Discourse Study of Written Letters of Imam Ali (as) to Mu'awiyah based on Van Dijk Approach

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:

Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is one of the new approaches to discourse analysis based on which metalanguage factors such as power, history and ideology are examined. This approach was formed in the second half of the twentieth century by some linguist scholars. Tune Van dijk is one of the prominent pioneers who studies in this field. In his opinion, ideology can be represented through strategies called ideological square and based on bilateral contrasts between in group and out group. The discourse of Imam Ali (AS) in his letters to Mu'awiyah has a feature that can be scrutinized by this approach and via descriptive- analytical method. This research is crucial because it explains the audience the ideology of two opposing thoughts during the history of Islam through CDA.The findings indicate that the ideology of Imam Ali and Muawiyah has led to polarization between two groups, i.e. the contrast between "us" and "them". In explaining the differences between the two groups in identity, members and actions, the status of the ingroup (us) has been raised and the status of the outgroup (them) has been degraded. In addition, the nobility of ancestors, purity, believe in God, relation with goods and courage as the most important positive points of "us" and hypocrisy, disbelief, relation with evils and following the devil as the most important negative points of "them" are represented in Imam's discourse. Furthermore, it seems that "true belief in the religion of Islam" versus "deviation from the religion of Islam" are ideologies that can be achieved as a result of the contrast between Ali and Mu'awiyah.Among three mentioned approaches, critical discourse analysis (CDA) analyzes meta-language factors such as power, history and ideology. This approach was formed in the second half of the 20th century by the efforts of some linguistic scholars and theorists. Teun Van Dijk is one of the prominent pioneers of study and research in CDA. According to him, ideology in the discourse can be represented through strategies called ideological square, which is based on bilateral contrasts between in group and out group. Imam Ali’s letters to Muawiyah can be analyzed by a descriptive-analytical method based on Van Dijk’s ideological square as his discourse aligns with this approach.This research is crucial because the ideology of two opposing thoughts during the history of Islam is elaborated to the audience through CDA. The findings indicate that the ideology of Imam Ali and Muawiyah has led to polarization between two groups, i.e. the contrast between "us" and "them". In explaining the differences between the two groups in identity, members and actions, the status of the ingroup (us) has been raised and the status of the outgroup (them) has been degraded. In addition, the nobility of ancestors, purity, believe in God, relation with goods and courage as the most important positive points of "us" and hypocrisy, disbelief, relation with evils and following the devil as the most important negative points of "them" are represented in Imam's discourse. Furthermore, it seems that "true belief in the religion of Islam" versus "deviation from the religion of Islam" are ideologies that can be achieved as a result of the contrast between Ali and Mu'awiyah.

Language:
Persian
Published:
Quarterly Journal of Nahjolbalagha, Volume:10 Issue: 38, 2023
Pages:
1 to 21
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