فهرست مطالب

نقش جهان - مطالعات نظری و فناوری های نوین معماری و شهرسازی - سال هشتم شماره 1 (پیاپی 21، بهار 1397)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (پیاپی 21، بهار 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • شاهین حیدری ، ساناز مطلایی * صفحات 1-7
    در فضاهای بسته ،کیفیت هوای داخل ،یکی از عواملی است که وضعیت کارایی و نگهداری ساختمان را تعیین می کند و روی نحوه فعالیت و سلامت کاربران ساختمان تاثیر می گذارد. خوشبختانه آلاینده های فضای بسته را می توان از طریق طراحی معمارانه تا حد زیادی کنترل نمود. معماران ایرانی در ابنیه سنتی با طراحی فضاهای بافر ، از حجم گرد و غباری که در اقلیم گرم و خشک ایران وارد فضای بسته می شدمی کاستند. همچنین تهویه کافی که در فضاهای ابنیه سنتی وجود داشت ، آلاینده های فضای داخلی را رقیق می نمود و به سطحی می رساند که برای سلامتی افراد خطری ایجاد نمی نمود. امروزه نیز دو راهکار تهویه و استفاده از گیاهان جاذب آلاینده دو راهکار اساسی جهت کاهش آلاینده ها در فضاهای بسته می باشد. برخی از گیاهان به عنوان جاذب های زیستی مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند. در این پژوهش که با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و شبیه سازی کامپیوتری انجام شده ، با الهام از معماری سنتی ایران و با طراحی خرد اقلیم داخل فضای بسته و در نتیجه استفاده از طرح ترکیب گیاهان جاذب آلاینده در فضای معماری ، از طریق نرم افزار Ansys-Fluent ، به بررسی رفتار انتشار سیال آلوده در فضای اتاق و نیز بررسی وضعیت غلظت و انتشار آن توسط جعبه ی گیاه با شرایط مرزی، ورودی هوا به صورت سرعت ثابت و برابر 0. 5 متربرثانیه و خروجی به صورت فشار نسبی ثابت در صفر اتمسفر و دیوارها نیز دیوار ثابت با شرط عدم لغزش در نظر گرفته شدند. با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده، گیاهان می توانند از طریق تولید اکسیژن در محیط که طی عمل فتوسنتز تولید می شود و نیز جذب آلاینده ها از محیط ، به رقیق سازی آلاینده ها،تصفیه ی هوا و ته نشینی ذرات معلق کمک شایانی نمایند.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت هوای داخلی، فضاهای بافر، شبیه سازی کامپیوتری، تصفیه هوا، کاهش مصرف انرژی
  • مریم انصاری منش *، نازنین نصراللهی صفحات 9-15
    مقدمه
    در ساختمان های اداری، محیط باکیفیت داخلی، باعث افزایش کارآیی کارکنان و در نتیجه شکوفایی اقتصاد کشورها و در مقابل نامناسب بودن محیط داخل، سبب بروز نارضایتی کارکنان و کاهش کارآیی آنها خواهد شد. عوامل بسیاری در ایجاد یک محیط باکیفیت داخلی موثرند که یکی از آنها تهویه مناسب است. یکی از عوامل مهم در مشخص نمودن نرخ تهویه، میزان دی اکسیدکربن موجود در فضاست. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین محدوده مناسب دی اکسیدکربن در جهت بهینه سازی کیفیت محیط داخل ساختمان های اداری انجام شد.
    مواد و روش ها
    تحقیق کاربردی و کمی حاضر از 15 بهمن تا 15 اسفند 1390 با انجام مطالعات میدانی، اندازه گیری میزان دی اکسیدکربن و هدایت پرسش نامه در 328 نفر از کارکنان 10 ساختمان اداری کرمانشاه به بررسی محدوده مناسب میزان دی اکسیدکربن در ساختمان های اداری این منطقه پرداخت. به منظور تدوین پرسش نامه، از پرسش نامه موجود در استاندارد انجمن مهندسین گرمایش، سرمایش و تهویه مطبوع آمریکا استفاده شد، اما با توجه به نوع تحقیق و پوشش سئوالات، تغییراتی به صورت اضافه نمودن برخی پرسش های مرتبط در آن داده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS 16 انجام شد.
    یافته ها
    در کل ساختمان ها، 71/6% افراد از کیفیت هوا و میزان تهویه راضی بودند. میزان دی اکسیدکربن در غالب ساختمان ها، غیر از ساختمان کد 8، در محدوده استاندارد قرار داشت. میزان رضایت مندی از کیفیت هوا در این ساختمان 59/0% بود. ساختمان کد 3 بهترین وضعیت را داشت.
