فهرست مطالب

Parasitology - Volume:10 Issue: 4, 2016
  • Volume:10 Issue: 4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/11/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Daniel Getacher Feleke, Mehdi Nateghpour, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Homa Hajjaran, Leila Farivar, Mehdi Mohebali, Reza Raoofian Pages 505-516
    Background
    Parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is extensively employed as malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Moreover, it is a well-known drug target candidate. However, the genetic diversity of this gene might influence perfor­mance of RDT kits and its drug target candidacy. This study aimed to determine polymorphism of pLDH gene from Iranian isolates of P. vivax and P. falciparum.
    Methods
    Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of microscopically confirmed P. vivax and P. falciparum infected patients. pLDH gene of P. falciparum and P. vivax was amplified using conventional PCR from 43 symptomatic malaria patients from Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeast Iran from 2012 to 2013.
    Results
    Sequence analysis of 15 P. vivax LDH showed fourteen had 100% identity with P. vivax Sal-1 and Belem strains. Two nucleotide substitutions were detected with only one resulted in amino acid change. Analysis of P. falciparum LDH sequences showed six of the seven sequences had 100% homology with P. falciparum 3D7 and Mzr-1. Moreover, PfLDH displayed three nucleotide changes that resulted in changing only one amino acid. PvLDH and PfLDH showed 75%-76% nucleotide and 90.4%-90.76% amino acid homology.
    Conclusion
    pLDH gene from Iranian P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates displayed 98.8-100% homology with 1-3 nucleotide substitutions. This indicated this gene was relatively conserved. Additional studies can be done weather this genetic variation can influence the performance of pLDH based RDTs or not.
    Keywords: Iran, Gene polymorphism, Lactate Dehydrogenase gene, P. falciparum, P. vivax
  • Mojgan Aryaeipour, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Zahra Heidari, Zahra Sayyad Talaie, Mohammad Bagher Rokni Pages 517-522
    Background
    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease of livestock and human caused by Fasciola species. Here in, the results of serological evaluation of fascioliasis in peo­ple referring to the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sci­ences during 2008-2014 are presented.
    Methods
    Demographic characterizations, symptoms and eosinophil rate were registered for every patient. Using somatic antigen of Fasciola, ELISA was per­formed and the results were analyzed. Data of questioners were analyzed as well.
    Results
    Among 206 applicants, 24.8% were seropositive for fascioliasis, included 21% female and 28.3% male. Mean range of age of patients was between 13 to 67 yr. The highest rate of seropositivity was found among 20-30 yr old patients. Most of the patients had hypereosinophilia. All patients had history of eating raw vegeta­bles, or drinking unsafe water. Patients were referring from different provinces of Iran, including Gilan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Ardabil, Khuzestan, Lorestan, North Khorasan, Kermanshah, Azerbaijan, Fars, Kordestan, Hamedan and Markazi.
    Conclusion
    During recent years, variety of provinces in Iran, where patients with fascioliasis are referred, has been increased. Patients coming from Gilan and Mazanda­ran provinces were referred early after the onset of their symptoms. Most probably, physicians in Gilan and Mazandaran are more alert on fascioliasis than other provinces. Previous wrong diagnosis was more common among patients refer­ring from other provinces than Gilan and Mazandaran provinces.
    Keywords: Fascioliasis, ELISA, Raw Vegetable, Iran
  • Maryam Niyyati, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Saeed Zarein, Dolab, Mahdieh Nazar, Hamed Behniafar, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad Pages 523-529
    Background
    Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba of which some species includ­ing N. fowleri and N. australeinsis are highly pathogenic in human and ani­mals. These widespread amoebae could be found in different environmental sources particularly in aquatic resources of tropical and subtropical regions. The most important source of infection is via recreational water contact. Due to the lack of thorough research regarding species of Naegleria spp. in aquatic sources, the present study was conducted.
    Methods
    In the present study, 60 samples were collected from recreational wa­ter resources of Rasht city, Guilan province, north of Iran. After filtering and culturing the samples, plates were examined by microscopic method and accord­ing to the page criteria. DNA of vahlkampfiid-positive samples were then ex­tracted using phe­nol-chlorophorm method. Amoebae genus was identified by targeting the ITS-region and sequencing based-approaches.
