The criteria used were road accessibility، hotels، urban squares، green spaces، terminals، verity of attractions، attractiveness level، advertisements and service level، points of view and difference of landscapes. In conducting the final evaluation، the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for weighting the criteria and COPRAS method was used to prioritize tourist sites. In hierarchical method، the criteria weight was determined by paired comparisons of criteria by experts. COPRAS method is an assessment method for deciding the value of each site for every criterion ​​and the values of the criteria and their combination.
    Discussion
    To assess tourism potential in the city of Urmia، eleven tourism-related criteria were evaluated by 25 experts and officials with experience in urban tourism in Urmia city. Then، through surveys and interviews we were able to obtain the values of the sites. Then by COPRAS those combined weight criteria and final priority for tourism sites were obtained. Results showed that the criteria of tourism and service were more important than communication standards. According to the results of the survey، it was demonstrated that the Jaameh Mosque of Urmia، due to its historical and religious fabric and proximity to major residential centers، its historic attractiveness، and its proximity to numerous other attractive places، is the most suitable and most visited tourism site in the city of Urmia. Allarbaghy Park and Urmia Mall as well as some other sites were also identified in Urmia. Shahrbani، Naneh Maryam Church and Madreseh Hedayat are also suitable places that can prove important in the urban tourism development of the city of Urmia.
    Conclusion
    The final analysis of the tourist sites of the city of Urmia show that Masjed Jameh، Allarbaghy Park and Bazaar are suitable tourist attractions in the city of Urmia. Naneh Maryam Church، Shahrbani and Madreseh Hedayat are other suitable tourist sites that need further attention.
    Keywords: Urmia, urban tourism, COPRAS method, tourist site
  • Pages 170-191
    Introduction
    There are a variety of categorizations for tourists in different fields of tourism studies on the basis of different criteria. Cohen''s sociological typology categorizes tourists on institutionalization of tourist services. The current article which is based on Cohen''s theory examines thetypology oftourists in Mashhad. The degree of institutionalization is defined as how tourists meet their basic needs (accommodation، food and transportation) and how much they benefit from hospitality services.
    Materials And Methods
    The data provided in a previously conducted research «A Survey of Iranian Pilgrims Accommodation and Preferences in Mashhad» were meta-analyzed. The research sample included 1600 Iranian pilgrims visiting Mashhad in 1389 and 1390 (2011). Discussion and
    Results
    Based on Cohen''s model، the tourists were classified into three categories of institutional، semi institutional and non-institutional categories. Findings indicate that around two-third of tourist (68. 3%) had experienced institutional travel to Mashhad while a bit more than 20% and 10% had semi-institutional and non-institutional visits respectively. It was also found that the younger city dwellers and people with higher income and education utilize institutional tourist services more than the others.
    Conclusion
    These findings can have implications for future planning oftourism development in private and public sectors.
    Keywords: typology, tourist, pilgrim, Mashhad, Cohen's Model
  • Pages 192-212
    Introduction
    Ecotourism is a sub-component of the field of sustainable tourism; and as an alternative tourism، it involves visiting natural areas in order to learn، to study، to enjoy or to carry out activities environmentally friendly، that is، a tourism based on the nature experience، which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Therefore ecotourism is as a valuable tool for local community development along with environmental resources conservation. So that Ecotourism has become an important economic and social activity in natural areas around the world. In other words، there is a close relationship between ecotourism and economic and social structures of local communities that can play an important role in their development. It provides opportunities for visitors to experience powerful manifestations of nature and culture and to learn about the importance of biodiversity conservation and local cultures. At the same time، ecotourism generates income and job for conservation and economic benefits for communities living in rural and remote areas. As a development tool، ecotourism can also advance the following basic goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity: 1- Conserving biological and cultural diversity by strengthening private and public protected area management systems and increasing the value of sound ecosystems; 2- Promoting the sustainable use of biodiversity by generating income، jobs and business opportunities in ecotourism and related business networks; and 3- Sharing the benefits of ecotourism developments equitably with local communities and indigenous people، by obtaining their informed consent and full participation in the planning and management of ecotourism businesses. Therefore، according to the close relationship of rural areas with natural environment surrounding، eco-tourism has an important role in the development of these areas; and this study attempts to answer these questions: 1- Has ecotourism extending an effective role in improving rural development indexes in the study area from the viewpoint of local residents? And 2- in which dimensions of rural development، ecotourism extending has been more effective? Research
    Methodology
    This study is a practical research and we have used descriptive- analytical methods for issue and results explanations. To collect needed data and information، after evaluating theoretical foundations and definition of criteria، we designed a questionnaire by using a Likert scale. A questionnaire was used for data collection which was further validated by an academic panel of experts in the field of research. Its reliability was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha that was 0. 77 for measured indexes. For quantitative data analysis، tests such as one sample t-test، Friedman rank test، chi-square coefficient، linear multiple regression and path analysis in SPSS software package were used. The study population consisted of villages located within the diplomatic district of Uraman-e-Takht county in Sarvabad in the southwestern province of Kurdistan. The county includes five populated villages with 1،228 households and the 274 households were selected as a sample by using Cochran formula. The Questionnaires were distributed randomly in sample Villages. Discussion and
    Results
    The results of descriptive statistics survey show that 70. 2 percent of the 274 respondents were married، had a mean age of 38، 67 percent of high school education، 87. 6% of the respondents were males، 25. 5 percent of main jobs were related to free jobs and 84% of respondents have lived 10 years and more in Uraman-e-Takht county. In this study، we investigated the role of ecotourism in ​​rural settlements development with numerous ecotourism and natural attractions in the study area; So that the data obtained from the questionnaire in the first stage is classified after summarization in the context of sustainable development indicators and then analyzed by using statistical tests such as one sample t test and Friedman ranking test to determine the significance of means differences. On the other hand، to evaluate the role of each of these indexes (economic، social، physical، institutional and environmental as independent variables) in rural development variable (as a dependent variable) a multivariate linear regression test was used. In the next stage، using the theoretical findings and opinions of some experts، the path analysis model was constructed to show the effects of independent variables.
    Conclusion
    The result of this study shows that: - The result of using one sample t test determines significant differences in indicators means; and all studied indicators have a significant distance from the test value (3) on Likert scale and the orientations of all indicators are positive. - The result of Friedman ranking analysis of means differences from the viewpoint of local respondents indicates that there were significant differences in the level of alpha of 0. 01. So that، the highest ranking means are devoted to physical (access to services، infrastructure development، construction of villas، etc.) and economic (job opportunities، income creation، access to markets، etc.) aspects respectively; and the lowest mean is devoted to environmental aspect (discharge of sewage، throwing garbage near-by attractions and routes of access to them، intensification of land use changes، emptying trash، etc.). - The results of the path analysis of ecotourism role in rural development indicate that economic indicators with the value of 0. 858 have had the most impact، and physical parameters (0. 371) have had the least impact on rural development from the viewpoints of residents in the study area.
    Keywords: ecotourism, rural development, rural economy, Sarvabad