    نتیجه گیری
    محدوده مناسب دی اکسیدکربن در ساختمان های اداری کرمانشاه، میزان دی اکسیدکربن کمتر از ppm1200 است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختمان های اداری، کیفیت هوای داخل، میزان دی اکسیدکربن، تهویه، سلامت
  • سمانه جلیلی صدرآباد *، اسماعیل شیعه، مصطفی بهزادفر صفحات 17-23
    امروزه رشد و گسترش شهرها علی الخصوص مادرشهرها و کلانشهرها سبب کاهش روابط اجتماعی بین شهروندان و متعاقبا سبب بیگانگی اجتماعی و انزوای اجتماعی شهروندان از یکدیگر شده است. این مساله به تدریج سبب کم شدن هویت محله های شهری و نهایتا جدایی گزینی اجتماعی در آنها شده است. بنابراین جدایی گزینی اجتماعی یکی از معضلات شهرهای امروزی است و باید در صدد پیدا کردن راهکارهای مناسب در جهت رفع این مشکل بود. بدین منظور در این مقاله عوامل موثر بر جدایی گزینی اجتماعی مورد بررسی و بر اساس آنها شاخص سازی صورت گرفته است. بدین منظور داده های مربوط به پرسشنامه های توزیع شده و داده های بدست آمده مرکز آمار ایران در محدوده مورد نظر وارد نرم افزار SPSS شده است. به دلیل اینکه شاخص ها دارای مقیاس های یکسانی نبودند، از روش رفع مقیاس استفاده شد. برای اینکه بتوان با شاخص های کمتر و بهتر محاسبات لازم انجام گیرد، با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی در نرم افزار SPSS تعداد شاخص ها به 2 عامل اصلی کاهش پیدا کرد. پس از انجام تحلیل عاملی و بدست آوردن امتیازات عاملی، از این امتیازات به عنوان ورودی اطلاعات متصل به نقشه در نرم افزار Arc GIS استفاده و نقشه نهایی جهت محاسبه میزان جدایی گزینی وارد نرم افزار Geo Segregation Analyzer می شود. در این مقاله دو محله کرمان و فدک واقع در منطقه 8 شهرداری تهران مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده می توان بیان کرد که در محله فدک و کرمان جدایی گزینی اتفاق نیفتاده است و این دو محله و ساکنان آن از نظر اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی بسیار به یکدیگر شبیه می باشند. واژگان کلیدی: جدایی گزینی فضایی-اجتماعی، تحلیل عاملی، GIS،Geo Segregation Analyzer ، محله های فدک و کرمان.
    کلیدواژگان: جدایی گزینی فضایی-اجتماعی، تحلیل عاملی، محله های فدک و کرمان
  • محمدصادق طاهرطلوع دل* صفحات 25-34
    وجود نقص یا نقض درتامین اهداف حفاظت، نگهداری، استحکام بخشی و مرمت بناهای تاریخی آجری ایران؛ شاخص نارسایی عملکرد در حفظ اصالت میراث ارزشمند معماری ایران طی مداخلات سازه ای است, ناسازگار شدن کالبد، محتوی، عملکرد و فناوری محسوب می شود. لذا ناکارآمدی برخی مداخلات غیر ضروری و مخرب در فرآیند بهسازی، فقدان قواعد مدون،کمبود آگاهی مقتضی و نداشتن الگوهای کارآمد در طرح حفاظت و بهسازی لرزه ای سازه های تاریخی ایران اهمیت می یابند. تحقیق حاضر درصدد کشف الگویی منطبق با پایداری لرزه ای این بناها در مقابل خطرات زلزله های مختص فلات ایران می باشد. به این منظور خصوصیات هندسی فیزیکی بناهای تاریخی پایدار مناطق زلزله خیز ایران با شتاب نسبی زلزله زیاد بررسی گردیده اند. با ارزیابی کلی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی بناهای پابرجای تاریخی آجری ایران و تعیین وضعیت لرزه خیزی بستر خاستگاه، ابعاد کالبدی درعرض، طول، ارتفاع و انجام محاسبات مربوط به تناسبات هندسی یعنی سطوح نسبی مربوط به درصد دیوارهای نسبی؛ داده های خام تحقیق کسب شده اند. در ارزیابی ضوابط فنی مهندسی نیز آئین نامه زلزله ایران، منشورها و آئین نامه های معتبر لحاظ شده اند و توسط نرم افزار سنجش پایایی و روایی داده های تحقیق و تحلیل پیمایشی به روش تحلیل عامل میان مولفه های ابعادی ابنیه مزبور و تحقیق همبستگی میان عوامل موثر انجام شده، با نرم افزار مدل سازی تحلیل مسیر، کشف ساختار تعاملی و انجام فرآیند مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری مدل پایداری لرزه ای صورت گرفت. با تبیین مدل معادلات ساختاری مربوط به عوامل موثر نهایی: یعنی عامل اثرگذار استعداد خرابی لرزه ای، عامل اثرپذیر مقاومت لرزه ای مستقیم و عامل واسطه مقاومت لرزه ای غیرمستقیم ؛ ارزیابی سنجش برازندگی ارتباطات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بین آن عوامل انجام شد و مدل پایداری لرزه ای بناهای تاریخی آجری ایران با درصد اطمینان و برازندگی کافی تعیین گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: بناهاي تاريخي آجري ايران، مدل پايداري لرزه اي، تحليل عامل، معادلات ساختاري، بهسازي ومرمت
  • آزاده نوری فرد *، فاطمه مهدی زاده سراج صفحات 35-45
    اهداف: از آغاز دوران مدرنیسم هنگامی که معماران، بهره گیری زیبایی شناسانه از اسکلت های فلزی و بتنی در ساختمان را آغاز نمودند، مشکلات پیکربندی لرزه ای جدیدی نیز بروز کرد؛ علی رغم وجود آیین نامه های لرزه ای، بسیاری از مواقع سطح ایمنی مورد نظر در ساختمان ها به دلیل کم توجهی در طراحی و اجرا حاصل نمی شود. هدف مطالعه حاضر بررسی میزان نقش معماران بر عملکرد لرزه ای ساختمان های میان مرتبه متعارف با بهره گیری از تجارب زلزله های گذشته بود. اطلاعات و روش ها: در مطالعه تجربی حاضر با توجه به رویکرد پهنانگر تحقیق، از طریق مشاهده خسارات وارد بر ساختمان های اسکلت بتنی و فلزی در زلزله های گذشته به نوعی از یک آزمایشگاه استفاده شد. داده های تحلیلی در پنج حوزه شامل بستر و ساختگاه، هندسه و فرم معماری، هندسه و فرم سازه، جزئیات عناصر معماری، جزئیات عناصر سازه ای از طریق روش استدلال منطقی با فرآیند مطالعه، طراحی و اجرا تطبیق داده شده و نهایتا کلیه آسیب های بالقوه به صورت یک ماتریس کنترلی پایه برای استفاده معماران تنظیم شد.
