فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 40 (تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • فتاح شریف زاده ، عطیه سادات حقی، داوود حسین پور، محمد میرمحمدی صفحات 5-26
    هدف از انجام پژوهش، طراحی و اعتبارسنجی مدل مناسب برای خط مشی گذاری شبکه ای در حوزه کارآفرینی است. روش تحقیق ازنظر هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روشی توصیفی و همبستگی است. ابزار تحقیق در بخش کیفی، مصاحبه و در بخش کمی پرسشنامه بود. تحلیل داده ها در بخش کیفی از طریق تحلیل تم و در بخش کمی از معادلات ساختاری انجام گرفت. پس از ترسیم مدل اولیه، پرسشنامه تحقیق به همراه ابعاد مشخص شده بین 240 نفر از کارشناسان و مدیران وزارت تعاون، کار و رفاه اجتماعی، توزیع شد. پایایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از روش های محاسبه آلفای کرونباخ و ضریب پایایی مرکب (CR) تاییدشده و روایی آن نیز با روش های روایی محتوا و روایی همگرا (AVE) تایید شد. درنهایت، 31 مولفه در چهار بعد ضرورت، ساختاری، رفتاری و زمینه ای شناسایی شد؛ بنابراین ضروری به نظر می رسد که وزارت تعاون، کار و رفاه اجتماعی، به منظور توسعه حوزه کارآفرینی، در سیاست گذاری های کارآفرینی به نقش و اهمیت این عوامل توجه نموده و تفکر شبکه ای در سیاست گذاری را جایگزین تفکر سلسله مراتبی نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: خط مشی عمومی، خط مشی گذاری، رویکرد شبکه ای، کارآفرینی، مدل
  • حسین رحمان سرشت ، وحید خاشعی ورنامخواستی، مهدی ابراهیمی، مهرنوش رحیمیان صفحات 27-52
    خلق ارزش از دیرباز از جمله مقولات مورد توجه مدیران و دانشگاهیان بوده است. این مفهوم همچون سایر مفاهیم مدیریت در متن پارادایم های بازاریابی دچار دگردیسی شده است. هدف این مقاله شناسایی مولفه ها و ابعاد هم آفرینی ارزش راهبردی در صنعت بانکداری ایران و توسعه مدل هم آفرینی ارزش راهبردی است. برای این منظور، از روش تحقیق آمیخته استفاده شد. در فاز کیفی با بهره مندی از استراتژی تحقیق موردکاوی چندگانه، نمونه گیری هدفمند در جامعه خبرگان بانکی و مشتریان شرکتی در سه بانک منتخب و تحلیل محتوای کیفی داده های جمع آوری شده از طریق مصاحبه، مشاهده و بررسی اخبار و مستندات، مدل هم آفرینی ارزش راهبردی استخراج شد. در مرحله بعد با اتخاذ روش کمی، برای انجام مطالعه پیمایشی تعداد 70 پرسشنامه در بانک های فوق الذکر با استفاده از نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده توزیع گردید. سپس با استفاده از رویکرد حداقل مربعات جزئی و با استفاده از نرم افزار SMART PLS مدل توسعه یافته با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاکی از آن است که مدل هم آفرینی ارزش راهبردی دارای دو بعد هم آفرینی ارزش سازمانی (با مولفه های مهارت بازاریابی، مهارت توسعه خدمات، مهارت ارتباطی، مهارت فناوری اطلاعات، مهارت سازماندهی، فرهنگ سازمانی، مدیریت منابع انسانی) و هم آفرینی ارزش مشتری (با مولفه های کمک به توسعه محصول، مهارت تعاملی، بازخورددهی، وفاداری و رفتار مسئولانه) است.
    کلیدواژگان: هم آفرینی ارزش راهبردی، هم آفرینی ارزش سازمانی، هم آفرینی ارزش مشتری، روش تحقیق آمیخته، حداقل مربعات جزئی
  • میرعلی سیدنقوی ، مهدیه غلامزاده جفره، رضا واعظی، وجهاللهقربانی زاده صفحات 53-78
    هدف اصلی مقاله پیش‎رو، «طراحی الگوی مناسب توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند در بخش دولتی کشور» بوده و این پرسش مطرح شده است که «الگوی مناسب توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند در بخش دولتی کشور چیست؟» با توجه به «اکتشافی» بودن موضوع پژوهش حاضر، امکان ارائه پاسخ اولیه یا طرح فرضیه‏ای متناسب با پرسش فوق وجود ندارد و دست‏یابی به پاسخ نهایی، با بهره‏گیری از روش تحلیل تم صورت پذیرفته است. جهت گردآوری اطلاعات، از ابزار پرسشنامه و مصاحبه عمیق و نیمه‏ساختاریافته با ده تن از کارشناسان و متخصصان حوزه منابع انسانی، کارشناسان و مدیران ارشد سازمان‏های منتخب و متخصصان سالمند استفاده شده است. الگوی به‏دست آمده از این طریق، بر سه محور شامل «عوامل زمینه‏ساز توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند» (پیش‏نیازها، ظرفیت‏ها و موانع) ، «راهکارهای عملیاتی توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند» (راهکارهای ساختاری و روان‏شناختی) و «پیامدهای توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند» بنا شده است. تفسیر و تحلیل یافته‏های پژوهش نشان داد که زمینه‏ها و ظرفیت‏های موجود برای توانمندسازی متخصصان سالمند در کشور قوی‏تر از موانع بوده، و مهم‏ترین راهکارهای نیل به این هدف، «تقویت منابع مالی» و «توجه به آموزش و به ویژه آموزش‏های فراسنتی با بهره‏گیری از روش‏های آموزشی جدید در ترکیب با فناوری‏های جدید» است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت منابع انسانی، توانمندسازی، نیروی کارسالمند، متخصصان سالمند، تحلیل تم
  • بهزاد قاسمی، چنگیز والمحمدی * صفحات 79-107

