فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 50 (پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • پیاپی 50 (پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/07/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • ساسان فاطمی صفحات 5-16
    نفوذ موسیقی غربی به ایران، برخلاف نقاشی غربی که از عصر صفوی آغاز شد، بسیار متاخر است و از دوره قاجار عقب تر نمی رود. در ضمن، این نفوذ به طور غیرمستقیم و در پی مدرن سازی قشون کشور توسط عباس میرزا صورت گرفت که یکی از ملزومات آن، ایجاد دسته موسیقی نظامی به شیوه غربی بود. بنابراین، موسیقی غربی، مثل برخی از کشورهای منطقه، با موسیقی نظامی وارد ایران شد و بعدها، در زمان ناصرالدین شاه، آموزش نظام مند مبانی این موسیقی را نیز، توسط یک افسر موسیقی فرانسوی، با خود همراه آورد. با این حال، شواهد نشان می دهد که در طول دوره قاجار، این موسیقی تاثیر ناچیزی بر موسیقی ایران از نظر ساختاری به جا گذاشت و بیشتر، به عنوان یک «موسیقی دوم»، در کنار موسیقی ایرانی به حیات خود ادامه داد؛ چیزی که قابل مقایسه با تاثیر سریع نقاشی غربی، که تقریبا از همان ابتدا منجر به «فرنگی سازی» شد و در اواسط عصر ناصری تقریبا به کلی نقاشی سنتی را به حاشیه راند، نیست. برای اینکه موسیقی غربی تاثیری روشن بر فرهنگ شنیداری و به تبع آن، بر ساختارهای موسیقی ایران بگذارد، می بایست تا دوره پهلوی صبر کرد. با این حال، برخورد با موسیقی غربی منجر به نوعی مدرن سازی در فرهنگ موسیقایی کشور در اواخر عصر قاجار شد.
    کلیدواژگان: موسیقی غربی، قاجار، موسیقی نظامی، فرنگی سازی
  • سیداحمدرضا خضری*، حلیمه جعفرپور نصیرمحله صفحات 17-24
    در عصر اول عباسی، به عنوان یکی از درخشان ترین دوره های فرهنگ و تمدن اسلامی، انواع هنرها از جمله موسیقی مورد توجه بسیار قرار گرفت. چنان که دربارها مملو از خوانندگان و نوازندگانی بود که با آنها به گونه ای احترام آمیز و سخاوتمندانه رفتار می شد، که شرایط زندگی و جایگاه آنها در دربارها، تا همین امروز نیز در فرهنگ عرب زبانزد است. خلفای این دوره که در همه زمینه ها، تحت تاثیر فرهنگ ایران زمین بودند، به شیوه شاهان ساسانی، موسیقیدانان را مورد حمایت خود قرار دادند و آنان را از صلات و جوایز مختلف بهره مند ساختند؛ به گونه ای که در این دوره، هنر موسیقی به عالی ترین درجه کمال خود رسید و هنرمندان بزرگی همچون ابراهیم و اسحاق موصلی، منصور زلزل، زریاب، ابن جامع و بسیاری دیگر در پرتو حمایت خلفا، وزرا و بزرگان این عصر، در تکمیل و ترویج موسیقی کوشیدند. با این حال، برخی زمینه های اجتماعی مانند ممنوعیت غنا توسط فقها موجب میشد، همین خلفا گاهی از پرداختن به موسیقی اجتناب نمایند. پژوهش حاضر، جایگاه موسیقیدانان و نحوه برخورد خلفای عباسی را با موسیقی و موسیقیدانان در عصر اول عباسی به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: موسیقی، نوازندگان، صله، خلفا
  • مهسا خویی، موسی اکرمی*، حسن ریاحی* صفحات 25-30
