Severe acute respiratory syndrome(Sars)
The global outbreak of severe acute respiralory syndrome (SARS) originated in Foshan, Guangdong province of China, as early as 16 November 2002, has infected more than 4000 people in 30 countries.The agent that causes SARS has now been conclusively identified by who colaborative researches. The SARS virus is a new coronavirus unlike any other known human or animal virus in the coronavirus family. The virus is transmited by close contact with patients and there are evidences that it can be transmited via feces. The incubation period of SARS is usually 2-7 days but may be as long as l0 days. All patients presented with fever (temperature higher than 38 oC for over 24 hours), and most presented with rigor, dry cough, dyspnea, malaise, headache, and hypoxemia. A few patients have reported diarrhoea during the febrile prodrome. Pulmonary infiltrates appeared in chest radiographs early, even before the start of dyspnoea. Early in the course of disease, the absolute lymphocyte count is often decreased. overall white cell counts have generally been normal or decreased. At the peak of the resptratory illness, up to half of patients have leukopenia and thrombocytopenia or low normal platelet counts. Early in the respiratory phase, elevated creatine phosphokinase levels and hepatic transaminases have been noted. Renal function has remained normal in the majority of patients. Scientists have completed full sequencing of the genome of the SARS coronavirus and it seems that viruse has been originated from domestic animals. Molecular tests like RT-PCR can be used to detect genetic material of virus in various specimens (blood, stool or respiratory secretions) 96% of persons developing SARS recover spontaneously. Treatment includes a variety of antibiotics and antiviral agents such as ribavirin. Steroids have Also been given. Mortality rate is around 5%. Majour Precoution for Prevention and control of SARS includes not to travele to infected countries and Sulvilanse. Health care personrrel should apply appropriate infection control precautions for any contact with patients with suspected SARS.
Journal of Military Medicine, Volume:4 Issue: 4, 2003
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