    Results
    Nine (15%) samples out of a 60 total samples were positive for Naegleria spp. of which seven belonged to potentially pathogenic N. australiensis. Two other strains were belonged to non-pathogenic N. pagei.
    Conclusion
    The present research was the first report of occurrence of N. aus­traliensis and N. pagei in Rasht city, north Iran. This study reflects the occurrence of Naegleria spp. in water sources of Guilan Province, Iran.
    Keywords: Naegleria, Iran, Water
  • Homa Hajjaran, Mitra Mohammadi Bazargani, Mehdi Mohebali, Richard Burchmore, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Elham Kazemi, Rad, Mohammad Reza Khoramizadeh Pages 530-540
    Background
    The mechanisms of virulence and species differences of Leishmania parasites are under the influence of gene expression regulations at posttranscriptional stages. In Iran, L. major and L. tropica are known as principal agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while L. infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis.
    Methods
    As a preliminary study, we compared the proteome mapping of the above three Iranian isolates of Leishmania species through the 2-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE), and identified the prominent proteins by Liquid Chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry.
    Results
    We reproducibly detected about 700 protein spots in each species by using the Melanie software. Totally, 264 proteins exhibited significant changes among 3 species. Forty nine protein spots identified in both L. tropica and L. major were similar in position in the gel, whereas only 35 of L. major proteins and 10 of L. tropica proteins were matched with those of L. infantum. Having identified 24 proteins in the three species, we sought to pro­vide possible explanations for their differential expression patterns and discuss their rele­vance to cell biology.
    Conclusion
    The comparison of proteome profiling pattern of the 3 species identified limit up and limit down regulated or absent /present proteins. In addition, the LC-MS data analy­sis showed that most of the protein spots with differential abundance in the 3 species are involved in cell motility and cytoskeleton, cell signaling and vesicular trafficking, intracellu­lar survival / proteolysis, oxidative stress defense, protein synthesis, protein ubiquitina­tion / proteolysis, and stress related proteins. Differentially proteins distributed among the species maybe implicated in host pathogenecity interactions and parasite tropism to cutaneous or visceral tissue macrophages
    Keywords: Proteome, 2, Dimension electro, phoresis, Liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry, L. tropica, L. major, L. infantum
  • Elham Hajialilo, Maryam Niyyati, Mohammad Solaymani, Mostafa Rezaeian Pages 541-546
    Background
    Free-living amoeba (FLA)-related keratitis is a progressive infection of the cornea with poor prognosis. The present study aimed to investigates the con­tact lenses of patients with keratitis for pathogenic free-living amoebae.
    Methods
    Overall, 62 contact lenses and their paraphernalia of patients with kerati­tis cultured and tested for the presence of free-living amoebae using morphological criteria. Unusual plates including plates containing mix amoebae and Vermamoeba were submitted to molecular analysis.
    Results
    Out of 62 plates, 11 revealed the outgrowth of free living amoeba of which 9 were Acanthamoeba, one plates contained mix amoebae including Acan­thamoeba and Vermamoeba and one showed the presence of Vermamoeba. These two latter plates belonged to patients suffered from unilateral keratitis due to the mis­used of soft contact lenses. One of the patients had mix infection of Acanthamoeba (T4) and V. vermiformis meanwhile the other patient was infected with the V. vermiformis.
    Conclusion
    Amoebic keratitis continues to rise in Iran and worldwide. To date, various genera of free-living amoebae such as Vermamoeba could be the causative agent of keratitis. Soft contact lens wearers are the most affected patients in the country, thus awareness of high-risk people for preventing free-living amoebae re­lated keratitis is of utmost importance.
    Keywords: Keratitis, Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba
  • Mehdi Nateghpour, Gholamhossein Edrissian, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Leila Farivar, Elham Kazemi, Rad Pages 547-553
    Background
    The number of malaria cases is declining worldwide; however, it remains as a serious health problem. Diagnosing unusual cases is the most im­portant issue to manage the problem. This study designed to describe the number of falciparum and vivax malaria infected patients referred to Malaria Reference Labora­tory in Tehran University of Medical Science from 2000 to 2012.
