The Evidence Based Participatory Design Process Framework, in Post- Earthquake Permanent Housing ReconstructionGillan-Zanjan (1990), Varzaghan (2012) and Kermanshah (2017) Earthquakes

Earthquakes have always been known as the most devastating phenomena, affecting human life and properties all around the world. Furthermore, their frequency, severity and catastrophic impacts have increased in recent decades. Likewise, Iran is not an exception due to its seismic location. The huge casualties and losses following shocking quakes that have happened in this part of the world. Post disaster reconstruction and planning is considered as the most important processin responding to disaster and consequent damages requires authorities, planners and reconstruction policymakers to provide adequate knowledge about the damaged contextIt has been well approved that corresponding the problems of reconstruction with effective survivors’ participation, leads the whole process to success. It should be noted that, time as a key component in all reconstruction phases, plays a vital role. Often in the process, speeding up the physical reconstruction and the number of permanent houses being ebuiltpave a way forthe acceptance of a more linear - thinking instead of cyclic - thinking and spiral approaches in reconstruction planning and its design process methods. These approaches lead to choosing irrational solutions for the settlement’s reconstruction design problem in long - term and changing the disaster to complicated and multi - component crisis in damaged community life.The main issue that is discussed in this paper is the growing gap between users, designers and paying clients in reconstruction phases. This inconsistency and gap together with the lack of proper construction supervision could result in increasing physical vulnerability while blocking the way toward build back better’ goals in the affected areas and communities.The methodology is based on a qualitative approach including content analysis of field surveys and observations,In - depth interviews with survivors and authorities for every case study. The evidence were selected from post - earthquake reconstructed villages in three disaster milestones in Islamic Republic of Iran. First, the village called Gufel in north of Iran, in the category long-term results of reconstruction, after 1990 Gilan - Zanjan earthquake. Second, Baj –a-Baj substantially damaged after 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquake, as a medium-term process; and finally, Ghouchi - Bashchi  village that located in west of Iran reconstructed recently after 2017 Sar Pol –e- Zahab earthquake.The findings show that, in order to achieve an acceptable and successful reconstruction that satisfies survivors, participation of the affected community from planning to implementation and post occupancy period is proven to have a vital role. Nonetheless should be taken into accountthat eradicating the gap between users and designers in reconstruction policies in all phases is possible by promoting process - oriented approaches rather than product - oriented approaches in the design process of settlements, from emergency shelters to permanent housing. There is a triple level framework suggested for the participatory design process in post - earthquake permanent housing reconstruction. This framework consists of a design circle with the increased vulnerability, at the first level prior to the earthquake impact on the communities. The linear approach at the second level which seeks product is what is known as the official period of reconstruction with the presence of authorities; and finally, the spiral helix of design process after the end of official reconstruction procedure.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Housing And Rural Environment, Volume:38 Issue: 168, 2020
35 - 50  
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