Background And Objectives
Nowadays, the first stage of breeding is determination of honeybee races. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) include 24 different subspecies. The most subspecies of A. mellifera have been classified according to morphological characteristics; thus morphological characteristics have an important role in the classification of honey bees. Morphometric comparison of important morphological characteristics of Iranian honeybee, Apis mellifera meda Skorikov, was determined in Kurdistan province. Sampling was conducted from Sanandaj, Dehgolan, Ghorveh, Divandareh, Saghez, Marivan, saravabad, baneh, Bijar and Kamyaran in 2013. Ten morphological characteristics were used for discriminating the population of honeybees. Results showed that honeybee population of Dehgolan area (altitude 1938.5 m, 35º 5´ 47º 36´) had the longest front wing (9.156 mm), hind leg (7.826 mm) and proboscis (6.356 mm). Correlations between morphological characteristics were evaluated. There was a correlation between characteristics of length and width of the right forewing (r2 =0.76, p Material and
Samples were collected in 2013. Worker honeybees were preserved in pomple solution. Morphological characteristics including forewing and hind wing lengths, A4, D7, G18, cubital index, proboscis length, hind leg length, third and fourth abdominal segment lengths dorsally and Index of abdominal segment dorsally were measured. The data was analyzed by MANOVA. Dendrogram was drawn by UPGMA method.
Results showed that samples of Dehgolan, Divandareh and Sarvabad were discriminated from other populations. Analyses of cluster of ten morphological characteristics segregated ten sampled populations to four groups. In addition, Dehgolan area had the longest front wing (9.156 mm), hind leg (7.826 mm) and proboscis (6.356 mm) lengths. Comparisons of samples demonstrated that honey bee subspecies was A.m.meda.
A. mellifera subspecies contain different ecotypes, so they can be used as important sources in breeding. Honeybee subspecies of A.m.meda is native of Iran. This subspecies is distributed in different geographical areas of Iran. Unfortunately, some beekeepers import exotic subspecies such as A.m.carnica illegally. Imports of these subspecies have caused to create hybrid subspecies. Indigenous populations of honeybees are considered as genetic resources and much effort should be made to preserve these populations.