    Methods
    A retrospective study was conducted based on the collected question­naires from each patient referred to the laboratory. Diagnosing results and demo­graphic information for positive cases were analyzed using SPSS software. Problem­atic cases were evaluated for any difficulties in diagnosis or in clinical signs. Scanning and molecular methods were performed whenever there was an atypical case referred to the laboratory. Some of the samples had various difficulties for diagnosing such as presence of fussed gametocytes and schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum in peripheral blood and CCHF like hemoragic disorders.
    Results
    Plasmodium vivax caused a large proportion of the cases (76.1%) in con­trast with P. falciparum that included smaller proportion (22.8%) and the rest (1.1) belonged to mixed infection. Most of the positive cases (69.6%) were belonged to Afghani people. Men (94.6%) showed more infection than women (5.4%), moreo­ver the most infection (44.5%) was seen at a range of 21-30 yr.
    Conclusion
    In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to per­form more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard condi­tions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the dis­ease.
    Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium, Diagnosis, Iran
  • Sanaz Rasolzadeh, Mostafa Haji Fatahaliha, Maryam Hosseini, Reza Jafari, Abolfazl Miahipour, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Zohreh Babalo, Sima Rafati, Mehdi Yousefi Pages 554-560
    Background
    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in early stages of innate immune responses against viral and tumoral attacks. Activation of NK cells by leishmaniasis results in secretion of cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which enhances the phagocytosis and clear­ance of parasite. Lipophosphoglycan 3 (LPG3), the Leishmania homologous with GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94), a member of HSP90 family, contributes to LPG assembly as the most abundant macromolecule on the surface of Leishmania promastigotes.
    Methods
    We purified NK cells from healthy individuals (n=10) using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) technology. Purified NK cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of recombinant LPG3 (rLPG3), and its N-terminal (NT) and C-terminal (CT) fragments. Finally, the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by NK cells were measured by ELISA.
    Results
    Recombinant LPG3 but not its fragments (CT and NT), can signifi­cantly enhance the production of TNF-α by NK cells (P<0.05). Moreover, rLPG3, CT, and NT fragments were markedly stimulated the secretion of IFN-γ by NK cells (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The Leishmania LPG3 antigen can effectively activate NK cells, in vitro. Leishmania LPG3 participates in the innate immunity against leishmaniasis and thereby improves the effective parasite destruction. However, its efficiency should be tested in vivo.
    Keywords: Leishmania, LPG3, Natural killer cell, TLR
  • Somaia Saif Abu, Akkada, Eman Dorry Hussein El Kerdany, Rasha Fadly Mady, Radwa Galal Diab, Gehan Abd Elatti Khedr, Karam Imam Ashmawy, Wael Mohamed Lotfy Pages 561-570
    Background
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide range of homoeothermic animals, including man. Complications due to this microsporidian have been reported only in immunocompromised patients. Reports on E. cuniculi in immunocompetent humans are lacking, most probably, because it is not linked to any clinical manifestations in such hosts. The present work was carried out with the aim of studying, for the first time in Egypt, the prevalence of E. cuniculi infection of urinary tract among non-HIV immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals. It tested also the influence of some factors on the risk of infection.
    Methods
    Blood and urine samples were collected from 88 persons (44 non-HIV immunocompromised patients and 44 subjects as immunocompetent control group). IFAT serological assay and Weber’s green modified trichrome stain (MTS) urine smears were carried out. Molecular study by PCR was also performed to detect DNA of E. cuniculi in urine samples. A full history sheet was fulfilled for each subject to test the suspected risk factors.
    Results
    The IFAT examination confirmed the presence of antibodies against E. cunic­uli in 44.3% of the human subjects. The seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was significantly higher in the immunocompromised patients compared with the immunocompetent individuals (77.3% versus 11.4%). Compared with IFAT (the gold standard), the sensitivity and specificity of Weber’s green MTS smears were 69.23% and 89.80%. By using PCR, no positive cases were detected among human subjects.
    Conclusion
    A high prevalence of E. cuniculi infection in the studied individuals was noted. Although infection was found in some immunocompetent individuals, the im­mune status of the host remains the corner stone for occurrence of the infection.
    Keywords: Protozoa, Man, Microsporidia, Opportunistic
  • Somayeh Ghotloo, Mostafa Haji Mollahoseini, Ali Najafi, Farshid Yeganeh Pages 571-576
    Background
    Limiting dilution assay is considered as the gold standard method for quantifying the number of parasites in the animal model of Leishmania infection. Nowadays, real-time PCR is being increasingly applied to quantify infectious agents. In the present study, a real-time PCR assay was developed to estimate para­site burdens in lymph nodes of Leishmania major infected BALB/C mice. Enumera­tion of parasites was also performed by limiting dilution assay and compared with the results of real-time PCR based quantification.