    سازمان های کلاس جهانی همواره تلاش می کنند که جایگاه مدیریت دانش خود را تعیین نمایند. در این راستا، داشتن یک مدل بلوغ مدیریت دانش ضروری است. هدف این تحقیق طراحی مدل بلوغ مدیریت دانش در کلاس جهانی بر اساس مدل تعالی با استفاده از روش تحقیق آمیخته است. جامعه آماری تحقیق شرکت های زیر مجموعه وزارت نفت است که مدیران ارشد این شرکت ها به عنوان واحد تحلیل آماری انتخاب شدند. بر اساس بررسی عمیق تحقیقات گذشته، مولفه های توانمندساز اجرای مدیریت دانش و شاخص های نتایج کلیدی عملکرد مدیریت دانش در کلاس جهانی تعیین شدند. سپس توانمندسازها و نتایج کلیدی با استفاده از تکنیک های تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تاییدی شناسایی و تایید شدند. در نهایت، با تمرکز بر مطالعه تطبیقی و استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی، کدگذاری های کیفی انجام شده و سطوح مدل بلوغ طراحی شدند. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که سیزده توانمندساز اجرای مدیریت دانش و چهار نتایج کلیدی عملکرد مدیریت دانش در کلاس جهانی تعیین شدند. مدل بلوغ مدیریت دانش در کلاس جهانی بر اساس مدل تعالی دارای شش سطح است که به ترتیب عبارتند از: هرج و مرج، ابتدایی (آگاهی از نیاز به دانش) ، هماهنگی و استانداردسازی دانش، بهینه سازی دانش، بهبود مستمر دانش و انفجار دانش و نوآوری. مدیران و سیاستگذاران سازمان مورد مطالعه به طور اخص و دیگر سازمان ها به طور عام می توانند از مدل پیشنهادی در جهت ارزیابی سطح بلوغ مدیریت دانش خود و پیشی گرفتن از رقبا بهره برداری نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دانش در کلاس جهانی، مدل بلوغ، مدل تعالی، رویکرد آمیخته، صنعت نفت
  • حامد آرامش، الله یار بیگی فیروزی_علیرضا سرگلزایی صفحات 109-136
    منطقه ویژه اقتصادی میرجاوه یک منطقه در حال رشد است که دارای جاذبه های طبیعی و خدادادی در درون، و جاذبه های طبیعی و تاریخی منحصر بفرد در اطراف خود به خصوص در مناطق تمین و لادیز می باشد. این منطقه ویژه اقتصادی با قوت های فراوان خواهد توانست از فرصت های پیش روی خود بیشترین استفاده را ببرد. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی نقاط قوت و ضعف و فرصت ها و تهدیدهای پیش روی توسعه گردشگری منطقه ویژه اقتصادی میرجاوه و ارائه استراتژی های مناسب و کارآمد می باشد. شناسایی و تحلیل نقاط قوت و ضعف و فرصت ها و تهدیدها با استفاده از مدل SWOT انجام شده و برای انتخاب بهترین استراتژی جهت توسعه گردشگری، ماتریس برنامه ریزی استراتژیک کمی (QSPM) بکار گرفته شده است. جهت تعیین وزن های عوامل SWOT پرسشنامه ای بر اساس مقیاس لیکرت بصورت 5 گزینه ای طراحی و توسط 20 نفر از کارشناسان و خبرگان گردشگری در سطح استان سیستان و بلوچستان تکمیل شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد استراتژی های تهاجمی مناسب ترین استراتژی ها برای توسعه گردشگری منطقه ویژه اقتصادی میرجاوه می باشند. استراتژی SO1 با میانگین 571/2 با تاکید بر توسعه اکوتوریسم (گردشگری طبیعی) در مراکز دارای جاذبه های طبیعی به عنوان بهترین استراتژی پیشنهاد شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: استراتژی گردشگری، منطقه ویژه اقتصادی میرجاوه، مدلSWOT، ماتریس برنامه ریزی استراتژیک QSPM
  • احمد کریم پور کلو* ، محمدرضا آراستی، محمدرضا اکبری جوکار صفحات 137-162
    صنعت خودروسازی و دو خودروساز بزرگ کشور یعنی سایپا و ایران خودرو همیشه مورد توجه خاص دولت و مجلس بوده اند. در این بین مدیریت تکنولوژی در سطح کلان بسیار موثر بوده و یکی از موضوعات مهم معماری محصول است. معماری محصول دارای نقش کلیدی در جذب و انتقال حداکثری تکنولوژی ها و نیز میزان ساخت پذیری واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره تامین دارد. در این مقاله به نقش معماری محصول در طراحی و ساخت واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره تامین پرداخته شده است. نوع پیکره بندی محصول دارای تاثیر بسزایی در ایجاد همسویی و هماهنگی انواع تکنولوژی های محصول در شبکه زنجیره تامین دارد. در این پژوهش با استفاده از یک رویکرد کیفی، مدلی جهت یکپارچه نمودن انواع تصمیمات یک بنگاه مادر در حین طراحی واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره تامین طراحی گردیده است. داده های اولیه تحقیق با انجام مصاحبه های عمیق اکتشافی با کارشناسان بنگاه های خودروسازی و نیز تامین کنندگان آنها جمع آوری شده است. سپس داده های جمع آوری شده از طریق تم کاوی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته و ضمن کشف ارتباطات بین آنها، یک مدل مفهومی طراحی شده است. اعتبار مدل طراحی شده با استفاده از روش بررسی روایی محتوا تصدیق و در یک تجربه صنعتی صحه گذاری شده است. این مقاله مدعی است که بینش جدیدی بر مهندسی یکپارچه گروه های تکنولوژی هموسته در شبکه زنجیره تامین ارائه می نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه محصول جدید، معماری محصول، پلتفرم، واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول، یکپارچه سازی
  • ایرج بابایی، عباس عباس پور ، حسن اسدزاده، علی دلاور، حسین عبدالهی صفحات 163-186
    امروزه افزایش شایستگی کارکنان برای بهره وری منابع انسانی، به مهم ترین و اساسی ترین اهداف مدیران هر سازمان تبدیل شده است از این رو هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین سهم عوامل سازمانی در افزایش شایستگی کارکنان شهرداری کرج می باشد. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش روش پیمایشی و همبستگی است. جامعه مورد پژوهش عبارت اند از کلیه کارکنان (زن و مرد) شاغل در شهرداری کرج در سال 1394. نمونه آماری شامل 300 نفر از کارکنان بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری داده های پژوهش از پرسشنامه های: 1. خلاقیت سازمانی سلطانی 2. جوسازمانی هالپین و کرافت 3. ارزیابی شایستگی مدیران و کارکنان مصلحی 4. توانمندسازی روان شناختی اسپریتزر و میشرا 5. هوش هیجانی سالووی و مایر 6. انگیزش شغلی هاکمن و اولدهام استفاده شد. نتایج آلفای کرونباخ حاکی از پایایی مناسب ابزار اندازه گیری بود. (میزان آلفای کرونباخ پرسشنامه خلاقیت برابر با0/81، جوسازمانی0/83، شایستگی0/93، توانمند سازی روان شناختی0/72، هوش هیجانی0/86 و انگیزش شغلی برابر با0/93 بدست آمد). نتایج نشان داد که بین توانمندسازی روان شناختی با شایستگی، و شایستگی با جوسازمانی و هوش هیجانی رابطه مثبت و معنی داری وجود دارد، ولی بین شایستگی با خلاقیت رابطه معنی داری یافت نشد. نتایج پژوهش همچنین نشان داد که از بین متغیرهای وارد شده به مدل (هوش هیجانی، خلاقیت، انگیزش شغلی، توانمندسازی روان شناختی و جوسازمانی) تنها متغیرهای توانمندسازی روان شناختی، هوش هیجانی و جوسازمانی وارد مدل شده و توانستند به طور معنی داری تغییرات شایستگی را تبیین کنند. یکی از پیشنهادهای علمی به دست آمده از این تحقیق این است که مدیران شهرداری کرج می توانند براساس عوامل سازمانی به افزایش سطح شایستگی کارکنان خود دست یابند.
    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی، شایستگی کارکنان، عوامل سازمانی. بهره وری
  • فتانه بهاروند ، میلاد گوران، نورمحمد یعقوبی صفحات 187-214
    یکی از مهمترین خصیصه های هر سازمان برای کار در شرایط متغیر امروزی، داشتن افرادی است که مایلند در تغییرات موفقیت آمیز سازمان مشارکت داشته باشند؛ یعنی رفتار شهروندی سازمانی را بروز دهند. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه هوش هیجانی و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی در قالب مدل معادلات ساختاری است. جامعه آماری شامل کارکنان بیمارستان امام خمینی (ره) شهرستان الشتر می باشد و حجم نمونه با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان مشخص گردید. جهت گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه های استاندارد پادساکف و همکاران و نیز برادبری وگریوز استفاده گردید. به منظور تایید مدل تحقیق از مدل معادلات ساختاری و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای AMOS 20 و SPSS 18 استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین هوش هیجانی و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی رابطه مثبت معنادار وجود دارد و از میان چهار مولفه هوش هیجانی شامل خود مدیریتی، آگاهی اجتماعی، مدیریت روابط و خودآگاهی، سه مولفه نخست در پیش بینی رفتار شهروندی سازمانی نقش دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: هوش هیجانی رفتار شهروندی سازمانی
  • احمدرضا سرگلزهی ، محمد نبی شهیکی، صفیه کرد سنگانی صفحات 215-241
    یکی از مهمترین اهداف مدیران در بنگاه های اقتصادی، به دست آوردن حداکثر بازدهی از منابع موجود و دستیابی به سطوح بالاتر بهره وری است. واحدهای تحقیق و توسعه به طور عمده فعالیت هایی از قبیل ارتقا کیفیت محصول، طراحی محصول جدید، بهینه سازی فرآیندها، انتقال و جذب فناوری ها، کسب دانش فنی برای تولید را در چارچوب منافع صاحبان صنایع دنبال می کنند که همه این موارد باعث بهره وری عوامل تولید می شود. در این مقاله بهره وری کل عوامل تولید (TFP) برمبنای رویکرد مرز تصادفی (SFA) در 131 صنعت طی دوره 2010-1995 و همچنین تاثیر پذیری بهره وری از تحقیق و توسعه (R&D) در کنار عوامل دیگر بررسی شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد بیشترین رشد بهره وری عوامل در طی دوره مربوط به صنعت تولید قطعات و ملحقات وسایل نقلیه موتوری با بهره وری معادل 1. 05 می باشد و کمترین آن مربوط به تولید مواد شیمیایی اساسی بجز کود و ترکیبات ازت با بهره وری معادل0. 98 است. طی این دوره صنعت تولید مواد پلاستیکی به شکل اولیه و ساخت لاستیک مصنوعی بیشترین پیشرفت فنی را داشته است، به طوری که رشد آن 1. 21 بوده است. همچنین برآورد مدل بهره وری کل عوامل تولید نشان داد که تحقیق و توسعه، سرمایه انسانی، صرفه های مقیاس، انباشت سرمایه فیزیکی، مالکیت خصوصی بنگاه ها، صادرات صنعت و شدت مانع ورود توانسته اند روند رشد بهره وری در طول سال های مورد مطالعه را توضیح دهند. براساس نتایج مدل برآوردی تمامی متغیر ها بجز شدت مانع ورود تاثیر مثبت بر بهره وری داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحقیق و توسعه، بهره وری عوامل تولید، تابع مرز تصادفی، صنایع کارخانه ای ایران
  • زهرا شکوه ، امین نیک پور صفحات 243-266
    هدف این پژوهش بررسی رابطه بین رهبری اصیل و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی با توجه به نقش میانجی انگیزش شغلی در بین کارکنان اداره کل بهزیستی کرمان است. روش تحقیق توصیفی- همبستگی است. جامعه آماری شامل کارکنان اداره کل بهزیستی شهر کرمان به تعداد 321 نفر می باشد که 210 نفر به عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب شدند، ابزارهای مورد استفاده جهت جمع آوری داده ها، پرسشنامه های رهبری اصیل آولیو و همکاران ، رفتار شهروندی سازمانی پادساکف و همکاران و انگیزش شغلی آلدرفر می باشند. برای تحلیل داده ها از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است و نرم افزارهای مورد استفاده، SPSS و LISREL می باشند. با توجه به مدل نهایی می توان گفت که رهبری اصیل با میزان ضریب مسیر (341/0) بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی اثر مثبت دارد و انگیزش کارکنان نیز با ضریب مسیر (297/0) بر رفتار شهروندی سازمانی اثر مثبت دارد. همچنین نقش میانجی انگیزش کارکنان در رابطه بین رهبری اصیل و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی تایید شد.
    کلیدواژگان: رهبری اصیل، انگیزش شغلی، رفتار شهروندی سازمانی
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  • Fattah Sharifzadeh, Atiyeh Sadat Haghi, Davoud Hoseinpoor, Mohammad Mirmohammadi Pages 5-26
    The purpose of the research is to validate and design a suitable model for networking in the field of entrepreneurship. The research tool was in the qualitative section, interview and in the quantitative part of the questionnaire. Data analysis was done in the qualitative section through theme analysis, and in the quantitative part of the structural equations. After designing the original model, the research questionnaire with dimensions was distributed among 240 experts and managers of the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare. Finally, 31 components were identified in four dimensions: necessity, structural, behavioral and background. Therefore, it seems necessary for the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare to focus on the role and importance of these factors in entrepreneurship policy development, in order to develop the field of entrepreneurship, and to replace the network thinking in policy making with hierarchical thinking.
    Introduction
    Entrepreneurship is an area where interdependencies are very high, and the establishment of collaborative relationships such as networks in it is more of a management imperative than is desirable. Therefore, a network approach in the entrepreneurial policy-making process, which leads to the involvement of key stakeholders and entrepreneurs and the acquisition of legitimacy for policies developed in this area, is among the mechanisms that potentially improve the policy process in Entrepreneurship is effective. The purpose of the research is to design, validate and design a suitable model for networking in the field of entrepreneurship.
    Case study
    Data analysis was done in the qualitative section through theme analysis, and in the quantitative part of the structural equations. After designing the original model, the research questionnaire with dimensions was distributed among 240 experts and managers of the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare.
    Materials and Methods
    Reliability of the questionnaire was verified using Cronbach's Alpha and Composite Reliability (CR), and its validity was confirmed by Convergent Validity and Convergent Validity (AVE) methods. Finally, 31 components were identified in four dimensions: necessity, structural, behavioral and background. Therefore, it seems necessary for the Ministry of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare to focus on the role and importance of these factors in entrepreneurship policy development, in order to develop the field of entrepreneurship, and to replace the network thinking in policy making with hierarchical thinking.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Among the components gathered for the structural dimension of the entrepreneurial policy network, respectively, the power of the policy-making system in empowering the network actors and the degree of concentration / decentralization in the structure of the policy-making system had the greatest impact on network performance. The organizational status of network actors was not recognized as an important and influential factor in the network performance of the entrepreneurial policy. Thus, it can be said that some actors have more power and influence than any other player for reasons such as personality traits or knowledge and expertise in a particular field. They are within the network and their views are confronted with acceptance from the network members.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, with regard to the capabilities of the private sector (stakeholders and actors in the field of entrepreneurship) in the field of expert and experimental knowledge, it is suggested that the comments and experiences of this section in the policy development process and identifying the problems and methods of facilitating the startup processes, to be used. In this way, policy making in the field of entrepreneurship (N8) and socio-political legitimacy (N5) is more likely to be achieved through the use of entrepreneurship policy network
    Keywords: Policy Making, Network Approach, Entrepreneurship, Model
  • Hossein Rahmanseresht, Vahid Khashei Varnamkhasti, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Mehrnoosh Rahimian Pages 27-52
    Value creation has long attracted scholars' and managers' attention. This concept has transformed in the context of marketing paradigms. This paper aims to develop strategic value co-creation model in banking industry in Iran. Applying a mixed methodology, in the first phase a multiple case study was operated in three selected banks. A purposeful sampling helped data gathering. Data analysis in the qualitative phase was done through qualitative content analysis based on which the research model was extracted. Followed by the qualitative phase, the model was tested in a quantitative manner by a survey in the aforementioned selected banks. To do this, 70 questionnaires were distributed in a sample chosen by simple random sampling. The model was then tested in Smart PLS using least partial squares. The results show that the strategic value co-creation has two dimension including organizational value co-creation (with 7 factors encompassing marketing ability, service development ability, relational ability, IT ability, Organizing ability, organizational culture and human resource management ability) and customer value co-creation (with 5 factors encompassing contribution to service development, transactional ability, feedback giving, loyalty and responsible behavior).
    Introduction
    Marketing has traditionally borrowed transaction and exchange models from economics and the good-dominance-logic. The main focus, in the context of this logic was on offering goods and services regardless of customers' preferences and inclinations. (Zhang et al., 2017; Galvagno and Dalli, 2014; Ranjan and Read, 2016; Pansari and Kumar, 2017; Venkatesan, 2017). Organizations had scarce information about customers' needs and thus offered their own solutions to meet their demands. Many new products failed due to inconsistency of products and services features with customers' wants (Pinho et al., 2014; Vivek et al., 2014). The emergence of service-dominance-logic changed the marketing paradigm and presented a new approach in customer’s cooperation in co-creating values. Value co-creation refers to organizations and customers' actions and necessities in order to develop solutions meeting the mutual needs (Skålén et al., 2015). The environment of banking industry in Iran is highly competitive due to the great number of banks and financial and credit institutions. According to the investigations, one of the leading private banks in Iran had experienced a customer churn of 14% during last three years. A following pathology study revealed that customers left the bank as a result of inefficient transactions between the bank and customers which led to low levels of co-operations in problem solving. This paper aims to answer this question that what capabilities and necessities in organizations and customers are needed to pave value co-creation path. In order to reach competitiveness based on value co-creation with customers and to prevent services failure through creating value by integrating the resources of organization and customers, it is necessary to scrutinize the capabilities, features and actions needed in both parties to co-create value. This can result in higher levels of customers' satisfaction and loyalty, lower customers’ churn rate, decreasing the costs of new customer attraction and competitiveness (Hunt et al., 2012; Tu et al., 2018; Oyner and Korelina, 2016, Thiruvattal, 2017). This research aims firstly to develop a model for strategic value co-creation in Iranian banking industry and secondly to determine the components and dimensions of organization value co-creation and customer value co-creation in Iranian banks.
    Case study
    In this article, the multiple case studies in three Iranian banks have been applied as the strategy of qualitative research to gain comprehensive knowledge about value co-creation in Iranian banks and their corporate customers. Based on the principles of data gathering in case studies proposed by Yin (2014), the data was gathered through observations, interviews and investigating documents and organizational news.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to meet the research goals through mixed research methodology, data gathering and data analysis were done in two phases including qualitative phase and quantitative phase. The populations in qualitative phase encompassed experts in banking industry and their corporate customers. Applying the purposive sampling method, 15 experts besides 9 corporate customers were selected for deep interviews. The interviews continued to reach theoretical saturation. Besides, the organizational news and documents were investigated and observations were documented in all three banks. The gathered data was analyzed through qualitative factor analysis and the strategic value co-creation model was extracted. The second phase (quantitative phase) was pursued in order to test the goodness of fit of the model extracted through the qualitative phase. In this phase the confirmatory factor analysis was applied through least partial squares in Smart PLS.
    The population in the quantitative phase encompassed the employees in selected banks with work experience in the realms of marketing, banking strategy, products and services development and corporate banking. Based on the Morgan sampling table for a population of 80 employees, the sample in this phase included 70 people chosen by random sampling method. Based on the indices identified in the qualitative phase, a questionnaire with 76 questions was developed and distributed in the sample. The questions were replied through 5 point Likert scale.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The gathered data from three cases were encoded applying inductive content analysis and in the end after analyzing 1250 codes, three levels of concepts encompassing micro concepts (third level concepts), middle concepts (second level concepts) and principal concepts (first level concept) were identified to form the value co-creation model in banking industry of Iran. In order to analyze the goodness of fit of the developed model, the confirmatory factor analysis was done by applying structural equation modelling in Smart PLS. The results showed the model was appropriately fit.
    Conclusion
    The results show that the strategic value co-creation is a three-level- construct with two dimensions including organizational value co-creation (with 7 factors encompassing marketing ability, service development ability, relational
    ability, IT ability, Organizing ability, organizational culture and human resource management ability) and customer value co-creation (with 5 factors encompassing contribution to service development, transactional ability, feedback giving, loyalty and responsible behavior)
    Keywords: strategic value co-creation, organizational value co-creation, customer value co-creation, mixed methodology, qualitative content analysis, least partial squares
  • Mirali Seyednaghavi, Mahdieh Gholamzadeh Jofreh, Reza Vaezi, Vajholah Ghorbanizadeh Pages 53-78