    یافته ها
    طبق مدل طیفی پنج قسمتی برخلاف تصور اولیه که در ساختمان های اسکلت فلزی و بتنی تمام مسئولیت طراحی ساختمان در برابر زلزله به عهده مهندسین سازه بوده و همچنین برخلاف نظر برخی دیگر از محققان که نقش معماران را در حد طراحی اولیه فرم بنا می دانند، معماران نقش تعیین کننده ای بر طیف وسیعی از عوامل موثر در عملکرد لرزه ای ساختمان در فرآیند مطالعه، طراحی و اجرا به عهده داشتند.
    نتیجه گیری
    معماران نقش تعیین کننده ای بر طیف وسیعی از عوامل موثر در عملکرد لرزه ای ساختمان در فرآیند مطالعه، طراحی و اجرا به عهده دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: زلزله، معماری، خسارت، ساختمان میان ‎مرتبه متعارف، طراحی، اجرا
  • فناوری بایومیمیک و الهام از طبیعت
    حسین مدی *، مرضیه ایمانی صفحات 47-55
    مقدمه
    پیشرفت تکنولوژی پیش درآمدی برای ظهور روش های متنوع در زمینه الهام از طبیعت مانند بایومیمیک شده است که موجبات عدم تشخیص نحوه الگوبرداری و چگونگی الهام از طبیعت را به قصد بررسی علمی پروژه های معماران از منظر بایومیمیک فراهم کرده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعریف الگویی با استفاده از فناوری بایومیمیک و الهام از طبیعت بود.
    نتیجه گیری
    عملکردگرایی از مشخصات بارز سبک بایومیمیک معماری است. معماری کالاتراوا ارگانیک ساده، اندام وار و عاری از پیچیدگی های فرمی گائودی است. الهامات وی از طبیعت در سطوح استعاره ای، تقلید فرمی و عملکردی و در آثار گائودی، گاه تنها به صورت عینی و تقلید فرمی دیده می شود. حرکت و عملکردگرایی در کارهای کالاتراوا به علت دوره های متفاوت زمانی و پیشرفت تکنولوژی و تاثیرپذیری از معماران سازه گرا، در قیاس با گائودی نمود بیشتری می یابد. کالاتراوا در معماری تحت تاثیر گائودی بود. کالاتراوا با لحن روز و بهره گیری از سازه و تکنولوژی، در بستر مدرن از فرهنگ و بوم خود فراتر می رود، حال آنکه گائودی با رشد در بستر نئوکلاسیسیم و با تکیه بر هندسه و تجرد فرهنگی زمان خود معمار سورئالیستی شد که با پشتوانه سمبل ها و یادمان های تاریخی و فرهنگی اسپانیا و با تاثیر از عواملی مانند محیط، بستر خانوادگی، مذهب، همزمانی با انقلاب صنعتی و تاثیر از معماران فرم گرا و سازه گرا، نه تنها نبوغ هنری خود را جاودانه ساخت بلکه بر معماران سازه گرای پس از خود نیز تاثیر گذاشت. این دو معمار در الهام از طبیعت به فرم و عملکرد توجه داشتند. گائودی را می توان معمار بایومورفیک و کالاتراوا را معمار بایومیمیک دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: طبیعت، معماری، بایومیمیک، آنتونی گائودی، سانتیاگو کالاتراوا
  • مجید قاسم زاده *، فغان آلیو، آیبنیس حسنآوا صفحات 57-69
    در گسترش شهرهای امروزی عدم برنامه ریزی و تدابیر لازم نسبت به محورهای گردشگری و شهرها مشهود است و عدم توجه در این زمینه منجر به ایجاد فضاهای شلوغ و پر غوغای شهری گردیده است. سوال این است که آیا فضاهای باز عمومی شهر در عین حالی که از مهمترین عناصر شهری است می تواند با هدف احیاء هویت شهرها، موجب جذب گردشگر شود؟ برای دستیابی به حوزه معماری پایدار با انتخاب روش های نوین و با استفاده از فن آوری های جدید در پایداری شهرکهای هوشمند،اولین گام علمی موثر است. برای دستیابی به هدف اصلی تحقیق توسعه شهرسازی نمونه با توجه به فرهنگ اسلامی ایرانی و بهره مندی صحیح از شرایط آب و هوای منطقه ای بر اساس نیازهای تغییرات اقلیمی اخیر در مقابله با چالش های ناشی از آن در معماری و شهرسازی مناطق گردشگری مد نظر قرار گیرد. براساس فرضیات تحقیق، توسعه معماری سبز و پایدار امروز ماحصل دستاوردهای جدید توسعه شهری است که متدولوژی های ویژه در بهینه سازی و استفاده از امکانات موجود جامعه در معماری ایرانی سر لوحه کار قرار گرفته است. در این پژوهش با مبنا قرار دادن انرژی های تجدید پذیر، استفاده از فن آوری پیشرفته و مواد و مصالح نوین برای ساخت سریعتر با کیفیت بالاتر و با نوآوری های خاص در مقایسه با روش های موجود ساخت و ساز مد نظر قرار گرفته است؛ همچنین روش های بومی، سیستم گرمایش و تهویه طبیعی، باز یافت و استفاده مجدد از مصالح، بهره برداری از انرژی های تجدید پذیر و زباله های انسانی و با کاهش مستمر مصرف انرژی های فسیلی و تجدید ناپذیر، صدمات محیط زیست را کاهش می دهد؛ بر اساس نتایج و یافته های پژوهشی در نوآوری ها وجود منابع مناسب انرژی های پایدار و هوشمند سازی شهرکها در مسیر جاده ابریشم نیازهای آینده مکان توسعه گردشگری را برطرف کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهرسازی، معماری، زیست پایدار، اقلیم، انرژی
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  • Heidari Sh , Motallaei S* Pages 1-7
    Since man has lived in roofed shelter and selected fire for heating and cooking at his shelter, the indoor air quality has become an important issue and also unwanted problem for him because most of indoor pollutants source from cooking and heating. Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a major determinant of personal exposure to pollutants in today's world. People spend much of their time in numerous different indoor environments. Perhaps the predominant environment in this regard is the residence. From time diary research it can be shown that the typical person in the U.S. spends 58 to 78 % of his time in the home. Furthermore , some individuals –the old , the very young , the infirm – who are most susceptible to the effects of pollutants may spend all their time indoors .pollutant concentration levels indoors are sometime higher than in heavily polluted outdoor urban air . Sources of indoor pollution include influx of polluted outdoor air. IAQ became a timely issue when energy conservation efforts focused attention on the influx of unconditioned air into interior spaces. Since the Arab oil embargo of 1973, building owners have been under tremendous economics pressure to reduce the cost of heating and cooling their buildings. Many of actions taken to reduce such costs affect the air quality inside those buildings in ways which range from subtle to dramatic. Various energy conservation measures such as added insulation, caulking, and weather stripping tighten the building's