    نبوغ بیانگر ارزش و عظمت فردی است. اصطلاح نبوغ و تعریف آن یکی از مباحثی است که نظریه پردازان و فلاسفه به معنی یکسانی از آن نمی رسند. در کنار آن همیشه در بحث شاهکارهای هنری نیز مسئله این بوده است که برخی خلق این آثار را منوط به نبوغ خالق اثر دانسته و برخی نیز معتقد بودند که شاهکارهای هنری تنها ثمره کوشش هنرمند است و مبحثی به نام نبوغ وجود ندارد. کانت یکی از فلاسفه ای بود که مبحث نبوغ را در بخشی از زیبایی شناسی اش جای داد و خلق هنر زیبا را منوط به نبوغ نمود. از طرفی بتهوون نیز یکی از موسیقی دانانی بود که همیشه در مورد خلق آثارش به واسطه نبوغ شخصی اش بحث های فراوانی شده است. بسیاری آثار او را، به واسطه وجود پیش نویس هایی که قبل از اتمام قطعاتش داشته است، ثمره کوشش او دانسته و دلیلی برای وجود نبوغ در خلق این آثار نمی بینند. در این پژوهش تلاش می شود تا بااستناد به تعریف کانت از نبوغ، اثبات شود خلق آثار بتهوون زاییده نبوغ او بوده است. هدف این پژوهش، در شیوه توصیفی اش، مطابقت نبوغ به مفهوم کانتی بر خلق موسیقایی بتهوون است.
    کلیدواژگان: زیباشناسی، کانت، آفرینش هنری، نبوغ، موسیقی بتهوون
  • تاج بخش فناییان، حسن فرضی پور* صفحات 31-40
    در این مقاله به ارتباط هرگونه مرگ خودخواسته سنتی ژاپنی «هارکی ری» و«سپ پوکو»، «جین شی» و «شینجو» با شرافت سامورایی: «بوشیدو» و تعهد اجتماعی، اخلاقی:«گی ری» طبقات مختلف اجتماعی (سامورایی ها، کشاورزان، پیشه وران و بازرگانان) و تاثیراتی که مرامنامه سامورایی ها بر آثار ادبی نمایشی دوران خاندان «توکوگاوا»ی ژاپن خصوصا «خودکشی عشاق در سونه زاکی» (1703) «کانادهن چوشینگورا» یا پیمان نامه سامورایی های وفادار(1748) گذارده، پرداخته می شود. به عبارتی با توجه به کتاب هاکاگوره،به چگونگی تجلی فرهنگ درون سامورایی ها بر نحوه رفتار شخصیت های جامعه نمایشی، پرداخته می شود. نمایشنامه نویسان دوران توکوگاوایی، به ویژه «چیکاماتسو مونزایمون» و «تاکدا ایزومو»، از مرگ خودخواسته به عنوان عملی نمایشی که، راه حل جدیدی را به همراه داستان هایی از نویسندگان معاصر با خود برای نمایشنامه ها به همراه دارد، سود می برند. دوران جدیدی در ادبیات نمایشی ژاپن بخاطر تغییرات سیاسی اجتماعی و صد البته اقتصادی شکل می گیرد. دورانی که آثار باشکوهی را به ادبیات نمایشی جهان تقدیم می کند. روش پژوهش مقایسه تطبیقی نمایشنامه های دوران توکوگاوایی و متن کتاب هاکاگوره بوده و گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق اسناد کتابخانه ای انجام شده است. بدین ترتیب تاثیر تقریبا نهایی تبدیل سپ پوکو برای بوشیدو، به شینجو برای گی ری؛ باعث تبدیل شعار سامورایی ها به نوعی درون مایه در نمایشنامه های این دوران شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مرگ خود خواسته، تعهد اجتماعی، وظیفهء اخلاقی، نمایشنامه های دوران توکوگاوایی
  • اسماعیل شفیعی، نرگس یزدی* صفحات 41-52
    صاحبنظران، پیدایش «تفکر نقادانه» را در میان آموزه های سقراط دانسته و روش سوال پرسیدنش را معروف ترین استراتژی «تفکر نقادانه» می دانند. تفکری که مهارت های اصلی آن عبارتند از مهارت های شناختی شامل: تعبیر، تحلیل، ارزیابی، دریافت معانی ضمنی، توضیح و خود تنظیمی و مهارت های دیگری از جمله: طبقه بندی، آشکارسازی معنا، بررسی ایده ها و ده ها مهارت دیگر در شمار مهارت های فرعی آن بشمار می رود. همچنین صاحبنظران حوزه آموزش بر وارد کردن مواد درسی مرتبط با آموزش مهارت های «تفکر نقادانه» در برنامه درسی کودکان تاکید می ورزند. از سوی دیگر، استفاده از نمایش عروسکی برای آموزش به کودکان همواره هواخواهانی داشته است. بنابر اعتقاد آنان، نمایش عروسکی تاثیر مهمی در توسعه آموزش کودکان دارد. با توجه به این موارد و با انگیزه بکارگیری سرمایه های فرهنگی - هنری و ملی در زمینه آموزش مهارت های «تفکر نقادانه» به کودکان، این مقاله بر آن است مشخص نماید: کدامیک از کاراکترها و تیپ های شخصیتی نمایش های عروسکی سنتی ایرانی می تواند به عنوان یک کاراکتر «الگو»، مهارت های مورد نظر «تفکر نقادانه»را در کودکان پرورش داده و نهادینه نماید؟ این پژوهش توصیفی – تحلیلی بوده و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای و پایگاه های معتبر اینترنتی انجام یافته است. مهم ترین دستاورد این پژوهش، تطبیق یکی از معروف ترین کاراکترهای نمایش های سنتی عروسکی ایرانی با «الگوی» مورد نیاز جهت آموزش مهارت های «تفکر نقادانه» به کودکان است.
