Histo-anatomical and Radiological Study of the Lungs in English White Quail
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)
Background and aim

Due to the importance of the respiratory system in vertebrates, especially in birds, and due to the fact that birds need more oxygen to fly, important and special anatomical changes and adaptations have occurred in these animals. In this study, the histoanatomical and radiological examination of lungs in birds was carried out.

Materials and Methods

For this purpose, 16 Healthy male and female adult white English quail with average weight of 160 ± 5.35 grams was studied. At the beginning, lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs of the birds were prepared. Then the birds were examined anatomically, and parameters related to the weight, length, width and thickness of the lungs were obtained. Finally, the lungs were removed from the coelomic cavity of the bird and fixed in 10% formalin solution. Tissue sections of the samples were prepared and subjected to histomorphometric evaluation.


Radiological examination shows that the right and left lungs in English white quail are located in the first intercostal space to the sixth intercostal space. Anatomical examination, while confirming the radiological results, shows that the average of lung weight, ratio of lung weight to total body weight, lung length, lung width and the number of lung incisions in the male birds are 0.981±0.065 grams, 0.00623±0.00045, 2.57±0.030 cm, 1.53±0.021 cm, and 5.00±0.00 respectively, and in the female birds, are 0.935±0.028 grams, 0.0587±0.00023, 2.50±0.033 cm, 1.34±0.024 cm, and 5.00±0.00 respectively. According to histological results, primary and secondary and Para bronchioles (tertiary bronchioles) have ciliated stratified columnar, simple cuboidal and simple squamous to simple cuboidal epithelium.


The lungs are pyramidal and unlobated in shape and light pink in color, located in the 1st to 6th intervertebral space. There were no significant differences in the radiological, anatomical and histological structure of the lungs in male and female English white quails.

Journal of Alternative Veterinary Medicine, Volume:5 Issue: 12, Spring 2022
716 to 725
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