    Methods
    The SYBR Green based real- time PCR assay was performed to amplify a 75 bp fragment of superoxide dismutase B1 gene in the lymph nodes of L. major infected BALB/C mice 8 weeks post infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously at the base of their tail with 2 × 105L. major promastigotes in the stationary phase of growth. To compare parasite burdens obtained by real-time PCR assay with those of limiting dilution assay, twelve 8-fold serial dilutions of the lymph node homoge­nates were prepared in the Schneider medium and incubated at 26°C.After 7 days, wells containing motile parasites were identified by direct observation under an inverted light microscope and the total number of parasites was estimated using the ELIDA software.
    Results
    Spearman's correlation coefficient of the parasite burdens between real-time PCR and limiting dilution assay was 0.72 (Pvalue = 0.008).
    Conclusion
    Real-time PCR assay is an appropriate replacement to existing limit­ing dilution assay in quantifying parasite burden in the experimental model of Leishma­nia infection.
    Keywords: Leishmania major, Real, time PCR, Limiting dilution assay, BALB, C mice
  • Zaid O. Ibraheem, Roslaini Abdul Majid, Sabariah Mohd Noor, Hasidah Mohd Sidek, Rusliza Basir Pages 577-583
    Background
    Nowadays, scourge of malaria as a fatalistic disease has increased due to emergence of drug resistance and tolerance among different strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has worsened the calamity as CQ is still considered the most efficient, safe and cost effective drug among other antimalarials. This urged the scientists to search for other alternatives or sensitizers that may be able to augment CQ action and reverse its resistance.
    Method
    Three β-carbolin derivatives, namely, harmalin, harmol and harmalol were tested for their anti-plasmodial and CQ resistance reversal effects against P. falciparum 3D7 and K1. SYBRE Green-1 based drug sensitivity assay and isobologram analysis were used to screen the mentioned effects respectively.
    Results
    All of them showed moderate anti-plasmodium effect and harmalin was the most effective as compared to the others in reversing CQ resistance and tolerance.
    Conclusion
    The mentioned phytochemicals are not ideal to be used as conven­tional anti-malarials and only harmalin can be suggested to reverse CQ resistance in P. falciparum K1.
    Keywords: Isobologram, β carbolin, Chloroquine, Resistance, falciparum, SYBR green, I
  • Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Behzad Javadian, Rozita Re¬Zaei, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Mehri Khademlou, Seyed Hosein Seyedpour, Abolghasem Syadatpanah Page 584
    Background
    Toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent people is generally asympto­matic but in immunocompromised patients including HIV/AIDS, can­cer pa­tients, and organ transplant recipients, etc. it can lead to serious pathological problems. The objective of current study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients using ELISA technique in Mazanda­ran Province, northern Iran.
    Methods
    Overall, 82 serum samples (61 males and 21 females) were collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Mazandaran Provinces, in 2013. Sera were surveyed employing ELISA assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square or Fisher exact test. In addition, before sampling a questionnaire was filled out for each subject.
    Results
    Overall seroprevalence of examined sera was 96.3% for IgG antibody but none of the sera shown IgM antibody against T. gondii. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in males and females was 96.7% and 95.2%, respectively. An antibody titer of >1 IU/ml was considered as positive. Furthermore, none of the included variables statistically was significant.
    Conclusions
    Seroprevalence of chronic (latent) toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Mazandaran Province is high compared to toxoplasmosis in general population. Consequently, the risk of acquiring Toxoplasma encephalitis in exam­ined seropositive HIV/AIDS patients of Toxoplasma is high.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, HIV, AIDS, Seroprevalence, Iran
  • Razi Naserifar, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhosein Dalimi, Zohreh Shar¬Ifi, Kavous Solhjoo, Kami Hosseinian Khosroshahi Pages 590-598
    Background
    Severe and fatal complications of toxoplasmosis urge development of effective vaccines against the disease. The current study was performed to evalu­ate cocktail DNA vaccine containing plasmids encoding GRA5, SAG1, and ROP2 genes of Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice in Tarbiat Modares University in 2012.