    کلیدواژگان: واژه های کلیدی تفکر نقادانه، نمایش عروسکی، خیمه شب بازی، مبارک، آموزش کودکان
  • محمد باقر قهرمانی، مرضیه پیراوی ونک، حامد مظاهریان، علیرضا صیاد* صفحات 53-62
    در برابر تمرکز سینمای اولیه بر همذات پنداری بدنی تماشاگر با فیلم، با تکامل زبان سینمایی و سلطه سیستم روایی، جریانی عمده به سوی همذات پنداری روایی شکل گرفت و آنچه که مرتبط با قلمرو بدن بود، به قلمرو ذهن منتقل شد. این انتقال به سلطه طولانی تئوری های زبان شناختی و روان شناختی فیلم انجامید. در دهه های هفتاد و هشتاد میلادی، رابطه آپاراتوس سینما با پرسپکتیو رنسانسی گفتمان اساسی تئوری فیلم را تشکیل داد و نظریه پردازان به تحلیل رابطه تماشاگر و پرده، بر مبنای الگوی پرسپکتیوی پرداختند. اساس نظریه اپتیکی مبتنی بر فاصله ای بود میان سوژه تماشا کننده و ابژه نگریسته شده، و این سیستم فراهم کننده شرایطی برای شکل گیری الگوی اندیشیدن و تعمق با فاصله متفکران غربی به نظم جهان گردید. پرسپکتیو رنسانسی با احیا نمودن الگوی فضای اپتیکی، تثبیت جایگاه سوژه، و مستحکم نمودن فاصله میان سوژه و ابژه، بار دیگر برتری بینایی را بر سایر حواس تثبیت نمود. این مقاله می کوشد این نکته را روشن سازد که در مقابل سلطه تئوری اپتیکی فیلم که موجودیت جسمانی و ابعاد حسانی تماشاگر را نادیده می گیرد، مناسب است تئوری بدن محور و هاپتیکی فیلم مد نظر قرار گیرد و تجربه سینمایی را نیز، تجربه ای مبتنی بر تن یافتگی تماشاگر در فضای فیلمی تبیین نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: پرسپکتیو رنسانسی، سینمای هاپتیکی، کالبد تماشاگر، سوژه تن یافته، فضای فیلم
  • عطاالله کوپال صفحات 63-70
    کهن ترین کمدی نویس جهان باستان، که آثارش به دست ما رسیده، آریستوفان یونانی است. از یونان باستان در سده پنجم پیش از میلاد، نام کمدی نویسان بی شماری به دست آمده، ولی آثار هیچ یک از آنها، به طور کامل یافته نشده است. بنابراین، یگانه معیار قضاوت درباره کمدی های عصر طلایی یونان باستان، نمایشنامه های آریستوفان است. وی را می توان پایه گذار کمدی در جهان دانست. درباره اش اطلاعات اندکی موجود است و حقایق زندگی او را از دل نمایشنامه هایش باید استخراج کرد. او در دوران جنگ فرساینده «آتن و اسپارت» و «آتن و سیسیل» می زیست و در بسیاری از آثارش، بازتابی از این جنگ های فرساینده را به نمایش درآورده است. چهار نمایشنامه از آثار یازده گانه او، به نام های «آخارنی ها»، «صلح»، «پرندگان» و «لوسیستراتا»، دارای طرح داستانی آشکاری بر ضد این جنگ ها هستند. آریستوفان در این آثار با استهزای حکمرانان جنگ طلب آتنی، رویای مدینه فاضله ای را عاری از سودای جنگ، پی ریزی می کند. کمدی های آریستوفان به رغم گذشت بیست و پنج قرن از آفرینش آنها، اجراهای بی شماری در سده گذشته میلادی و قرن بیست و یکم داشته و به زبان های گوناگون جهان ترجمه شده است. یکی از دلایل رویکرد چشمگیر به کمدی های او را می توان ستیزه آشتی ناپذیر وی با جنگ دانست
    کلیدواژگان: آریستوفان، کمدی، جنگ، صلح، آرمان شهر
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  • Sasan Fatemi Pages 5-16