    The difficulty of job and high requirements of role and responsibility entail organizations to retain and empower ageing experts because they are valuable for business. Empowerment of the ageing experts is important to improve work efficiency and effectiveness of the elderly experts as it gives self-confidence and motivation to them to keep their jobs and create values for the organization. However, there is a limited of study in this topic and less number of scientific papers that proposed a framework for the empowerment of the ageing experts. The present study attempts to address this limitation by proposing a framework for empowering ageing experts in the public sector. The present study uses a qualitative approach, which involves in-depth semi-structured interview with ten experts for data collection. The involved experts consist of senior human resource managers and elderly experts from public sectors. The results show that the framework needs to include three main points including the factors that underpin the empowerment of ageing experts (prerequisites, capacities, and barriers), operational strategies for empowering ageing experts (structural and psychological solutions), and consequences of empowerment of ageing experts. The proposed framework would be beneficial for the human resource experts in providing important aspects to consider in empowering the ageing experts.
    Introduction
    Human capital is one of the most important operational resources that leads to an increase in the level of social welfare in any society. Since the efforts of each generation including expertise, experience, and effectiveness are currently the basis for the development of the next generation and provides a platform for the emergence of the phenomena of future generations, the concept of dynamism can be inferred from it. Therefore, the cycle of a dynamic process is focusing on minds of the effective role of the past generation, or, in other words, the ageing people. A number of scholars believe that as well as the extent of employment, growth, development, maturity for organizations, and especially societies, the stages of decline and reaching the end of work life must be effectively implemented (Mitsakis, 2014). In addition to the fact that ageing workforce can be transformed into organizational capital, the importance of elderly workforce to human resource management researchers is evident by looking at the relative proportions of elderly people.
    According to the Department of Social and Economic Affairs of the UN Secretariat, the number of people over the age of 60 in the world in 2017 is estimated at 962 million (11 % of the total world population), while in 1980 only 382 million people (8.6 % of the total world population). It is also estimated that it will increase to two billion and one hundred million people by 2050, 22% of the total world population at that time. By 2030, people over the age of 60 are expected to increase with the number of children under the age of 10 (1.41 billion vs. 1.35 billion people). Estimates show that by 2050, the number of elderly people over 60 will also be higher than adolescents and young people aged 10 to 24 (2.1 billion against 2 billion). Therefore, an idea of empowering the ageing professional workforce cannot be ignored.
    In academic point of view, there are plenty numbers of study that emphasize empowerment concept. For instance, Said-Allsopp and Tallontire (2015) observed the women empowerment, Cattaneo et al. (2016) studied about the empowerment process in the organization, and Allen et al. (2016) analyzed empowerment of the workforce. However, there is a limited number of scientific papers that analyze an empowerment of the ageing professional workers. Therefore, the present study attempts to bridge this knowledge gap by proposing a framework for the empowerment of ageing workers, who are knowledgeable and skillful for the organization.


