The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral, Mindfulness and Acceptance and Commitment Therapies to Improving the Psychological Symptoms of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in Iran (Systematic Review and Meta-analysis)
Article Type:
Review Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease in which the myelin lining the central nervous system is damaged and often occurs between the ages of 20 and 40. In addition to loss of motor, sensory, and cognitive function, patients with MS also experience related symptoms such as depression, anxiety, stress, fatigue, and pain.


 The aim of this study was to systematically and meta-analyze the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment (CMAC) therapies to improving the psychological symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis in Iran.


 The study was conducted using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. This study examined articles published from the beginning until November 20, 2021 in Persian and English on cognitive and behavioral interventions performed in Iran, in order to influence psychological symptoms for people with multiple sclerosis. Articles relevant to research were screened in external (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science) and internal databases (Sid, Magiran, Ganj, Irandoc, Civilica). The quality of the included RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane guideline risk of bias tool. The results were expressed in terms of mean difference (MD) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. Data analyses were performed by RevMan5.4.


 In the first stage of the search, 792 articles were obtained. After reviewing the titles of the articles, 701 articles were discarded due to irrelevance and duplication and 91 articles remained. Finally, 21 studies were selected by reviewing the abstracts and considering the inclusion criteria. Compared with the control group, the standardized mean difference (SMD) estimate depression was 1.60 (2.27, 0.93), for anxiety 0.49 (0.80, 0.19), for stress 0.97 (1.70, 0.23) and for fatigue 0.19 (2.75, 1.25) had a positive effect; But no significant effect on pain reduction equal to 0.49 (2.21, 1.23) was not found.


 The meta-analysis in the posttest showed that the effects of CMAC were considerable on reducing depression, anxiety, stress, and fatigue, but the effects were not notable for pain mitigation. Future high quality studies with follow-up evaluations are needed to support the effects of CMAC on reducing symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis and to evaluate the interventional features that enhance and maintain the effects.

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Volume:16 Issue: 4, Dec 2022
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