    The western music، unlike the western painting which began to influence the Iranian culture since the Safavid era، has only recently، at Qajar period، introduced in Iran. In addition، its introduction was done in a totally indirect way through the modernization of the army by the prince Abbas Mirza، at the very beginning of the period in question. In fact، in order to complete this modernization، Abbas Mirza formed a western-style military band، and so، for the first time، the Iranians began to learn، in an official and formal way، a few tunes and also some instruments of western music. Yet، it was only at the time of Naser-ed-Din Shah that this contact with western music takes considerable dimensions. At this time، a French officer، Alfred Jean-Baptiste Lemaire، enter Iran and began، under the order of the Qajar sovereign، to form several military bands and to teach in a systematic way the western music at a prestigious school، Dar-ol-Fonun، where was taught all kind of scientific matters by mostly European teachers. Thus، after a timid appearance under the reign of two former kings، who probably had introduced very limited number of western instruments، the western music at the time of Naser-ed-Din Shah، began to spread in a radical way. Yet، it is important to know that not only in this time، but even throughout theQajar era، western music did not able to have a great influence on Iranian music andmusical culture. It has been very different with the western painting which had influenced the Iranian aesthetics from the beginning of its appearance in Iran، in such a way that some great painters of the Safavid era adopted the western techniques very soonand created a new current of painting named «farangisâzi» (westernization) which combined these techniques with some elements of the traditional style. At the Qajar era، this style reached its apogee، so that it totally abandoned the remaining traditional elements and traits، and adopted completely the western style. Western music at the Qajar era not only did not replace the traditional music، but there is even no evidence، at this time، of a sort of musical hybridization comparable to the farangisâziof the last Safavid painting. We can say only that it coexists with the traditional music as a «second music» of Iranian culture. Even when the Iranian musicians begin to prefer certain instruments of western music، like the piano، the violin، the clarinet and the flute، they normally use them for playing the Iranian music. For an important influence of western music on the musical aesthetics of the country and a radical conflict between the supporters of the tradition and those of modernity and westernized music one must wait until the Phalavi era. We cannot say، however، that the western music has had no influence on the Iranian culture at the Qajar era، but we must seek this influence، not so much in the music itself but rather in the musical conceptions and behaviors.
