Neural correlates of fairness consideration in children in interaction with their In-/Out-group: An event-related potential study

The avoidance of inequality means that individuals like to ignore some of their capital not to receive less or more than their social partners. This variable is a key factor in establishing fairness. The present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of inequality avoidance and the effect of group membership on this behavior among 6-year-old children


The population of this research included healthy 6-year-old children from Tehran in 2018-2019. Hence, 15 children (4 girls and 11 boys) residing in Tehran were selected. In the ultimatum game, the children were presented by (un)fair offers from either in-group or out-group members. Also, in order to record brain waves’ data 32-channel EEG8 device were used.


The results showed that the children accepted significantly equal offers than advantageous and disadvantageous inequal offers (P=0.001) and offers presented by their in-group members than out-group members (P=0.041). Besides, the FRN wavelength in response to unfair offers was more than fair offers; this effect was observed in connection with the offers presented by their in-group members. Morover, the P-300 amplitude in exposure to equal and advantagous inequal offers was more when they were opposed from their in-group members.


The results attained in this study are indicative of the fact that early emotional and cognitive late brain waves in response to perceived equality and inequality are identified by children.

Article Type:
Case Study
Advances in Cognitive Science, Volume:21 Issue: 3, 2019
1 - 17  
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