    Case study
    This study uses in-depth semi-structured interview that involved ten experts. A snowball sampling method is used in this study as the elderly experts in the area of empowerment of ageing workforce and their availability are not well defined. On this basis, the interview was conducted with ten experts consist of senior human resource managers and elderly experts from public sectors in Iran until the data is saturated, in which there is no newer information can be obtained from the interview. The conversation of the interviews is recorded, then transcribed for the analysis purposes.
    Materials and Methods
    The collected data are analyzed using a theme analysis method. This analysis involves a continuous sweep between the data set and the coding set and analyzing the data that is being generated. The information gathering tool is an in-depth semi-structured interview with ten human resource managers and elderly specialists with a minimum degree of education, senior executives and experts who have at least 48 years of experience and at least 28 years of work experience in terms of organizational competence.
    Data analysis and
    Results
    The present study uses an interview, which is simultaneously conducted and the codification process continued until the theoretical adequacy is completed and the limit of interviewing was determined by this criterion. As a result, a total of 307 key points with indicator codes have been extracted over ten interviews. As a next step, these key points are conceptualized in the form of abstract concepts. Subsequently, the basic themes and themes of the organizing research are created through explanation and communication between them. The duration of each interview was between one and two hours and it is recorded and written for analysis purposes. The first step in the process of encoding interviews is open passcode, in which the primary code is extracted from the bottom of the hint. These codes are categorized into the categories of concepts that are more general and abstract. Although the concept is closely related to each other, the more general groups are classified as subcategories, which ultimately create the main categories of the topic.
    The research concepts are based on 148 primary codes that refer to 307 codes by considering repetitive codes. These initial code numbers are selected to 170 concepts, which include 66 unique concepts. Similarly, each of the basic themes is itself composed of one or more concepts that those concepts actually represent the "characteristics", "conditions" or "status" of existing or desired of the subject in relation to the empowerment of the elderly. Accordingly, all 307 initial codes noted in this study referred to 104 basic subjects, with the exception of the similar cases, 21 basic research themes were obtained, which ultimately formed the six themes including pre-requisites (do's and don'ts) fields and capacities, barriers, structural solutions, psychological solutions, and consequences.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study show that the factors behind the empowerment of ageing experts include three themes organizing prerequisites (fields), capacities (gaps), and barriers (not and not necessarily), in which the prerequisites affect the capacities and barriers. This means that the existing capacities and barriers can affect one another and the underlying factors for the empowerment of ageing experts eventually return to the outcome of this organizing theme. If the existing fields and capacities can overcome the barriers, they will meet the prerequisites for the empowerment of the ageing experts. This results would affect the effectiveness of empowerment process of ageing experts. However, if the weight of the barriers is higher, the empowerment process would be slow or limited. For example, the experts mentioned that there is a number of barriers that can restrain the empowerment of aging experts in the public sector comprising government policy and company regulation. Therefore, the top managers should focus on these barriers as they will slow and limit the empowerment process. Other important factors to consider in the empowerment process is strengthen financial resources and advanced training for ageing workers. In addition, the operational strategies for empowerment of ageing experts in this study are presented in two categories of hardware solutions and psychological solutions, which are combined with four routine empowerment approaches under the headings of management (leadership), psychological, applied, and structural. The weight of these strategies cannot be prioritized to one another. Their parallel and simultaneous implementation is necessary.
    The results of this study gives a significant contribution to academics and practices. For academics, this study will open a new field of empowerment of the professional ageing workforce, which is a knowledge gap identified in the literature review. In addition, this study proposed a conceptual framework that offers various factors to consider in empowering ageing
    experts. In practices, the proposed model will give a holistic view of empowering the professional ageing workforce. The understanding these approaches, the management of an organization can effectively empower the professional ageing workforce
    Keywords: Human resource management, empowerment, ageing workforce, ageing experts, theme analysis
  • Behzad Ghasemi, Changiz Valmohammadi Pages 79-107


    World-class organizations are continuously trying to determine their Knowledge Management (KM) position. In this regard, having a KM maturity model is essential. The purpose of this research is to design a World-Class Knowledge Management (WCKM) maturity model based on the excellence model using mixed method research. The statistical population of this research is the subsidiaries of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum, and the top managers of these subsidiaries were selected as statistical analysis unit. Based on an in-deep review of the relevant literature, the components of the enabler of KM implementation and the indicators pertaining to the key results of WCKM performance were determined. Then, the enablers and the key results were identified and verified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. Finally, through comparative study and phenomenology method, qualitative coding was performed and the levels of maturity model were determined. The obtained results show that the thirteen enablers of KM implementation and the four key results of WCKM performance were determined. The WCKM maturity model based on the excellence model includes six levels, namely, chaos, initial (awareness of the need for knowledge), coordinating and standardization of knowledge, knowledge optimization, knowledge continuous improvement, and eruption of knowledge and innovation, respectively. Managers and policymakers of the surveyed organizations, specifically, and other organizations in general, might use the proposed model towards assessing their KM maturity level and outperforming their competitors.