    Keywords: Western Music, Qajar, Military Music, FarangiSâzi
  • Seyyed Ahmad Reza Khezry*, Halimeh Jafarpoor Nasir Mahaleh Pages 17-24
    The first period of Abbasi dynasty is one of the glorious periods of Islamic culture and civilization، which is known as the golden era of Islamic culture and civilization. Because in this era the power and riches of Abbasi dynasty increased so high that led the Islamic civilization grow in the various fields of science، literature and art especially music. While pretending as firm religious people، the Abbasi caliphs including Safah (132-136 A. H.)، Mansoor (136-156-A. H.)، Mahdy (156-169 A. H.)، Hadi (169-170A. H.)، Haroon (170-193A. H.)، Amin (193-198 A. H.)، Ma''moon (198-218 A. H.)، Mo''tasam (218-227A. H.) and Vasegh (227-232 A. H.) were such impressed and attracted by music that supported the singers and musicians to the highest degree and their courts were full of singers and musicians especially the female ones who were venerated and rewarded generously. Like the poets، the caliphs paid them monthly and arranged firm appointments with them and had some in charge of servicing them. The musicians’ situation was such great and they were fully respected that is still remembered as a proverb in Arabic culture. Even some caliphs including Vasegh، Ibrahim ibn Mahdy، Abdollah ibn Amin، Aesa ibn Haroon were acquainted with music and playing music instruments، this shows the great status of music and the importance of the art on those days. Being fully affected by dominating Iranian culture and Sasani kings، Abbasi Caliphs supported their musicians and singers financially and awarded them with various prizes and rewards. Among courtiers، Iranian aesthetician and art-lovers ministers were paying more attention to music and respecting it a lot. So، in the light of those supports، the art of music developed and reached its best level in which great creative singers and musicians like Ibrahim and Isaq Museli، Ibrahim Ibn mahdy، Mansur Zelzal، Zaryab، Ibn Jame، Makharegh، Olayyah came into appear and found the chance to present their talent to the people. Moreover، those great musicians and singers attempted in cultivating and expanding that time’s music and as a result the theoretical music was paid attention and some books were written on the subject. However، the history shows that in that sensitive society of Baghdad، music wasn''t considered such valuable، for the musicians are the creators of an art which was considered abominable، offensive or even haram. As a result of this and some social contexts including forbidding qena (music)، sometimes، the caliphs were forced to avoid dealing with music. Mostly، in Abbasi court، the art of music led to bad manners، vulgarity، intoxication and therefore being unawareness of important land affairs، which caused the religion scientists and jurists worry about using it in courts. Accordingly، under these conditions، it formed a kind of vagueness and irony for using the art in common sense. The present paper is studying how Abbasi Caliphs dealt with music and musicians of their early time and following a line of investigation about the status of music at that time. The method of researching in this paper is descriptive-analytic
    Keywords: Music, Musicians, Reward, Caliphs
  • Mahsa Khoie, Musa Akrami*, Hassan Riahi* Pages 25-30
    In the 18th century، the term ‘wit’ was held to be almost equal to the term ‘spirit’، and its notion، being applied both in music and in literature، was one of the most fundamental themes in poetry in the Age of Enlightenment. The meaning of the word changed during the time، however، its importance lasted until the Romantic era. At that period، the term ‘wit’ was defined as ‘intelligence’، and Godsheds used it in his poetry critics as if intelligence، wit، genius and judgment were different aspects of just one notion. Generally the term ‘genius’ demonstrates individual value and dignity. In the Age of Enlightenment، it is this individual dignity which is considered as the only condition for creating an art masterpiece. J. J. Rousseau warns young composers not to go after it. He says that genius is a natural and congenital talent that you will feel it if you have، you will feel it، while you will never understand it if you have not it. Kant deals with ‘genius’ in some paragraphs of his Critique of Judgment- one of the most important and valuable texts on aesthetics and philosophy of arts which is still influential with regard to aesthetical discourses. Kant also starts his work by traditionally paying attention to genius and talent، so that