The Effects of Wind Stress on the Quantitative Features of Hibiscus under Different Levels of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
IntroductionHibiscus, an annual and twigged plant, One hundred and twenty-day winds, is a regional phenomenon which blows with variable speeds, in four warm months of the year (June, July, August, September), in a part of the south-west of Iran. The most important factor that affects the sustainability of the food production and maintaining the soil fertility, is the use of the integrated feeding systems and also the use of the biological fertilizers in the nutritional system.
Materials and MethodsAccording to the emphasis of sustainable agriculture, increasing the quality and the sustainability of performance, medicinal plants, are considered as a good option for such systems. This research was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effects of wind stress on the Hibiscus quantitative features under the treatments of biological and chemical fertilizers. In growing season of 2014-2015, to evaluate the effects of wind stress on the characteristics of growth, performance and the performance components of Hibiscus leaflet under the treatments of chemical and biological fertilizers, a triplicate experiment, in the form of split plots in a randomized complete block design, was done in the Zabol University research farm. The main factors of wind stress were in three levels of severe wind stress, gentle wind stress and without wind stress and the minor factors including chemical fertilizers were in three levels of phosphorus, nitrogen and NPK. And, the minor factors including biological fertilizers, were in six levels of nitroxin, supernitro plus, super bio phosphate, bio phosphate, humic acid and bio sulfur. At the end of the investigation process of ten bushes which were chosen randomly from each plot after excluding the marginal effects, the following issues were measured: The features of the number of branches in each bush, wet and dry weight of aerial organs (grams per bush), the bush height (cm), the number of bolls per bush, the boll wet weight, the wet and dry weight of leaflet (grams per bush), chlorophyll fluorescence and the weight of one thousand seeds (grams per bush). Means comparison was done with the probability level of %5 by Duncan’s multiple range test. The statistical analysis of the research results was done by using the SAS (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary, NC) software
Results and DiscussionIn this study, it was observed that the severe wind stress cause the reduction of Hibiscus quantitative traits. Of course (However), the integrated effects of chemical and biological fertilizers under the effects of wind stress have improved these characteristics. The following issues were obtained in order: Improving the plant height feature in a treatment without stress, nitrogen chemical fertilizers, biological fertilizers, bio-sulfur, the number of side branches in a without-stress treatment, chemical fertilizers under the treatment of bio-sulfur and humic acid biological fertilizers and so on. The number of bolls in each bush, the bolls wet weight, the leaflet wet and dry weight and the leaflet performance in the chemical fertilizers treatments, NPK plus biological fertilizers in compare with the NPK chemical fertilizers treatment and not using the biological fertilizers, all originated from the positive effects of biological fertilizers on these traits. The biological fertilizers provides inaccessible mineral elements and also the organic compounds for the plant and cause the increase of the plant growth Akhtar and Siddiqui (2009).
ConclusionsThe results of this research showed that the effects of wind stress treatments and chemical and biological fertilizers and the interactions between the chemical and biological fertilizers and the investigated traits, were meaningful.
This research showed that, the severe wind stress, cause the reduction of the quantitative traits of Hibiscus. However, the effects of combining the chemical and biological fertilizers under the wind stress, cause the increase of these traits and this matter has a positive effect on the production sustainability and environmental protection and according to the medicinal plants necessity in farming systems, it seems that the biological fertilizers are a good alternative for the chemical fertilizers
Agroecology journal, Volume:10 Issue: 4, 2019
1093 - 1106
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