thermal envelope and influence the rate at which air moves into and out of the structure. This rate in turn affects levels of indoor pollutants. Some energy conservation measures involve installation materials which may be strong sources of indoor pollutants. While these energy conservation measures have created some possible indoor air quality problems, more importantly they have increased awareness of overall exposure to indoor air pollutants. Outdoor or ambient air quality has been regulated via the clean air act of 1970 to protect human health by limiting concentrations of such pollutants as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and particles. In contrast, indoor air quality and its contribution to human health have been unregulated with exception of the workplace. In large part this is because individual occupants of buildings can and do affect indoor air quality by buying and using pollutant sources and by regulating the incoming outside air through ventilation. IAQ is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, and volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants, or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Residential units can further improve indoor air quality by routine cleaning of carpets and area rugs. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces, and computer modeling of air flow inside buildings. IAQ is part of indoor environmental quality (IEQ), which includes IAQ as well as other physical and psychological aspects of life indoors. We tend to think of air pollution as something outside -- smog, ozone, or haze hanging in the air, especially in summer. But the truth is, the air inside homes, offices, and other buildings can be more polluted than the air outside. The air inside your home may be polluted by lead (in house dust), formaldehyde, fire-retardants, radon, even volatile chemicals from fragrances used in conventional cleaners. Some pollutants are tracked into the home. Some arrive via a new mattress or furniture, carpet cleaners, or a coat of paint on the walls. Children, people with asthma, and the elderly may be especially sensitive to indoor pollutants, but other effects on health may appear years later, after repeated exposure. Most common indoor pollutants are Radon, Molds and other allergens, Carbon Monoxides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Legionella and other bacteria, Carbon Dioxide and Ozone. Indoor air quality is one of the most important factors that can influence efficiency and maintenance of the building. Poor indoor air quality and inadequate ventilation causes people not to have their best potential at work, inverse increasing indoor air quality encourage them to activity. Fortunately architectures almost can control indoor air quality in first steps of designs. One of the solutions for absorbing pollutants and reducing them is the use of plants that have the ability to absorb pollutants and can be used as bio absorbent. Houseplants and the medium in which they are grown together can reduce components of indoor air pollution, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. Plants remove CO2 and release oxygen and water, although the quantitative impact for house plants is small. Most of the effect is attributed to the growing medium alone, but even this effect has finite limits associated with the type and quantity of medium and the flow of air through the medium. The effect of house plants on VOC concentrations was investigated in one study, done in a static chamber, by NASA for possible use in space colonies. The results showed that the removal of the challenging chemicals was roughly equivalent to the provided ventilation that occurred in a very energy efficient dwelling with a very low ventilation rate, an air exchange rate of about 1/10 hour. Therefore, air leakage in most homes, and in non-residential buildings, will generally remove the chemicals faster than what the researchers reported for the plants tested by NASA. The most effective household plants reported included Aloe Vera, English ivy, and Boston fern for removing chemicals and biological compounds. Plants also appear to reduce airborne microbes, molds, and increase humidity. However, the increased humidity can itself lead to increased levels of mold and even VOCs. When CO2 concentrations are elevated indoors relative to outdoor concentrations, it is only an indicator that ventilation is inadequate to remove metabolic products associated with human occupancy. Plants require CO2 to grow and release oxygen. Since high humidity is associated with increased mold growth, allergic responses, and respiratory responses, the presence of additional moisture from houseplants may not be desirable in all indoor settings In this essay with integrating plants and architectural space, we have investigated the behavior of polluting fluid including its release, publishing and concentration in the room with Ansys –Fluent software. First we had made grids for analysis. for boundary conditions, we have considered ,air input at fixed rate of 0.5 m/s and air output in constant partial pressure at zero atmosphere . Also fixed walls with non-slip condition are considered. In addition, because of complicated flow pattern inside the room, SST K-W RANS models is used to simulate the turbulent flow .on the results of this paper , plants can reduce 10-20% of indoor pollutants concentration by producing oxygen during photosynthesis, depending on the volume of the plant used.