talent is defined as an instinctive gift that arises from the nature of a person، and genius as a force which gives regularity to arts. Kant believes that no knowledge exists as aesthetics except critical aesthetics، and no knowledge exists as knowledge of fine arts except critique of fine arts. He believes that the creation of fine arts is a result of genius. While، unlike Rousseau، Kant never brought up a direct discussion on creation of musical works by genius، the definition he gives for genius in creating all art-works seems to be totally adaptable to musical masterpieces too، signifying that music can be a product of genius as well. In this research we try to demonstrate how Kant’s definition of genius is adaptable to musical works، grounding our discourse on Beethoven and his masterpieces. The main reason for choosing Beethoven is the fact that his music seemingly not only belongs to his own time، but also goes beyond all times and eras. He was the greatest musician of his time and had remarkable impression on his successors. It has always been a matter of discussion، however، whether his creations were due to either much practice or genius. Now through Kant`s definition of genius it can be shown that Beethoven’s works were the results of both his genius and practice. We try to adapt Kant`s definition of genius with Beethoven’s works، and show that the signs of genius in Kant’s terminology are present in them. Moreover، referring to Beethoven pieces، we can show how it is possible to create music by genius in Kantian conception.
    Keywords: Aesthetics, Kant, Art Creation, Genius, Beethoven's Music
  • Tajbakhsh Fanaian, Hasan Farzipuor* Pages 31-40
    This paper examines the characteristics of the turbulent 17th and 18th centuries of Japan، investigating their impacts on the Japanese dramatic literature. In particular، we examine the impact of the Tokugawa society on the dramatic literature of Japan، according to the plays Suicide of the Lovers in Sonezaki، and Kanadehon Chushingura. These two examples reveal the entrance of a typical Samurai worldview as prominent characters of the earlier centuries، who were opposing the inclusion of the current society into plays. Thus، with the help of these examples، the article describes the social conflicts of this era، and show that such dramatic works can pave the way for an introduction to understanding the Tokugawa society of the 17th and 18th centuries in Japan. And The establishment of a relationship between the suicide attempts carried out during the Tokugawa dynasty with the dramatic literature of Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries، and the creation of Japan''s most important classic plays such as Kanadehon Chushingura، Suicides of the Lovers at Sonezaki، Suicides of the Lovers at Amijima، and Suicides of the Lovers in Women’s Temple represent a serious push for the social elements. This therefore reveals a serious force that the social factors place on the culture of this period، especially on the writers of this era. These powerful forces which have risen from the social evolutions، provide good information about the formation of new era in Japan. The representative of this evolution was the empowerment of a new social level (businessmen) and the decline of another social level (the worriers). The main objective of this article is to discover the relationship between social duty and ethical commitment with a self wanted death in dramatic literature. One of the most salient impacts of the Tokugawa Shogun family on the dramatic literature is the relationship between the self-wanted death and the ethical duty which is noticeable in the dramatic texts of Japan. This means that one of the most important features of the samurai ideology has left an impressive impact on the dramatic literature. As a matter of fact، it seems that this slogan of the Samurais (Seppuku for Bushido) turned into the theme of the plays of this period، especially the series of plays on the suicide of the lovers. Therefore، if the warrior plays such as Kanadehon Chushingura are considered as the representatives of the plays with the “duty for ethics” theme، then it would be possible to consider the plays on the suicide of the lovers as the representatives of the plays with the theme of the struggle between the social obligations and the human feelings، which wind up in suicide، as they share the same theme. As a result، this article considers how Bushido and Sepuku have entered the society and lead to the emergence of the “shinju for Giri” culture in the society، and afterward in the dramatic literature.
