Determination of land surface temperature using Landsat images (Case study: Bushehr coastal lands)
Article Type:
Case Study (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Background and Objective :

Land surface temperature (LST) has become an important issue in the world today, as it affects the climate and environment at the local, regional and global levels, and these changes in land surface temperature are mainly caused by it arises from urbanization, and human activities and extreme Landuse and Land-cover (LULC) changes. Due to the limitations of meteorological stations, remote sensing can be used as the basis of many meteorological data. One of the most important practical aspects of remote sensing in climate studies is the estimation of surface temperature. In this research, the temperature of the earth's surface between 1990 and 2018 was extracted from the images of TM and OLI sensors of the coastal lands of Bushehr, using the Stefan-Boltzmann method.

Materials and Methods:

 The land study area of Bushehr city, which is on the northern coast of the Persian Gulf, with dimensions of 20×8 km2 an area of 1011.5 km2 and with an average minimum temperature of 18.1oC and an average maximum temperature of 33 oC, relative humidity between 58-75% and the average annual rainfall is 272 mm, it’s located in the geographical location of 50°50' to 10°51 E longitude and 28°40' to 29°00' N latitude. The data used in this research include; Landsat 8 (OLI) data in 2018 and TM data in 1990, which were downloaded from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) data center (https://earth In order to calculate the parameters related to temperature extraction, the meteorological data of the synoptic stations located in the studied area were used. After taking the images, due to the larger range of the images, the images were cut (Resized) and then the geometric correction of the images was done using topographic maps on a scale of 1/25000 and all the images were adjusted to the UTM coordinate system of the 39 N were adapted. In geometric correction, the RMS error of all images was less than 0.5 pixels. In order to compare the results of Stefan-Boltzmann method for extracting LST with ground data, thermal map data obtained was compared with soil temperature data (obtained from meteorological stations in the selected area). In order to evaluate the Stefan-Boltzmann method from ground data, the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) index statistical method was used.

Results and Discussion: 

 The average minimum and maximum Land surface temperature (LST) extracted from the 1990 TM image was 26.5 and 45 °C, respectively, and for the 2018 OLI image, it was 30.1 and 48.6 °C, respectively. The results showed that the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) index values for TM and OLI sensors are to 7.1 and 5.6, respectively. The results of the research showed that the Stefan-Boltzmann method provided a reliable result in estimating the Land surface temperature.


 This research aims to extract LST by Stefan-Boltzmann method. The results of this method were estimated using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) statistical index for the study period (1990-2018). Applying the MAE on the produced thermal maps, it was found that the Stefan-Boltzmann method is suitable for future research in the fields of thermal remote sensing by observing the results of using the MAE index on thermal maps. Therefore, we conclude that the Stefan-Boltzmann method is suitable for estimating the surface temperature of the land in coastal areas. Finally, it is suggested that for quantitatively describing LST patterns a GIS/RS-based method, and methods such as spatial autocorrelation and semivariance are used.

Journal of Rs and Gis for natural Resources, Volume:13 Issue: 3, 2022
10 to 13  
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