    Keywords: Indoor Air Quality, Computer Simulation, Plants, Air Purifier, Reducing Energy Consumption
  • M. Ansarimanesh *, N. Nasrollahi Pages 9-15
    Aims
    In office buildings, high quality of indoor environment increases staffs’ efficacy and makes the economy flourished, while lack of it causes staffs’ dissatisfaction and reduces their efficacy. Many factors contribute to the creation of a qualified indoor environment, one of which is proper ventilation. One of the important factors in determining the ventilation rate is the amount of carbon dioxide in the space. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the proper range of carbon dioxide to optimize indoor environmental quality in office buildings of Kermanshah.
    Materials and Methods
    The present study was conducted from February15 to March 15, 2011, using field methods, measuring the carbon dioxide level, and leading the inventory in applied and quantitative research employees of 10 office buildings in Kermanshah to examine the proper range of carbon dioxide in office buildings of Kermanshah. To compile the questionnaire, a questionnaire in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) was used, but according to the type of research and coverage of the questions, some changes were made by adding some related questions. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings: In all buildings, 71.6% of people were satisfied with air quality and ventilation. In most buildings, carbon dioxide was in the standard range except for the building 8. The air quality satisfaction in this building was 59%.Building 3 had the best condition.
    Conclusion
    The proper range of carbon dioxide in the office buildings of Kermanshah is less values than 1200ppm.
    Keywords: Office Buildings, Indoor Air Quality, Range of Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, Health
  • Esmaeil Shieh , Mostafa Behzadfar , Samaneh Jalilisadrabad * Pages 17-23
    Introduction Now a days, social-spatial segregation becomes a remarkable subject in towns particularly in metropolitans. Economic, social, political and physical factors are such factors which contribute the creation and fortification of social-spatial segregation in neighborhood of metropolitans. In this article has been tried to recognize the effective factors of social-spatial segregation and study these factors in 8th region of Tehran specially in Fadak and Kerman neighborhood. Hence, the studies about segregation have been surveyed at first. By resorting the related theories and studies, applied indices for calculating the amount of segregation have been defined. Collected data has been applied in SPSS software and by utilizing the Factor Analysis technic, has been reduced to two fundamental factors. Thereafter, the Excel export in GIS software has been attached to the map. At the end, Kerman and Fadak neighborhood have been issued as sample and their amount of segregation has been calculated for them. Literature Review Spatial-social segregation is one of the fundamental subjects of urban sociologists. Chicago school is one the important schools of urban sociology. This school pays attention to urban ecology criteria. People like Park, Burgess, and Wirth are apostles of this school. This school has divided the ecology stages into five stages. 1. Concentration 2. Centralization 3. Invasion 4. Segregation 5. Succession. Thus, spatial (physical) Segregation is one of the ecological stages and it means the compulsory or optional tendency of different social groups to physical separation from each other in various proper occasions of life (Afroogh, 1377, 243). At the end the spatial segregation leads to social segregation. The original cause is the fundamental role of spatial segregation in social relations. The relevant Arguments that have been issued, about segregation, each one states a theory that can be used to make clear the concept of social-spatial integration. In the first place, most of impressive authors of this field, accost this issue as a natural (Park, 1926) or inevitable phenomenon (Gans, 1994). Therefore, there are various opinions about spatial segregation and each theoretician accentuated on a special factor. The theories related to spatial-social segregation have been sorted based on their impressive factors, as follow. Methodology The Quantitative Methods has been applied in this essay. Hence, the questioning technique has been used for collecting the data and the SPSS software has been applied for analyzing the data. Collecting data has been collected by questionnaire and statics center and applied to SPSS software. In this study, the dependent variable is the amount of spatial-social segregation and the independent variable contains the items below: - Individual-familial characteristics: householder age, Family size, level of education, career, job position, religion, originality, racial character, sense of social development of householder in the future and amount of income. - Sense of place: the amount of interest into residential area and Duration of stay in the neighborhood. - Housing system: access to bank credits to purchase a house, amount of tendency to current house, The price of land and housing, amount of empty houses, quality and antiquity of house, residential density, type of ownership of property. - Physical factors: type of accesses to important land uses, distribution of land uses in the neighborhood, residents’ satisfaction amount about land uses distribution and their accesses, spatial justice and etc. In this essay, to study the critical factors of segregation in Fadak and Kerman neighborhood, Factor Analysis technique has been applied. Hence, all data have been assimilated through free-scale techniques. Then Factor Analysis technique has been applied. Afterward the segregation amount of issued sample has been calculated by Geo Segregation Analyzer. Results By using Factor Analysis technique, all factors are declined into two factors which explain 52 percent of variances. First factor has made the 36.75% of variance of index set, clear. Next factor has made clear the 14.67% of variance of indexes, as well. According to the obtained results from Geo Segregation Analyzer software it could be understood that the amount of spatial-social segregation of this sample is low, and these two neighborhoods are alike in terms of social, economic, physical factors. Results By using Factor Analysis technique, all factors are declined into two factors which explain 52 percent of variances. First factor has made the 36.75% of variance of index set, clear. Next factor has made clear the 14.67% of variance of indexes, as well. According to the obtained results from Geo Segregation Analyzer software it could be understood that the amount of spatial-social segregation of this sample is low, and these two neighborhoods are alike in terms of social, economic, physical factors. Results By using Factor Analysis technique, all factors are declined into two factors which explain 52 percent of variances. First factor has made the 36.75% of variance of index set, clear. Next factor has made clear the 14.67% of variance of indexes, as well. According to the obtained results from Geo Segregation Analyzer software it could be understood that the amount of spatial-social segregation of this sample is low, and these two neighborhoods are alike in terms of social, economic, physical factors. Discussion & Conclusion By surveying the early studies and the theories of theoreticians, we can declare that social segregation evolve by two phase compulsory and optional. Social groups generally contain their own particular conditions in terms of racial and national character, religion and beliefs. Result of this case in terms of various minorities, leads to creation of separated neighborhoods from the town and increase the amount of segregation in cities (Shieh, 2010, 201) and the other factors are the families’ income. The income of families are effective on choosing the proper house. The income of families in terms of using infrastructural facilities and settlement in separated neighborhoods results in social segregation (Shieh, 2010, 197). Both of this cases could be categorized as optional segregation. But in compulsory segregation governors and urban managers strengthen the social inequalities, according to imposed politics and people will be pushed to special neighborhood. The problems were multiplied when residents tend to segregation. If spatial and physical segregation leads to a complete separation of whole groups and stratums. The intergroup contacts and relationship will increase and on the other hand external relationship will decrease. Hence, social participation will be disordered and a local, limited culture will be replaced. The result of this phenomenon is polarization of social space of neighborhood. Even the residents will prevent to communicate with other neighborhoods in many different ways. The consequence of such behavior are moral and social relations, corporative culture and ahead, arise of social distance and growth of passive and subordinate culture. (Azam Azadeh, 2012). If there is no exterior contact between neighborhoods, social participation will be disrupted and managing of such city will be strongly difficult. Thus, we should try to decrease the amount of social-spatial segregation in urban neighborhoods. According to latest studies of mentioned case studies it could be concluded that segregation has not happened in these two neighborhoods and they are socially, economically and physically similar and the residents have had a lot of communications with each other since past time. Keywords: Social-Spatial Segregation, GIS, Geo Segregation Analyzer Software, Factor Analyze Technic, Fadak & Kerman Neighborhoods
    Keywords: GIS, Geo Segregation Analyzer, Social-Spatial Segregation, Geo Segregation Analyzer Software, Factor Analyze Technic, Fadak & Kerman Neighborhoods
  • Mohammad Sadegh Taher Tolou Del * Pages 25-34
    Based on the extent and diversity of architectural heritage in the world, protection and improvement of all aspects of a balance and at the same time is impossible. Therefore, planning should be a priority and recognize the necessity of objective logic based adoption as a decision criterion in the interventions carried out. This requires active cooperation of senior officials from various countries and environmental groups and organizations will be responsible for the maintenance and preservation of the cultural heritage of nations. The early twentieth century designers and manufacturers to cope with the devastating effects of the earthquake were willing to use reinforced concrete and steel. Because they feel they do not have earthquake load bearing masonry structures. New building regulations designed to challenge new perspective on historical masonry structures and calls. By nneglect the lack of effort and lack of support in the preservation, protection and improvement of ancient architectural monuments are protected. In this regard, many problems in the field of preservation and rehabilitation of historic buildings as the following can occur: 1) Structural issues and system performance monuments bearing structure malicious agents disintegrative 2) Problems earthquakes, seismic and vibration tolerance zone for the establishment of the monument 3) Injuries and burnout and lack of structural elements of historical buildings 4) Holding the repair of technology and technical knowledge and strength of the structure, the architecture and facilities 5) Promoting afford protection issues and prevention of structural damage in the earthquake of 6) The necessity of strength and improvement of components exposed to disintegration and destruction of historic structures 7) Continuous detection and evaluation of deformations and cracking and failure of expansive 8) Evaluation of performance analysis and modeling and estimation of the possible collapse of historic buildings at risk of collapse 9) Issues, documentation and collection of historical documents of the past and description of interventions and classification of items to retrieve 10) The lack of knowledge of the components of historic structures such as foundations, walls and columns, domes and arches, ceilings and floors, minarets 11) The difficulty in making decisions on procedures such as insulation, injection, sewing, coating, increasing cross-pods and the replacement 12) The difficulty in identifying signs of wear such as spines, Sedimentation, rich exotic, infestation, fading out and cracking 13) The difficulty in diagnosis of mechanical failure (axial, shear, bending, and torsion), chemical agents (salts and acidic and alkaline solutions), physical factors (heat, cold, moisture, thawing and freezing, and drying) and especially to agent’s earthquake vibration and impacts associated with it These problems, along with the need to preserve its authenticity and identity valuable works of architecture can be important for decision making and planning and restoration interventions have doubled. Failure, preventive measures (in conservation) and restoration measures (to improve the quality of buildings) must be provided. Such as ICOMOS intervention operations carried out in accordance with valid instructions. In other words, historical monuments effects of light, heat, humidity and vibration is compatible with performances by tapping them. Historic buildings in different climatic conditions during the summer and winter are common-use conditioner, but the problem lies in the way the traditions and culture of historic buildings as sustainable building tradition, learning from past lessons Such an active workshop training today's conventional technology for designers to fit in a positive sense and practice body architecture optimizes the relationship with the environment is correct for inspiration. Therefore, should adequate assessment of places and historical monuments and valuable enough attention to the risks and structural diversity of these monuments, interventions, planning, safety precautions, with timely assistance and financial capability to absorb appropriately recorded by supportive policies of the architectural heritage, in compliance with the technical guidelines and building codes; We can emergency measures and immediate, short-term and long-term protection and improvement regulate retrofitting. Geometric characteristics, context and connections between elements and components, the physical, chemical and mechanical material consumption, especially composite materials, the mechanical behavior of the complex and static loading, moving and seismic, especially the quantity and quality of masonry mortar consumption the underlying tissue and shear strength, compressive elements and details of the building, great importance in analyzing the vulnerability