    Keywords: Suicide, Social Duty, Moral Obligation, Tokugawa Play
  • Esmaeel Shafiee, Narges Yazdi* Pages 41-52
    Some scholars including Richard Paul، Linda Elder and Ted Bartell are of the belief that the roots of «critical thinking» can be traced back to the teachings of Secretes، where he places great emphasis on the «clarity» and «logical consistency» in thinking. These scholars consider Socrates'' method of questioning to be the most famous strategy in «critical thinking»، the main required skills of which are cognitive skills including interpretation، analysis، evaluation، inference، explanation and self-regulation. Some of the sub-skills of these main skills include: categorization، clarifying meaning، examining ideas، identifying and analyzing arguments، assessing claims and arguments، querying evidence، drawing conclusions، stating results، presenting arguments and self-examination. There is also a dispositional dimension to critical thinking. The affective dispositions of critical thinking include two approaches: first، approaches to life and living in general، and second، approaches to specific issues، questions or problems. On the other hand، throughout years، countless studies have been conducted on the importance of puppetry in the field of children education. Inclusion of puppetry in classrooms has always had its staunch advocates. However، this does not have to be limited to puppet shows which only serve recreational purposes. These days numerous scholars stress the importance of including some educational material (either in the core curriculum of schools or as extracurricular activities) to develop critical thinking skills in children. Christopher Winch in «Education، Autonomy، and Critical Thinking» considers «the development of autonomy as an educational aim» and «the nature of application of the skill of thinking critically» to be two central topics in liberal philosophy of education. Therefore، it seems quite advisable to make good use of the most effective methods to teach children critical thinking skills to guarantee a better future for them. Schools are supposed to equip children with the knowledge and skills they need to be open-minded individuals able to think well and employ sound reasoning. One of the most effective methods to attain this goal is making effective use of puppet theatre for educational purposes. The purpose of this article is to examine which characters among Iranian puppet theatre characters can contribute to the acquisition and development of critical thinking skills in children. In order to do so، different characters are examined regarding their qualities to realize which character or characters possess qualities which characterize a good critical thinker. In the first part of the article a brief history of critical thinking -as the theoretical framework of the article- is presented and both cognitive skills and affective dispositions are introduced. This part is followed by a brief history of puppet theatre in Iran and an introduction of Iranian puppet theatre characters. Most scholars in the field of Iranian puppet theatre unanimously agree that Kheimeh shab bazi has been the most significant form of puppet theatre in Iran. However، unfortunately، the written texts of all plays in this form are not available. This is a qualitative research for which library sources and reliable internet sites have been utilized.
    Keywords: Critical Thinking, Puppet Theater, Kheimeh Shab Bazi, Mobarak, Children Education
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani, Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Hamed Mazaherian, Alireza Sayyad* Pages 53-62
    Film theoreticians، in the early stages of practice، emphasized the corporeal characteristics of the medium and the relationship between cinema and the spectator’s senses. Besides، in the opposite direction to the early cinema concentration on audience bodily identification with the film، the evolution of cinematic language and the subsequent prevailing of a dominant narrative system، major streams were formed towards identification with narrative، and what was associated with the realm of the body was transported to the realm of the mind. This transition led to the long supremacy of linguistic and psychological based theories of film. In the decades of the seventies and eighties، the connection between cinema apparatus and the renaissance perspective ideas formed the fundamental discourse of film theories. Writers such as Baudry، Metz and Heath analyzed the liaison between the viewer and the screen based on the perspective model. Optical theory was based on a perceived distance between the subject as a seer and a corresponding object being seen and provided the necessary conditions for the formation of the pattern of western thinkers to ponder the world order from a distance. The emergence of perspective understanding in the renaissance period helped the revival of optical spatial pattern that in turn consolidated the position of the subject and strengthened the distance between subject and object. The central position of the spectator from a distance deciphering the perspective of the composition was emphasized. Once again، the dominance of vision over the other senses was reinforced. Moreover، Giuliana Bruno argues based on the meaning of the Greek orgin word (kinēma، kinēmat- ''movement''، from kinein ''to move'') for cinema، implying that these terms bring to mind motion. The Latin root of the word emotion is also from the same word and evidently suggests a moving force and historically has been marked by moving from one place to another. Bruno believes that motion causes emotion and emotion always contains a movement within. In this regard، film can be viewed as a vehicle for transporting movement. Motions in cinema (including camera movement، movement of bodies and objects، movement and changes of perspective) not only influence narrative time and space but also form movements within the spectator creating emotion and in this respect loosens the existing boundaries of the spheres depicted in the movies. It seems apparent that there have been attempts to return to the body-centered theories of early cinema، and to accentuate the sympathy between the viewer body and the cinematic image. In the other direction of the dominance of optical film theories that ignore corporeal-material existence of the audience members and their sensual dimensions، it is appropriate that the bodily and haptic film theory would be reconsidered. Thus، by lending from Merleau-Ponty idea of the embodied subject، the film experience could be defined based on the experience of the embodiment of the members of the audience in the film space. A film audience with their physical presence، project to the outside، within the film world and interact in creating a cinematic space، based on their lived experiences.