    Methods
    The plasmids containing complete GRA5, SAG1, and ROP2 genes were mass extracted and then the recombinant plasmids were administered via intramuscu­lar injections according to immunized mice three times with three-week intervals. Then splenocytes were cultured, and proliferation as well as cytokine as­says were carried out. The other mice in each group were inoculated by the parasite and mortality of the mice was evaluated on a daily basis.
    Results
    The results of cytokine assay for INF-γ were higher in the mice that re­ceived the cocktail DNA containing recombinant plasmids. Evaluation of prolifera­tion of splenocytes using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazo­lium bromide) assay indicated induction of cellular response. Measurement of total IgG and the isotypes of IgG1 and IgG2a showed that the cocktail DNA stimulated IgG and IgG2a production in comparison with the control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the survival rate of mice in the groups that received the cocktail DNA was significantly higher than that in the control groups (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Administration of the cocktail DNA vaccine led to production of higher levels of IFN-γ, confirmed by secretion of IgG2a, and the immune response was shifted toward Th1. Thus, the cocktail DNA containing the recombinant plas­mids can be an appropriate candidate for immunization against toxoplasmosis.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Cocktail DNA Vac, cine, pcGRA5, pcSAG1, pcROP2
  • Marzieh Ashrafmansouri, Bahador Sarkari, Gholamreza Hatam, Parvaneh Habibi, Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi Pages 599-604
    Background
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease with a relatively wide distribution in different areas of the world, including Iran. The parasite is mainly diagnosed microscopically, but serological approaches might be useful for diagnosis as well. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an immunoblotting system for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.
    Methods
    Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera samples from healthy controls along with 50 sera sample from non-CL patients were collected. Native strain of Leishmania major was cultured in Schnei­der medium and soluble Leishmania antigens were prepared from amastigotes-like parasites. All of sera samples were evaluated by an immunoblot­ting system.
    Results
    Components of 14 to 135 kDa were detectable by the sera of CL pa­tients. From 61 sera of CL patients, 59 cases (96.7%) detected a 63 kDa subunit and 51 cases (83.6%) recognized a 32-35 kDa component. Among all subunits, the 63 kDa band showed the highest sensitivity (96.7%) and a 75 kDa band had the highest (98%) specificity.
    Conclusion
    Immunoblotting has a satisfactory performance in diagnosis of CL and this test can be used, as an aid, for proper diagnosis of CL.
    Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, ELISA, IFA, Immunoblotting
  • Neelima Gupta, Dileep K. Gupta, Priyanka Singhal Pages 605-616
    Background
    The genus Pallisentis is an endoparasitic acanthocephalan inhabit­ing the intestinal walls. Hooks and spines of the worm are significant taxonomical and adaptive tools.
    Methods
    The parasites were fixed, dehydrated and examined under Olym­pus BX 53 Microscope with DIC attachment, digital camera and CELLSENS imag­ing system [Light microscopy (LM)] and fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, dehydrated, rotary-coated with gold palladium in NeoCoater 100-240V and examined in Neo JCM-6000 [scanning electron microscopy (SEM)].
    Results
    P. punctati n. sp. (prevalence 65.51%; mean intensity 3-6 par/host) is de­scribed. Females almost twice as large as males; proboscis hooks small; collar spine rows similar [16] and constant in both sexes but number of spines per row greater in females [22] than males [14]; trunk spine rows 28-39 (spines per row 14-18) in females and 20-26 (spines per row 10-12) in males. spine length of females almost twice as long as males, spines extend up to posterior testis in males and ¾ of total body length in females, Saefftigen’s pouch present, nuclei in cement gland 10-11, seminal vesicle, bursa and egg size small. SEM indicated lack of micro sculptures, and spines embedded on pre-trunk and trunk. Sex-based differences apparent (hook sizes, greater number of spines per row and longer spines in pre-trunk and trunk of females). Male trunk spine was narrower and of lateral spine with characteristic hooked appearance.
    Conclusion
    A new species of Pallisentis based on LM and SEM is described, sexual diversity in hook and spine structure is reported.
    Keywords: Acanthocephala, Light microscopy, Scanning electron Micros, copy, Bareilly, India
  • Farzaneh Zahabiun, Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi, Farideh Esfandiari Pages 617-624
    Background
    : Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this prob­lem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and com­pared with classic method.