of historical structures, design of seismic retrofit and improve the stability of such buildings are affected. Apart from the pattern of vulnerability to the damage of such buildings when attending urban high-density tissue should be sufficient attention. We must tolerate extreme pressure and seismic survey of such buildings in terms of speed, acceleration and displacements resulting in structural members and materials used in historic buildings, assessment creep, consolidation orientation and meeting considered historical structures. Thus the masonry buildings affected by the devastating earthquakes in order to learn lessons for the future and gaining enough attention have to be paid. Of course, the connections and how to lock and dam masonry structures in seismic behavior of their members effectively. Even ornamentation and extensions to observe proper connections of structural members is effective in improving the seismic response. Defects or violation of the provision aims to protect, preserve, strengthen and restored Iran historic buildings of brick, index performance failure in the preservation of valuable architectural heritage of Iran's structural interventions. The problem of lack of integrity essential component of this building that is incompatible physical form, function, and technology is considered. Before any action with study and analysis of this valuable and precious; their architectural heritage compatible with the natural elements of the harm caused by natural factors have survived. Therefore inefficient and damaging some unnecessary interventions in the rehabilitation process, lack of codified rules, lack of awareness and lack of appropriate design patterns for efficient seismic protection and rehabilitation of historic structures will gain significantly. The present study sought to discover a pattern consistent with the seismic stability of buildings against earthquake risks specific to the Iranian plateau. For this purpose, the physical geometrical characteristics of historical buildings earthquake-prone areas of sustainable of brick medium and high relative earthquake acceleration were studied. With the overall historical standing of brick buildings of quantitative and qualitative characteristics and to determine the origin of the seismic context, physical dimensions of width, length, height and the calculation of the geometric proportions relative to the percentage of relative walls; the raw data acquired are research. The criteria for evaluation of the technical regulations 2800 earthquake in Iran, the world such as charters and regulations valid; FEMA, CHBC, ISCARSAH, ICOMOS, ICCOROM have been considered and analyzed by SPSS assess the reliability and validity of the data took place. SEM was model for seismic structural stability. Explaining the factors affecting the final structural equation model: the potential impact of seismic damage as the independent variable, dependent variable operating a direct effect on seismic resistance and seismic resistance through indirect factors as mediator; evaluation of the fitness measure direct and indirect relationships between those factors was performed and the seismic stability of historical buildings of brick and fitness with perfect reliability was adequate. This study can evaluate the criterion regulations, seismic design, seismic retrofitting and structural interventions Iran is of brick Iranian monuments.
    Keywords: Iranian brick historical buildings, seismic stability model, factor analysis, structural equation, retrofit, Repair
  • A. Noorifard *, F. Mehdizadeh Saraj Pages 35-45
    Aims
    From the beginning of the modernism, when architects began to use the aesthetic characteristics of steel and concrete structures in the building, new seismic configuration problems appeared; despite the existence of seismic codes, sometimes safety level in buildings is not achieved due to lack of attention in design and implementation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of architects in the seismic performance of conventional medium-rise buildings by using the experiences of past earthquakes. Information and methods: In the present empirical study, regarding the broad view approach of the research, an experimental laboratory was used by observing damages of RC and steel structure buildings in past earthquakes. All the analytical data in 5 areas, including soil and site conditions, geometry and configuration of architectures, geometry and configuration of structures, architectural details, and structural details were adapted with the process of study, design, and implementation through logical argumentation method. Finally, all potential damages were set as a basic control matrix for use by architects. Findings: According to the 5-part spectral model, unlike the initial impression that only the structural engineer is responsible for seismic resistant design of RC and steel structure buildings, and contrary to the view of some other researchers who consider that the role of architects is limited to the basic design of buildings form, architects play a decisive role on a wide range of factors affecting the seismic performance of buildings in the study, design, and implementation process.
    Conclusion
    Architects play a decisive role on a wide range of factors affecting the seismic performance of buildings in the study, design, and implementation process.
    Keywords: Earthquake, Architecture, Damage, Conventional Medium-rise Buildings, Design, Implementation
  • Biomimic Technology and Nature Inspiration
    H. Medi *, M. Imani Pages 47-55
    Introduction
    The advancement of technology has been a prelude to the emergence of different ways of nature inspiration, such as biomimic, which has led to the lack of recognition of how to model and inspire nature in order to make a scientific review of architectural projects from the biomimic perspective. The aim of this study was to define a model, using biomimic technology and nature inspiration.
    Conclusion
    Functionalism is one of the most prominent features of the biomimic architecture. Architecture of Calatrava is organic, simple, and free of Gaudi’s forming complexities. His inspiration from nature is sometimes seen only objectively and in formal imitation in terms of metaphorical, formal, and functional imitation, and in Gaudi's works. Movement and Functionalism in Calatrava’s works are more pronounced than that of Gaudi due to the different time periods and technological progress and the influence of constructivist architects. Calatrava was influenced by Gaudi in architecture. With the tone of the day and utilization of the structure and technology, Calatrava goes beyond his culture and traditions in the modern context, while Gaudi became a surrealist architect with growing up in the neoclassical framework, relying on the geometry and cultural diversity of his time; supported by the symbols and historical monuments of Spain, influenced by factors such as the environment, family background, religion, and concurrency with the industrial revolution, and affected by formalist and constructivist architects, Gaudi not only immortalized his artistic genius, but also affected constructivist architects after himself. The two architects paid attention to form and function in their inspiration from nature. Gaudi can be considered the biomorphic architect and Calatrava can be considered biomimicic architect.