    Introduction

    The most fundamental characteristic of intelligent organizations in the 21st century is focused on knowledge and information. Knowledge Management Maturity Model (KMMM) is a powerful tool which can create knowledge changes and innovation all over the world (Nastiezaie & Noruzi Kuhdasht, 2017). In past studies, various KMMMs were presented (Pee & Kankanhalli, 2009; Lotti Oliva, 2014; Serenko et al., 2016). Each of KMMMs has played a key role in the development and success of KM in organizations and has developed the different levels of maturity using methods such as reviewing the literature of previous models, interviewing, and surveying the organizations’ experts. These models have designed their own specific methodology to determine the levels of KM maturity. Given the KMMMs presented in previous studies, finding a KM maturity model based on the excellence model that can provide the highest competitive advantage for organizations based on world-class criteria is less seen and is considered as the research gap. In other words, the research aims to design the levels of KM maturity model based on the enablers of KM implementation and the key results of the WCKM performance measurement. In order to design such a model, three main questions are raised: 1- What are the enablers of KM implementation? 2- What are the key results of the performance measurement of WCKM? 3- How is the WCKM maturity model based on the excellence model?
    Case study
    The Case Study of present research includes subsidiaries of Iranian oil industry, namely National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), National Petrochemical Company (NPC), National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC) and National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC).

    Materials and Methods

    Based on the result, this study is a fundamental research and in terms of methodology is an exploratory-descriptive. The research approach is a mixed method research of embedded design type. In the library study, the systematic literature review was done based on the model proposed by Ruschel et al. (2017) and the components of the enablers of KM implementation and the criteria of the key results of the WCKM performance measurement were extracted as the examined codes. The field study consists of two parts, quantitative and qualitative data collection. The data collected in quantitative part were analyzed using the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and SPSS and Smart PLS software. In the qualitative section, synergy between the enablers of KM implementation and the key results of the WCKM performance measurement was determined using comparative study approach and the levels of WCKM maturity model based on the excellence model are designed using the phenomenological approach and qualitative coding method.


    Results

    According to the obtained results, the thirteen enablers were identified and confirmed to enable the of KM implementation that including “Human Resource Management”, “KM Processes”, “Information Technology”, “Business Strategy”, “Intellectual Capital”, “KM System”, “Executive Practices of KM”, “Management Information System”, “Culture”, “Partnership and Cooperation with Business Partners”, “KM Road Map”, “Leadership Commitment and Support”, and “Organizational Environment” (Kazemi & Zafar Allahyari, 2010; Lin, 2013; Lotti Oliva, 2014; Valmohammadi and Ahmadi, 2015; Jahani et al., 2016). Also, the obtained results show that the four main key results of WCKM performance measurement are namely, “Knowledge Quality”, “Knowledge Utility”, “Knowledge Innovation”, and “Business Results”. The main result of the research shows that the WCKM maturity model was designed based on the enablers of KM implementation and the key results of the WCKM performance measurement. This model has 6 levels which include: Level 0: chaos, Level 1: initial, Level 2: coordination and standardization of knowledge, Level 3: knowledge optimization, Level 4: continuous improvement of knowledge, and Level 5: knowledge eruption and innovation.
    Discussion and

    Conclusion

    The main contribution of this study is to design a WCKM maturity model based on the excellence model. Some levels of the maturity model are supported by Pee & Kankanhali (2009) and Khatibain et al (2010). The main difference between the research maturity model with other maturity models is that in this study, the KM maturity model was designed to reach the world-class. Also, in this study, the enablers of KM implementation were used to achieve the key results of WCKM performance, which shows the research maturity model has been designed based on the excellence model. Also, creating a new level of KM maturity called the knowledge eruption and innovation derived from world-class knowledge-based organizations in competitive markets is another difference of the maturity model of this research

    Keywords: World-Class Knowledge Management, Maturity Model, Excellence Model, mixed approach, Oil industry
  • Hamed Aramesh, Allah Yar Beigi Firuzi, Ali Reza Sargolzaiee Pages 109-136
    Mirjaveh Special Economic Zone is a growing region that has a natural and God given attraction inside, and unique natural and historical attractions around it, especially in the Temin and Ladiz areas. This special economic area with many strengths will be able to take advantage of its opportuni
    ty. The purpose of the present study was to identify the strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats in front of tourism development and the Mirjaveh special economic zone and provide the appropriate and efficient strategies. Identifying and analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats using the SWOT model, and quantitative strategy planning matrix (QSPM) has been used to select the best tourism development strategy. To determine the weight of SWOT factors, a questionnaire based on the Likert scale was designed as 5 items and completed by 20 tourism specialists and experts in the level of Sistan and Baluchestan province. The results of the research show that aggressive strategies are the most suitable strategies for the development of tourism in the special economic zone of Mirjaveh. The SO1 strategy, with an average of 2.571, with emphasis on the development of ecotourism (natural tourism), has been proposed at the natural absorption centers as the best suggestion.
    Introduction
    Statement of the problem
    Economists consider the tourism industry as the third most dynamic and growing economic phenomenon in the aftermath of the oil and automobile industry (Nazari, 2001:5). Tourism as an economic tool (Liu et al., 2006: 159; Chen, 2015:225) has a significant effect on strengthening the economic foundations of societies (Kazemi, 2008:81). According to a vision document on the horizon of 1404 (2025), tourist attraction should be 1.5 percent and its income should grow by 2 percent and the admission of 20 million tourists with revenue of about 25 billion dollar, but according to available statistics, not only this part of the Fourth program has not been achieved, but it seems that the goals are ambitious in the 20-year perspective of Iran considering the conditions of tourism in this country (Gholizadeh, 2010:6). Therefore, the planning, guidance and development of Tourism industry is one of the most important sources of income and employment creation (Dwyer et al., 2004: 307), which also has great social, cultural and environmental impacts (Azam Et al., 2018:332) indicate as a necessary requirement, but it is possible to guide this process by identifying the capabilities and constraints in each region of the country. Sistan and Baluchestan province has considerable potential for attracting tourists due to its privileged tourism destinations such as Chabahar Sea, Taftan Volcanic Mountain, Sistan Chah-nime and old history and the unique cultural heritage that in general, it can have a significant impact on the economy of the region. However, evidence suggests that the tourism industry is not booming in the province. Especially existing programs haven’t succeeded in attracting tourists interested in nature and environment.
    In this regard, the city of Mirjaveh with the advantages of being borderline and having a 220km common border with Pakistan, the market border, having metal and non-metallic mines and good climate for breeding camel is considered as one of the strategic cities of Sistan and Baluchestan province. This issue especially with the advent of the special economic zone of Mirjaveh and its implementation in 1397 found significant importance (Sistan and Baluchestan Province governor general[1], 2018). According to this, the present research aims to answer this fundamental question:What are the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of tourism development in the special economic zone of Mirjaveh? What are the best strategies to develop the tourism industry in this region?
    Case Study:Special Economic Zone of Mirjaveh
    Materials and methods
    The city of Mirjaveh is located east of Sistan and Baluchestan province and is bordered by Pakistan over 350 km. The city is connected to Pakistan from the northeast, east and south east, and from north and west with Zahedan city and south and southwest with Khash city. The city is located at 29 degrees 1 minute and 4.9 second’s latitude and 61 degrees 27 minutes and 2.2 seconds longitude and 858 meters high above sea level. The distance of ​​the center of Mirjaveh city to the country is about 1900 km. The city’s total area is more than 6000 square kilometers and consists of three parts: Ladiz, Rig Malek and Central part, the city consists of seven districts, three of its rural districts in the Ladiz area (Ladiz, Junabad, Temin), two districts in the central part Suburbs and Andeh) and two villages located in the Rig Malek district (Rig Malek and Tahlab). The Ladiz section with an area of ​​more than 3500 square kilometers is the widest part of this city (Sistan and Baluchestan province governor general, 2018).
    This research is an applied development research in terms of its purpose. The method of analysis in this research consists of three main stages: First, to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats ahead of the tourism of the special economic zone of Mirjaveh interviewed with a number of experts in the tourism sector of the Cultural and Tourism Heritage Organization of Sistan and Baluchestan, tourists, owners of province travel agencies, university professors, and experts in this issue in the governorate general of Sistan and Baluchestan and the Zahedan Chamber of Commerce. Then, according to expert opinions and specialists opinions, each factor is weighted. Finally, by defining internal and external strategic factors that provide the basis for strategies compilation, extracted SWOT matrix and based on this, determined the quantitative strategic planning matrices, appropriate strategies and priorities for tourism development in the special area Economic Mirjaveh and the approaches derived from these analysis are presented as solving strategies. The statistical population of this study consists of 20 experts and specialists related to tourism in the province. It should be noted that the data of this research were collected during the period of Ordibehesht to Khodad month in 2018.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The purpose of this study was to identify internal factors (strengths and weaknesses), external factors (opportunities and threats) and develop the tourism development strategy of the special economic zone of Mirjaveh. Using internal factor evaluation matrix and external factors assessment matrix, list strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the development of tourism in the special economic zone of Mirjaveh and weighted by each of these factors. Then, using the SWOT matrix of strengths points cross with opportunities and threats, as well as weaknesses with opportunities and threats, the development strategies of tourism in the special economic zone of Mirjaveh were categorized into four categories of SO, ST, WO, and WT strategies respectively. In the next step, using the internal and external factors assessment matrix (IE) determined the competitive position of the tourism area, the output of this matrix, SO strategies category (use of strengths and opportunities) suggested for the development of tourism in the special economic zone of Mirjaveh. In the final stage, the attractiveness of the SO group strategies was identified by summarizing the quantitative strategic planning matrix (external factors-internal factors) (Table 1).