    Methods
    A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method us­ing Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in differ­ent dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with differ­ent magnification during the evaluation time.
    Results
    The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and compa­rable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic struc­tures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method.
    Conclusion
    Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method.
    Keywords: Nematodes, Double Glass Mount, ing, Permanent Mounting, Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophe, nol
  • Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Amir Keyhani, Hossein Mahmoudvand, Razieh Tavakoli Oliaei, Arash Asadi, Moazameh Andishmand, Hossein Azzizian, Zahra Babaei, Naser Zia, Ali Pages 625-631
    Background
    We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis.
    Methods
    To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded.
    Results
    The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05). In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzo­ites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentra­tion of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with con­trol group.
    Conclusion
    The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natu­ral source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Bunium persicum Boiss, Prophylactic, Therapeutic
  • Ahmad Hosseini, Safa, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Mehran Bahadoran Bagh Badorani, Mehdi Ghatreh Samani, Shayan Mostafaei, Hossein Yousofi Darani Pages 632-637
    Background
    Human toxocariasis, a helminthozoonosis, is due to the migration of Toxocara species larvae into human organisms. Humans, especially children become infected by ingesting of embryonated eggs from soil, dirty hands, and raw vegetables. Seroprevalence of this infection is high in developed countries, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiology of Toxocariasis in chil­dren referred to the pediatric clinic of Imam Hossein hospital, Isfahan, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross sectional study the sera of children aged 5 to 15 years old, admit­ted to Imam Hossein Pediatric Hospital were collected during 2013-14. Then the sera were examined for anti Toxocara canis antibodies using commercial ELISA kit.
    Results
    From 427 children, 196 (45.9%) were female and 231(54.1%) were male. 107(25.1%) were from rural and 320 (74.9%) were from urban area. Of them 129 (30.2%) were contacted with dog. One child (0.2%) had hypereosinophilia, 33 (7.7%) eosinophlia, and 6 (1.39%) were positive for T. canis IgG (two male and four female). Four of infected children with T. canis were from urban (1.25%) and two from rural areas (1.9%). There was no significant correlation between education of parents, gen­der, age, place of living and contact with dog with ELISA results test.
    Conclusion
    Toxocariasis is prevalent in the children of Isfahan region. Results sug­gest a low Toxocara exposure in children in this area. Therefore, more risk factors associ­ated with Toxocara exposure should be identified in the further investigation.
    Keywords: Toxocariasis, Visceral larva migrans, Seroepidemiology, Children, Iran
  • Hanaa Bakir, Doaa Yones, Lamia Galal, Enas Huseein Pages 638-647
    Background
    In an effort to understand what limits the virulence of malaria para­sites in relation to the host genetic and immunogenic background, we investi­gated the possibility that the parasite and host genotype crossover interac­tions constrain virulence.
    Methods
    Two groups of mice from different genotypes were used (C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 mice). The mice were infected with a virulent parasite line Plasmo­dium yoelii17XL (P. yoelii17XL). Parasitemia, hematocrit value and lympho­cytes yielded by livers and spleens were evaluated. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis illustrated phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes.
    Results
    Infection with P. yoelii17XL did not result in thedeath of DBA/2 mice. In contrast,B6 mice developed significantly high parasitemia and succumbed to death. Using (FACS) analysis, DBA/2 mice were found to experience a marked expansion of interleukin (IL)-2Rb+ CD3int cells and gd T cells in the liver, espe­cially in the recovery phase. The expansion of unconventional T cells (i.e. B220+ T cells) was also marked in DBA/2 mice.
    Conclusion
    The outcome of murine malaria infections depends on the dynamic interplay between the immune-mediator and the genotype of the host.
    Keywords: Malaria, Immune cells, DBA, 2 mice
  • Fengcai Zou, Xin Yu, Yan Yang, Shuang Hu, Hua Chang, Jianfa Yang, Gang Duan Pages 648-651
    Background
    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in buffaloes, sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwestern China was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013.
    Methods
    A total of 973 (427 buffaloes, 154 sheep and 392 goats) serum samples were collected from seven administrative regions of Yunnan Province, and exam­ined for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. Some risk fac­tors related to species, age, gender and geographical origin were determined using a multinomial logistic regression.
