National and International Environmental Governance: Approaches, Conflicts, and Strategies

 Today, the issue of the environment is one of the most important concerns in human society, which is raised at various local, national, regional and international levels. However, in addition to the levels of discussion, the issue of the environment in various political, economic, social, scientific, technological and legal dimensions, etc., each brings its own issues, limitations, challenges and opportunities. Certainly, the issue of governance is one of the key issues, which at the national level depends on major decisions of the governments. Governments that generally do not see the issue of the environment very much in the context of comprehensive security and are not willing to provide a strong program and a good budget for it. At the national level, strict adherence to environmental standards is often seen as an obstacle to economic development and industrial growth, while the implementation of environmental projects is costly and governments are reluctant to spend and love. Spend on issues that appeal to voters and raise their levels of satisfaction. Therefore, the issue of improving environmental conditions is highly dependent on the level of conventional social consciousness, which today, fortunately, given the growth of social networks, this is in a good and favorable position. Citizens at the local level are particularly aware of the effects of environmental degradation, as they are directly exposed to it. The idea of ​​this article is that environmental protection is a global issue, and global and national governance have a very close relationship in this regard. Here, in the Green Theory Paradigm, as a critical theory, an attempt is made to discuss and explore environmental issues at both national levels with an emphasis on the case study of Iran and the international level. The findings of the paper show that Iranian governance is far from achieving the desired standards, and at the international level, despite good efforts, there is still a way to achieve effective agreements and the realization of a proper legal regime for managing environmental challenges. There are many challenges and obstacles, the most important of which is the Westphalian system based on sovereignty and conflicting national interests.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
International Relations Research Quarterly, Volume:9 Issue: 4, 2020
7 - 46  
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