    Keywords: Renaissance Perspective, Haptical Cinema, the Viewer Body, the Embodied Subject, Film Space
  • Ataollah Koopal Pages 63-70
    The oldest comic playwright from ancient world، whose works have survived and reached us، is Aristophanes the Greek. Names of many comic playwrights are found during the 5th century B. C. in Ancient Greece; however، works of none of whom is survived virtually complete. Thus، the only criterion for judging comedies of Golden Age of ancient Greece is applied to the works of Aristophanes. He can be considered as the founder of comedy in the whole world. There is little information about him، and the truth of his life should be searched for in his plays. He lived at the time of catastrophic Athenian-Spartan and Athenian-Sicilian wars; traces of such fierce battles can be found in many of his works. Four of his eleven plays such as The Acharnians، Peace، The Birds، and Lysistrata have explicit plots against these wars. Ridiculing Athenian militant rulers، Aristophanes establishes his dream of a war-free Utopia. Aristophanes’ comedies have been translated into different languages of the world and performed many times in the past century and in the 21th century though twenty five hundred years have passed since their creation. One reason for the dramatic approach to his comedies may be his irreconcilable conflict with the war. Aristophanes lived around 448 to 380 B. C. His youth coincided with the powerful era of “Pericles”، Athens’ powerful ruler. Athenian-Spartan War took place in early years of Aristophanes’ youth، i. e. in 431 B. C، and out of Pericles’ ambitions. This led the young Greek comedy writer to leave his farms and lands، like many other people، and immigrate and take up residence in Athens like most people of rural Attica Peninsula. In his comedies، one can always see a suffering image of themselves throughout the history. Characters in his works often provoke our sympathy and depict the common pains of humanity before our eyes. He is always looking for the ideal way of life. Aristophanes has a dream of a utopian society in which corruption and waste have not penetrated، and has no trace of poverty and injustice and war. All his predictions came to realization during his lifetime. He witnessed how the agitators of war and armament merchants put Athens in fire and imposed poverty، forced migration and massacre on the society. Yet، his genius lay in that، in a land of fire and blood، he would find something to make people laugh while Athens was filled with dead bodies and dying men; and by the time the heart of the city stopped beating، the suffering writer still found an excuse to create a comedy. The author of the present paper specifically addresses the issue of war in the writings of the ancient Greek playwright. Although he was an open-hearted brave warrior، Aristophanes hated the wars destroying Athens، and severely criticized the agitators of war with the fearless and reckless language of his plays. He، specifically، expressed his opposition to the long-term Peloponnesian Wars in his works which will be discussed subsequently. This paper reviews Aristophanes’ social status in Athens’ war-torn society along with searching the roots of his hatred of war in his works.
    Keywords: Aristophanes, Comedy, War, Peace, Utopia