    Conclusion
    Due to the close proximity of the special economic zone of Mirjaveh to the water-rich rivers of Sianjan (the bitter water), the Ladiz and Gazu rivers, it is possible to develop mankind natural landscapes, which will have a great impact on attracting domestic and foreign tourists interested in nature. Also in the vicinity of the city of Mirjaveh and the special economic zone; there are natural and God given attractions of Temin and Ladiz that have a cool and temperate climate in the warm seasons. The emphasis is on the attraction of sports tourists and the possibility of holding sports events such as tennis, motor riding, swimming, basketball, biking, etc. in the cold seasons that cannot be held in other provinces and regions of the country, can be held in the special economic zone. The holding of these events will require the provision of infrastructure such as organizing and identifying natural attractions adjacent to the special area, hotel and restaurant construction, Special health areas and large stores for households shopping’s. Therefore, it is suggested that the managers and policymakers of the special economic zone of Mirjaveh during the establishment of the special uses of the region will consider the important issue of nature and surrounding structures.
    Keywords: Tourism Strategy, Mirjaveh SEZ, SWOT Matrix, Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)
  • Ahmad karimpour kalow, Mohammadreza Arasti, Mohammadreza Akbari Jokar Pages 137-162
    Automotive industry of the Iran and two major automaker, SAIPA and IRAN-KHODRO groups, have been always the central attention of the State and the Parliament. Also technology management in the massive scale was so effective and it is one of the important subjects of product architecture. During the formation of the product architecture structure, decisions for manufacturing processes and supply chain architectures will be made simultaneously. In this paper, case study research methodology is used to develop a model for the decision integration of a car manufacturing corporate for developing product and process technologies in the range of its suppliers. Preliminary data are collected from sites that involve in Iran car manufacturing corporates and wide range of interviews with managers and experts in product development strategies and suppliers. Secondary data is collected from literature review and available documents in mentioned business unit. Results show that there is a strong relation between product architecture and product and process technology policy in supply network.
    Introduction
    Product architecture has a key role in maximizing technology absorption and transfer and it also improves the level of Manufacturability of product technology unites in supply chain network. Manufacturability of a product and its technologies in new product developing projects are due to the way of products function allocation to physical parts and also the type of industrial design. Product architecture in the literature of product development is allocation of defined tasks and functions of a product to physical components. Product architecture is a general description of product characteristics classifications covering product systems, number and type of components, number and type of common areas between these components and also the presenter of fundamental structure of a product. In this article, product technology is defined as an engineering diagram or a made physical sample of a system which represent various sciences’ usage in a product function. Process technologies are also consist of technologies which are used in a firm’s systems and machines and realized their functions. Also technologies of supply chain network define supplier potency in design and manufacture of different product and process systems. The result of product architecture is design and manufacture of systems and parts along whit embedded technologies which are offered in a format of a single product. Product architecture is created by industrial design in the format of a product.
    Case study
    Preliminary data are collected from sites that involve in Iran car manufacturing corporates and wide range of interviews with managers and experts in product and Technology development strategies and suppliers. Secondary data is collected from literature review and available documents in mentioned business unit.
    Materials and Methods
    In this article a qualitative approach is used in research methodology. To enhance the generalizability of the results, according to triangulation principle, this research was conducted in three stages and based on data from separate sources. While studying the history of the research and measuring experimental documentations of parent automobile firms, by means of deep and exploratory interviews with correspondents, the primary data was collected and the early version of model is designed by the method of theme analysis. The second stage of research is done after developing conceptual model in order to validate the model. The method of collecting and analyzing data in this stage had been content validity survey through correspondents. The third step of the research has been done in practice in order to subscribe the verified model.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Research findings indicate that today product architecture is used as a platform for designing and employing technologies in product components. Indeed designing a product is designing various technologies in order to realize its functions. In this research we define collaborative technology groups as a part of technologies which are embedded and appeared in systems, sub-systems, and different components of a product and its developing processes, which realize their various functions. In other words, product technology unites are the main focus of designers and engineers to define collaborative technology groups which are designed and manufactured in supply chain network of a firm to realize products and processes functions. Indeed, physical components of products and processes indicate a particular technology mechanism. For this reason we refer to these technologies as collaborative technology groups which act based on their functions in relation with each other and they are complementary. The product section of these technologies realize the function and the process section of the groups realize performance of firm’s production systems and supply chain. Technologies such as designing, molding, casting, and manufacturing are related to these technology units.
    Manufacturability of technology units in supply chain network is an important part of designing and manufacturing a product. Measurement of a product Manufacturability is done according to supply chain network potential and actual sufficiency and capabilities in manufacturing modules and also firm potential and actual sufficiency and capability in integrating different components and modules for manufacturing a product. Different analysis levels of decisions and activities exist in different stages of technology groups designing in various products and processes. While general and massive architecture and design proceeding of all product technologies is done in the firm and by final product developing group, detailed proceeding related to systems and modules technology architecture and design in different categories of supply chain network such as manufacturers, producers, and other components of supply chain is done professionally. The importance of coordination and relation between these different stages redouble the importance of purposeful architecture and design of product and process technologies in supply chain.
    Conclusion
    Data analysis according to case study indicates that in order to design constructible technology groups for product, process and supply chain systems, designing of these systems and technologies should be integrated. Data analysis and collection indicate that product architecture has a significant role in partnership rate and technology transfer in the level of supply chain. If we depend on suppliers in a number of important technologies, in the processes of modeling, designing, and manufacturing of technologies and affording their parts, we should involve the suppliers in technology developing projects and associate them in decision making. Also during choosing the type of product architecture, we should consider the important components of product strategy, firm’s strategy in affording existing parts, new parts, and also manufacturing, producing, and assembling equipment. Through product architecture, the product and process technologies in supply chain are connected and shaped collaborative technology groups. The designed model in this research is recommended as a general platform for designing and producing integrated and constructible product technology unites in supply chain network of a Corporation. This article claims that it presents a new insight to integrated and constructible engineering of collaborative technology groups in supply chain network
    Keywords: New Product Development, Product Architecture, Platform, Product Technology Units, Integration
  • Iraj Babaee, Abbas Abbaspour, Hassan Asadzadeh, Ali Delavar, Hussein Abdollahi Pages 163-186