    Results
    The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in ruminant species was estimated at 11.9%. The final logistic regression model demonstrated that host species and geographical origin were the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection (P﹤0.05).
    Conclusion
    Taken together, the results of the present study revealed a high expo­sure to T. gondii in ruminant species in Yunnan Province, which has an important implication for public health.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Seroprevalence, China
  • Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Mohsen Najjari, Mohammad Ebrahimipour, Qasem Asgari, Sousan Mojtabavi, Majid Mansouri Pages 652-657
    Background
    Parasitic intestinal infections are still among socioeconomic prob­lems in the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. Food-handlers that directly deal with production and distribution of foods between societies are one of the most important sources to transmit parasitic infections to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 1021 feces samples were randomly col­lected from food-handlers in Shiraz, central Iran from August to September 2013. Two different methods, routine direct fecal examination and Formalin –Ethyl ace­tate concentration as a complementary technique, were done to detect parasites.
    Results
    The prevalence of parasitic organisms was 10.4% in the food-handlers. The most species of the protozoan parasites were G. lamblia, E. coli and B. hominis; meanwhile, only one infection by H. nana (0.1%) was detected in this group. Mixed infections were observed in 13.2% (n=14/106) of positive cases. The majority of participants were male (57%); however, data analysis showed significant statistical difference in the rate of infection between females 11.9% (n=53/444) and males 9% (n=52/577) (P=0. 024). There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of infection among different educational and occupation groups.
    Conclusion
    Although decreasing of helminthic infections is distinct, but infecting with protozoan parasites is still important in food-handlers. Concentration tech­nique is more useful than direct smear technique, especially for detection parasites in low number. High level of education in our study showed that training courses in this group could be effective in the implementation of control and prevention programs.
    Keywords: Food, handler, Intestinal parasites, Protozoan diseases, Food, borne infections, Iran
  • Zohreh Andalib Aliabadi, Fariba Berenji, Abdolmajid Fata, Lida Jarahi Jarahi Pages 658-662
    Background
    Human cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) continues to be an essen­tial cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world.
    Methods
    We studied hydatid cyst pattern in hospitalized adult patients from 2003 to 2012 in Mashhad and Neyshabour, northeast of Iran.
    Results
    Overall, 1342 patients, 711 females (53%) and 631 males (47%) diag­nosed as infected with hydatid cyst were evaluated. Their age was between 1 and 91 yr (mean age 37.75). The most affected age group was 20-30 yr old. Totally, 953 cases (71%) were urban and 375 cases (27.8%) were rural residents. The most com­mon localization of cysts was the liver and lung. The housewives were the most frequently infected occupations.
    Conclusion
    The rate of infection with hydatid cyst is high in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, and the incidence of human hydatidosis tends to increase in recent years so control and prevention programs are recommended.
    Keywords: Hydatid cyst, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatidosis, Iran
  • Renfeng Chen, Xuan Lin, Lingying Hu, Xiaoli Chen, Yao Tang, Jia Zhang, Meizhen Chen, Shoukun Wang, Cuiqin Huang Pages 663-668
    Background
    Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is caused by Toxo­plasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild animals is of great importance to understand the transmission of the parasite in the environ­ment. However, little is known about T. gondii prevalence in wild animals and birds in China.
    Methods
    We conducted the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from Zoo Wild Animals and Pet Birds in Fujian Province, Southeastern China. Heart tissues were collected from 45 zoo animals and 140 pet birds. After identified using B1 gene, the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates were typed at 11 genetic markers, including SAG1,5’ and3’-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3.
    Results
    Seven of 45 zoo animals and 3 of 140 pet birds were positive by PCR amplifi­cation using T. gondii B1 gene specific primers. Of these positive isolates, 3 isolates from Black-capped (Cebus apella), Peacock (Peafowl) and Budgerigar (Melopsitta­cus undulatus) were successfully genotyped at 11 genetic loci, and grouped to three distinct genotypes: ToxoDB Genotype #9, #2 and #10, respectively.
    Conclusion
    This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolated from zoo wild animals and pet birds in Fujian, China. There is a potential risk for the transmission of this parasite through zoo wild animals and pet birds in this region.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Zoo animals, Pet Birds, Genetic characteriza, tion, China
  • Serpil Degerli, Bektas Tepe Page 669