    Keywords: Nature, Architecture, Biomimicic, Antoni Gaud?, Santiago Calatrava
  • Majid Ghasemzadeh* , F Aliyev , A Hasanova Pages 57-69
    Abstract: One of the root causes of the current problems of urban construction is the overwhelming epidemic of lawlessness. In uncontrolled expansion of today's cities, there is a lack of planning and necessary measures regarding the tourist and urban axes, and the lack of attention in this area has led to the creation of crowded and crowded urban spaces. The question is whether the public open spaces of the city, while being one of the most important urban elements, can attract tourists with the goals of restoring urban identity? In this context, with new methods of research into the role of sustainable architecture, the creation of smart tourism settlements will provide a division into a platform for grading and using new technologies In order to achieve the goals of urban development, considering the Islamic culture of Iran and the proper utilization of regional weather conditions, based on the needs of recent climate change (taken in research methods and research findings), consideration should be given. In the development of today's global architecture, the results and achievements of new urban development have been achieved, which should include specific methodologies for optimizing and using existing community facilities in Iranian architecture. In this research, based on the provision of renewable energies, the use of advanced technology and modern materials for faster production of higher quality and with specific innovations compared with existing construction methods are considered Native methods of natural heating and ventilation are also unveiled, and the reuse of materials, the exploitation of renewable energy and human waste, and the continuous reduction of fossil and non-renewable energy consumption, reduce environmental damage; According to the results and research findings of the innovations, the availability of suitable sources of sustainable energy and intelligent settlements along the Silk Road has addressed the future needs of the development of tourism. The physical structure of buildings and all elements of urban architecture is characterized without threats and by meeting the requirements of environmental conditions relative to climatic features. 1-
    Introduction
    This article attempts to achieve sustainable objectives in the creation of tourist complexes in small town in the North West of Iran show use of the scientific method. Today, architecture and urban development play an important role in social and economic development, create jobs and wealth and increase in the cities; many urban areas are inefficient and indiscriminate use of the product so that only a major role in the creation of poverty and place to what they produce. Today, it is in the management is supposed very hard. In all the studies, surveys and research within the field of tourism and social economy is a common associated with specific climatic zones. By determining the desirable and undesirable effects of the geographical , ecological and limit study on how to design and adopt policies and doing tourism optimized in accordance with the Postmodern patterns, can reduce urban and industrial pollution and restoring the environment, and protection of natural resources human and as a way of better urban design of them. A- Importance and urgency of the problem: The importance and necessity require the issue to be considered basic problems it is thought management in today's very importance: {7} Overall, the present study, the results of this study in the field of tourism economy and social profile of climatic zones a shared connection. By determining the favorable and unfavorable effects of the geographical, ecological and limit tourism and studies on how to design and adopt optimal policies, under extensive research to develop a permanent set of methods and standards can be achieved in this regard. B-Literature Review: Under the extensive research of permanent development can be achieved in a number of ways Standards extensively in this area of research, fieldwork, and standards and existing information and articles, library resources, the Internet has been sent to the following: 1. Stability of green architecture, how ecotourism planning and positive or negative effect. 2. Resources 3. The feasibility of ecotourism in Iran. C - Question issue? How well the development of tourism in the North West of Iran, using the energy potential of the region and ecosystem, sustainable development of tourism was Silk Road? And what proportion can be green innovations and achievements in contemporary Iranian architecture used, is. With the aim of finding appropriate solutions in the development of methods and models that can be used in the field of tourism to the development of sustainable tourism , in terms of ecosystems , climates to achieve economic and social conditions . D- Hypothesis and research objectives With the aim of finding appropriate solutions in developing methods and models that can be used in the field of tourism The development of sustainable tourism, in terms of ecosystems, climates to achieve economic and social conditions. D1 - basic hypotheses: whether in the complex and local tourist resorts in the North West, the Silk Road and functional space patterns appropriate to the climate? (B) Secondary hypotheses: D 2: Does the space cold and dry climate regions of the Silk Road features reorganization and tourist resort areas affected by the climate? D 3: Does use in cold and dry and tropical architecture for functional space or comfort level in the promotion of tourism resorts? The results show that , local features , natural resources , environmental protection issues , the proper use local energy resources to the climate of the place is the use of different methods in tourist function effectively. In order to conserve energy, environmental construction, the perfect solution to identify and analyze the details of the information they will access. The main subject of our study environmental field, to build healthy urban, by providing facilities is silk. In the new neighborhood with zoning in independent building blocks, can be used with renewable energy from wind and solar energy, appropriate solutions in a variety of community spaces required to be provided. With savings in energy storage and clean, with a safe and convenient location, provides the conditions for the tourists. Sample spaces in this area as a specialized scientific campus that appeal to attract tourists, researchers and provide scientific basis for the introduction of a pilot project as we will in the country. E-Meddle theatrical: Due to the limited market, lack of social and cultural tourism, leisure tourism in the sense of the potential of ecotourism, much more than other tourism sectors. F- Ideal tourist sites in the North West Iran Iran temperature more than 50 degrees. Journal of mineral water in 1385. The best option is to use solar energy as renewable energy is fashion. The figure in the North West to 45 degrees. Using new technology can be used in solar energy parks and solar energy equipment and used dominant energy. This method of power generation equipment, compared with less damaged in the earthquake crisis. In fact, heating the main factor shaping the architecture in the North West. In a human habitat due to climate cooling mechanisms, heat increases the feeling of relaxation, and improve living standards and ultimately lead to stability. G-Discussion &
    Conclusion
    : . Strategies for tourism development in order to exit the recession include: Use of renewable energy, green architecture- To promote communication between cultures, people -Upgrades Experiences of civil society - Introduce Islamic culture to other countries. Protection and maintenance of natural heritage, environmental and historical different areas increased public areas and the development of sustainable cities in Mansour reduce damages and losses
    Keywords: Urban, sustainable architecture, Climate, energy, tourism