    The main aim of the present research was to determin the contribution of organizational factors in increasing the competence of Karaj municipality staff. The research population consisted of all staff (men and women) employed in the municipality of Karaj city in 1394. The sample comprised of 300 employees who were randomly selected by cluster sampling method. The research instruments were four questionnaires. The results showed that among the variables introduced into the model (emotional intelligence, creativity, job motivation, psychological empowerment and psychosocialization), only the variables of psychological empowerment, emotional intelligence and organizational climate entered into the model and were able to modify the competency explain the meaningfulness of merit changes. One of the scientific suggestions obtained from this research is that the managers of Karaj municipality can increase the level of competence of employees based on the contribution of organizational factors to the efficiency of their organization.
    Introduction
    Managers and managers of each organization always pay attention to this important issue of how to increase the productivity of human resources available in the organization. The time, cost, and facilities that organizations use in this way are indicative of the importance of developing human resources and enhancing the capabilities of the organization. On the other hand, the life and dynamism of each organization requires constant and permanent innovation and change. But it can not be ignored that all of the foregoing only takes into account the fact that the pre-eligibility is observed in it. Competency is one of the most important elements and factors of productivity of organizations in today's competitive world (Hajiha, 2005).
    Case study
    the population of the present study was all men and women employees of Karaj municipality in 1394. The research sample comprised of 300 employees who were randomly selected by cluster sampling method.
    The municipality is considered to be the most complete public organization that adopts many city affairs by the City Council and provides significant municipal services to the citizens, since the efficiency of each organization depends on the level of employee productivity and function. It is an organizational feature that is dependent on it. Therefore, the necessity of this research can be considered in the share of each of the mentioned variables in increasing the competence of the employees of the municipality of Karaj. This research is based on the organizational competency model based on organizational factors to test the suitability of employees in a mammer.
    Materials and Method
    The method used in this study is a survey and correlation method. For data analysis, statistical analysis, descriptive analysis of data and inferential analysis of data including correlation coefficients and structural equation modeling (path analysis) were used. One of the strongest methods of multivariate analysis. The main application of this is the simultaneous analysis of multi-variable jobs with several variables. In analyzing the data, the data were first extracted from the questionnaires and then adjusted in the general information table, and then all the data were collected using a computer and through a soft Tools (Spss 20.01 and Lisle 8.7) were analyzed in two sections of descriptive and inferential methods. The statistical population of this research was all employees (men and women) of the city of Karaj, who were working in 2015. The sampling method used in this research is random. In this method, each community has equal chances to be selected. In the sample selection, all municipalities in the province of Alborz were first randomly selected from the municipalities of Karaj, and then from all the municipalities of Karaj, the central municipality district and area one was randomly selected. In the next stage, the subjects were randomly selected from different job titles and rankings.
    Discussion and
    conclusion
    The results of this study are based on the findings of an examination of each of the factors and factors affecting the competence of Karaj Municipality employees as follows:The regression model designed for variables of gender, age, knowledge and experience could not significantly change the competency. The results of this study showed that among the variables (components) entered into the regression model (emotional intelligence, creativity, job motivation and psychological empowerment), only psychological empowerment and emotional intelligence variables entered into the model and were able to explain the merits variation
    The results also showed that the organizational climate has been able to explain the merits.
    Concluusion
    However, due to the fact that several factors affect employee competence, the improvement of employees' competency requires the efforts and plans of the managers of the organizations. According to the results of the research, it is recommended to the managers of the municipality of Karaj:City administrators should strengthen group morale, team-building within their organization, and allow them to create a space for expanding group activities, while allowing them to control their work environment in their policies and decisions for the development and development of the organization. Strategic planning for the fulfillment of competencies will improve communication skills, leadership skills and professional skills, and encourage employees through their own capabilities
    Keywords: Competency, Personnel Competency, Organizational Factors. Efficiency
  • Fataneh Baharvand, Milad Gouran, Nour Mohammad Yaghoubi Pages 187-214
    One of the most important attributes of each organization to work in today's changing circumstances is to have people who are willing to participate in the organization's successful changes; that is, to show organizational citizenship behavior. Successful organizations are looking for employees who go beyond defined tasks and their performance is higher than expectations. The purpose of this study was investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The statistical population consisted of employees at Imam Khomeini hospital in Alashtar and the sample size was determined using Krejcie and Morgan table. The data were collected using standard questionnaires made by Podsakoff et al. as well as Bradbury and Greaves. In order to confirm the research model, structural equation model was used and for analyzing data, AMOS 20 and SPSS 18 software were applied. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence and OCB. Also, among the four components of emotional intelligence including self-management, social awareness, relationship management and self-awareness, the first three components are involved in predicting OCB.
    Introduction
    Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a unique, voluntary and extra-role behavior which is effective in increasing the organization performance and directly or indirectly organized by the official reward system of the organization (Danaei fard et al., 2011). Organizational citizenship behaviors are not evident in any circumstances, and some personal and organizational characteristics help to emerge and expose these behaviors (Rajab beigi et al., 2013). One of the factors that strongly affects each organizational behavior is "Emotional Intelligence". (Mohammad tabar et al., 2011). Emotional intelligence is related to the attitudes and behaviors of employees (Martinez, 1997). Health-related organizations have an important role in the social life, because their activities directly affect the lives and the property of individuals (Mahdad & Mahdizadegan, 2010). These organizations need employees who, in addition to fulfill their formal duties, provide extra-role behaviors; i.e., organizational citizenship behaviors (Rezaeian & Rahimi, 2008). considering the nature and importance of organizational citizenship behavior and emotional intelligence, we are going to evaluate the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior among the staff of Imam Khomeini Hospital in the city of Alashtar.
    Case study
    The statistical population of this research included all 84 employees of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Alashtar. Based on Karjesi and Morgan's tables, 74 people were selected as the statistical sample.
    Research
    Methods
    The main data collecting tool in this research is questionnaire. To measure emotional intelligence, the standard 28-question questionnaire made by Bradbury and Greaves was used. Podsakoff's standard questionnaire was applied to assess organizational citizenship behavior. To determine individuals' emotional intelligence, the mean value was calculated. Based on the equation approach and using AMOS software, research hypothesis and conceptual model were tested and evaluated.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The findings of evaluating the first hypothesis showed a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence and OCB. In this way, the main research hypothesis was accepted. Examining the second hypothesis, results showed that with a probability of 99%, there was a significant relationship between all components of emotional intelligence and OCB. In addition, research findings indicated that self-awareness does not play a role in predicting OCB. In analyzing this finding, it should be pointed out that as a psychological variable, emotional intelligence refers to the ability to recognize and manage ones and others' emotions. In this regard, part of this variable implies interpersonal relationships and social skills that play an important role in expressing citizenship behaviors. Therefore, employees with high emotional intelligence are more effective in work environments because they interact better; and the more emotional intelligence, the more expectation to show organizational citizenship behavior, especially in terms of partnership and altruism. Emotional intelligence may increase altruistic behavior, because it allows employees to recognize and understand their colleagues' feelings and consequently provide a more appropriate response.
    Conclusion
    Considering extra-role behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior as a psychological factor is so important in organizations like hospitals, which are service-oriented organizations with large amount of diverse activities. Creating an organizational citizenship behavior requires a culture based on common values. To do so, managers in hospitals need to have employees' involvement in developing organizational policies and orientations. According to the fact that components such as relationship management, self-management, and social awareness were determined as suitable predictors for OCB in this study, it is suggested to pay more attention and emphasis on these components to enhance citizenship behavior in the case study
    Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Citizenship Behavior
  • Ahmad Reza Sargolzehi, Mohammad Nabi Shahiki Tash, Safieh Kordsangani Pages 215-241
    One of the most important goals of business managers is to maximize the efficiency by the use of the available resources and achieve higher levels of productivity. Research and development departments are generally concerned with activities such as products quality improvement, new products design, procedures optimization, technology transfer and absorption, and gaining technical knowledge for production, all in the interests of industry owners, all of which lead to the total factor productivity (TFP). This paper studied total factor productivity based on stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) in 131 industries from 1995 to 2010, and it also investigated the effectiveness of research and development, alongside other factors, on productivity. The results indicated that the highest total factor productivity during this period belonged to the industry of manufacturing motor vehicles parts and accessories with the productivity of 1.53 and the lowest belonged to the production of basic chemical materials except fertilizers and nitrogen compounds with the productivity of 0.98. During this period, the industry of manufacturing basic plastic materials and artificial rubber demonstrated the highest technical progress with 1.21 growth. Moreover, the estimation of total factor productivity model indicated that research and development, human capital, economics of scale, physical capital accumulation, private ownership of enterprises, industry export and the severity of barriers to entry have explained the process of the productivity growth during the period of study. Based on the findings of the estimated model, all variables except the severity of barriers to entry have had a positive effect on productivity.

    Introduction
    The concept of productivity has been ignored in our country due to various reasons including lack of a proper approach towards productivity in the society. Part of every development plan must be dedicated to research. With respect to the concept of productivity, the measures taken must be of use and properly selected. Moreover, they must be done in the best way possible. Accordingly, fulfilling these two conditions will ensure productivity.
    Despite their close relationship, the concepts of efficiency and productivity are different from each other. Efficiency is concerned with the comparison of the real amount (value) of a product and its potential amount (value). In contrast, productivity can be considered as the relative efficiency. In other words, efficiency is a part of productivity.
    In the fifth development plan, by virtue of article 69, the competitiveness of economics and increasing the contribution of total factor productivity to the economic growth are being emphasized, and by the end of the plan, the ratio of productivity to the total economic growth must be achieved to be one third. The purpose of this study was to measure the total factor productivity in 131 industries bearing Iran’s four-digit ISIC code, from 1995 to 2010, using SFA method. Moreover, this paper studied the effectiveness of research and development as an important variable on productivity, along which the effects of other variables on productivity will also be assessed.
    Research
    Method
    There are various approaches concerning the measurement of productivity, in some of which indexing must be done, in some the production function must be used, and in others both methods are employed. Methods based on econometric estimation are the same methods based on production or cost function. Methods which employ indexing are non-parametric methods.
    The method employed for the analysis of productivity in this study was based on econometric estimation of the production function. The purpose is to establish a mathematical relationship for the output dependence on the input. Economists do this by combing economic and mathematical theories. One of the best criteria for evaluating the performance of an industry is to evaluate the efficiency frontier in the industry which was introduced by Battese and Coelli (1995). Therefore, in this study, the technical efficiency of industries have been measured using stochastic frontier production function based on the model proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995).
    Findings
    According to the statistics of 2010, the industries of body manufacturing (coachwork) for motor vehicles and trailer and half-trailer manufacturing had the highest R & D and the industry of toy manufacturing had the lowest R & D. Industries which are capital-intensive experienced more R & D while those which are labor-intensive had lower R & D.
    The results of frontier translog functions at the average data level from 1995 to 2010 indicate that the average rate of technical growth in Iran’s industry was 0.77. It is also demonstrated that the Iranian industries, on average, display increasing returns to scale. The findings are also indicative of the fact that the average growth of TFP during the studied period was 1.28 and the industry of motor vehicle parts and accessories has the highest TFP growth at 1.53 among all Iranian factory industries.
    Theoretically, it is assumed that the advance of technology is the driving force of the economic growth and TFP growth. Based on the findings of the current study, the coefficient for the ownership share of the private sector in the industry was calculated to be 0.54 which indicated that the more the ownership share of the private sector in the industry, the more the productivity of the industry. In other words, for one percent increase in the private sector ownership share, the efficiency increases up to 0.54%. Moreover, the coefficient for the exports in the industry was estimated to be 0.22 which also indicated that one percent increase in the industrial exports increased the industry productivity up to 0.22%.
    The human capital coefficient was obtained to be 0.834 which signified that one percent increase in the specialized human capital in the industry resulted in the increase of the productivity in the industry up to 0.83.
    The costs of research and development has been mentioned as one of the resources for the increase of productivity in all theoretical discussions. The findings of this model showed a significant positive effect of the average R & D cost accumulation on TFP, in which the increase coefficient of R & D cost accumulation for the industry is 0.039 % which increases productivity just as much. Other experimental studies have also confirmed this finding.
    The CDR change coefficient is significant and negative. The coefficient is 0.059 which indicates that if the severity of barriers to entry increases for one percent, the industry productivity decreases for 0.059%.
    Conclusion and Suggestions
    The gap between the technical efficiency levels of industrial fields of activity and the best performance in Iran’s factory industries emphasizes the need for more studies to be conducted on the causes of such a gap. Moreover, it is required that studies be conducted concerning the productivity growth rate of Iran’s factory industries using indices such as Malmquist and Tornquist.
    The following suggestions can be made based on the findings of the study in order to improve the efficiency of Iran’s factory industries. The structure of the industries must change so that optimal use is made of all input factors and this will lead to the economics of scale in the long run. Every year, industrial fields of activities must be compared and graded with respect to their efficiency and productivity so that the efficient industries are identified and accordingly supported by the government.
    The Iranian industries must consider foreign markets as their target; this provides the opportunity for the increase of the production scale of the enterprises and enables them to benefit from the advantages of the economics of scale in terms of the decrease of average costs and price reduction.
    In order to reduce monopoly and increase competition and productivity in the industries, it is suggested that the removal of such barriers particularly for the small industries is put on the agenda so that a competitive atmosphere is established and the social welfare is improved. It is also recommended that structural reforms and deregulation be done in order to make use of the commercial opportunities to support the industries and provide the opportunity for the increase of production and export
    Keywords: research, development, production factors productivity, stochastic frontier function, Iran’s factory industries
  • zahra Shokoh, Amin Nikpour Pages 243-266

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior with respect to the role of mediating job motivation among employees of Kerman welfare organization. The survey population included 321 employees of the welfare organization of Kerman that 210 of whom were selected as sample size. The tools used to collect the data are authentic leadership questionnaire of Avolio et al. ( 2007), organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire of Podsakoff et al. (1990) and job motivation questionnaire of Alderfer et al. (1969). Structural equations modeling is used to analyze the data and the software used is SPSS and LISREL. Regarding the final model, it can be said that the authentic leadership with a coefficient of 0.341 has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior and employees' job motivation has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior with a path coefficient of 0.279. Also, the role of mediator of employee's job motivation in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior was confirmed.
    Introduction
    Studies have shown that one of the methods to encourage employees to be involved in extra-role behavior and perform organizational citizenship behavior is through strengthening the quality of organizational leadership. In this regard, one of the newest approaches in organizational leadership is theory of Authentic Leadership which can be used as a solution for the current leadership challenges (Toor and Ofori, 2008). The Authentic leaders show their thoughts and behaviors to the employees with their openness and clarity and honesty, and encourage employees to involve in extra-role behavior by building trust in the organization and by showing altruistic behaviors (Rego et al., 2012). Therefore, the authentic leadership style can be one of the methods to encourage employees to perform voluntary behaviors, including organizational citizenship behavior.
    Studies have also shown that authentic leaders motivate their employees by providing an environment in which the ideas are exchanged freely and this will lead to better performance (Luthans and Avolio, 2003).
    On the other hand, one of the other effective factors on organizational citizenship behavior is employees’ work motivation. Studies have shown that work motivation can be used as a valuable tool to understand the causes of behavior in organizations and to predict the effects of managerial actions (Moradi et al., 2015).
    Therefore, it can be said that the authentic leaders can provide some conditions for happening the extra-role and voluntary behavior including organizational Citizenship Behavior by increasing the employee's work motivation.
    According to the above mentioned issues, the main question is whether the employee's work motivation plays a mediating role in the relationship between Authentic Leadership and organizational citizenship behavior?
    Materials and Methods
    The present applied study is descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of this study consisted of 321 employees of Welfare Organization of Kerman. Structural equation modeling was used in this study; therefore, 210 samples were selected by random sampling. And different questionnaires were used to collect data. Avolio et al.'s 16-item questionnaire (2001) which included four aspects of self-awareness, balanced processing of information, internalized moral perspective, and transparency in the relations was used to measure authentic leadership, Alderfer's 15-item ERG questionnaire (1996) which included variety of skills, job identity, job importance, job independence and job feedback was used to measure work motivation and finally, podsakoff et al.’s 15 item organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire (1990) which included altruism, responsibility, chivalry, civic virtue, and respect and reverence. Structural equation modeling was also used to analyze the data by using SPSS and LISREL software.

    Results
    The results showed the positive and significant effect of authentic leadership on organizational citizenship behavior (0.314) and work motivation (0.655) and also positive and significant effect of work motivation on organizational citizenship behavior (0.297).
    The results also showed that Authentic Leadership can influence Organizational Citizenship Behavior both directly and indirectly through employee's work motivation. The value of direct effect and indirect effect through work motivation equals to 0.341 and 0.194, respectively. Based on the calculations, the significant value was 0.002 for examining the medicator role of work motivation by using Bootstrap method. Therefore, the effect of mediating role of work motivation on the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior was confirmed. (In the Boot strap method, if the significance level is less than 0.05, the role of the mediator is also confirmed).
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    In this study, Authentic Leadership, employee's work motivation and organizational citizenship behavior were explained theoretically and then tested. In fact, the present study tried to examine the possibility of influence and determine the probable impact of authentic leadership on organizational citizenship behavior in regard to employee's motivation in employees of Welfare Organization of Kerman. The results of analysis also showed that Authentic Leadership can have positive influence on Organizational Citizenship Behavior both directly and indirectly through employee's work motivation. The value of direct effect and indirect effect through work motivation equals to 0.341 and 0.194, respectively
    Keywords: Authentic Leadership, Job Motivation, Organizational Citizenship Behavior