فهرست مطالب

پژوهشنامه ادب غنایی - پیاپی 32 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • پیاپی 32 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • حسین اتحادی، محمود عباسی*، عبدالعلی اویسی کهخا صفحات 9-32
    سنجر کاشانی یکی از شاعران قرن یازدهم است که در هند از شهرت و اعتبار زیادی برخوردار بوده و همچون دیگر شاعران سبک هندی به صورخیال رویکرد ویژه ای داشته است. در این تحقیق تشبیه به عنوان عنصر اصلی و سازنده تصویر در شعر وی، بر اساس روش تحلیلی-توصیفی نقد و بررسی شده است. سنجر درمجموع 1492 بار در 5506 بیت، برای ارائه مضامین مورد نظرش از تشبیه بهره برده است. از مجموع تشبی هات به کار رفته، 797 مورد تشبیه بلیغ است که تاثیر زیادی در بلاغت و غنای تصاویر داشته است. وی در ساخت تشبیه از اشیاء، ابزار، امور ذهنی، انسان و اعضا و متعلقات وی، بیشترین الهام را گرفته و علاقه زیادی به همراه کردن تشبی هاتش با برخی از شگردهای خیال انگیز همچون استعاره، کنایه و اغراق داشته است. با این وجود، پیچیدگی و ابهام چندانی در ساختار تشبی هات دیوانش دیده نمی شود. سخنور کاشانی در موارد متعددی موفق شده است تا با واردکردن عنصری تازه در تشبی هات آشنا و تثبیت شده شعر فارسی، به گونه ای از آن ها آشنایی زدایی کند و موجب غرابت و تازگی آن ها شود. افزون بر این، تشبی هات تازه متعددی در مجموعه تصاویر وی به کار رفته است. هرچند در پاره ای موارد می توان مایه هایی از پویایی و تحرک را در ساختار تشبی هات مشاهده کرد؛ اما درمجموع تشبی هات، تصاویری ساکن و ایستا هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: سنجر کاشانی، تشبیه، آرایش تشبیه، تراکم تصویر، زاویه تشبیه
  • لیلا امیری، محمدحسین کرمی* صفحات 33-48
    با توجه به مصرع «یک عمر می توان سخن از زلف یار گفت»، صائب واژه «زلف» را به عنوان نمونه ای برای مضمون سازی انتخاب کرده است؛ اما آیا این واژه در سخن او، اهمیت و جایگاه والایی داشته است؟ این مقاله بر آن است تا کارکردهای واژه زلف را در غزلیات صائب تبریزی با روش تحقیق کیفی، از نوع تحلیلی- توصیفی و شیوه متن پژوهی بررسی کند. صائب حدودا در دو هزار بیت از زلف سخن گفته است. در بیشتر موارد واژه های سازنده بیت، با وابسته ها و مانندگی های زلف در همان بیت، مرتبط و در هم تنیده است و صائب در ضمن استفاده از مشبه به های ابداعی همچون «ره خوابیده»، «رشته گلدسته»، «کوچه باغ» و «مصرع برای زلف»، شبکه های تصویری زوجی متنوعی از آن در کنار «شانه»، «خط»، «حسن» و «چانه» آفریده است؛ از جمله صفات زلف از نگاه صائب می توان به «افتادگی»، «سرگرانی»، «دستگیری»، «دل شکنی» و «طراری» آن اشاره کرد. علاوه بر سلیقه شخصی صائب، ذائقه معمول عصر و ضوابط مسلط بر طریقه رایج هندی، در برجستگی کارکردهای واژه زلف در غزلیات شاعر نقش داشته است. نتایج نشان می دهد صائب این مصراع را با اندیشه و آگاهی سروده و این واژه، از واژه های مهم و کلیدی غزلیات اوست.
    کلیدواژگان: پیوندهای واژگانی، تصویرسازی، صائب تبریزی، مشبه به های ابداعی، مضمون آفرینی های زلف
  • شهریار باقرآبادی*، یحیی معروف صفحات 49-70
    جبران خلیل جبران و سهراب سپهری، از جمله شاعران نام آور ادب عربی و فارسی هستند که از دریچه نگاه تجریدی و در فضای سیال رمانتیکی، با وام گیری از عناصر و نمادهای دینی، بسیاری از اندیشه های خود را در قالبی رازگونه به مخاطب ارائه کرده اند. به یاری همین موهبت، زبان شعر این دو سرایشگر، نقطه تلاقی خیال رمانتیکی و رازورزی سمبولیک است. آن ها توفیق یافته اند تا در برخی از آثار خود، تصویری از جهان متافیزیک ذهن خود را با مدد حقایق و فرهنگ دینی پیرامون، تصویر و ترسیم کنند؛ از این رو در سروده های این دو شاعر، عناصر سمبولیک از ادیان مختلف آسمانی اسلام و مسیحیت و حتی باورهای مقدس عرفان شرقی چون بوداییسم، حضور دارد. این پژوهش به شیوه ای توصیفی-تحلیلی، درصدد پاسخ به این پرسش بوده است که جبران خلیل جبران و سهراب سپهری، چگونه عناصر و نمادهای مقدس و دینی را درجهت غنای معنا، در جزر و مد سروده هایشان به خدمت گرفته اند؟ ره آورد نهایی پژوهش حاضر بیانگر تاثیر بی بدیل نگاه دینی بر عواطف دو شاعر است؛ به گونه ای که در بسیاری از اشعار آن ها، حضور نمادهای دینی، سروده هایشان را جولانگاه طرح عقاید و باورهای خاص تاریخ بشری کرده است. علاوه بر این، سهراب سپهری به شکلی ژرف تر از جبران، متاثر از آیین عرفانی شرق دور بوده است؛ در حالی که اشعار نثرگونه جبران بیشتر ملهم از مسیحیت، تفکرات نوین غربی و تعالیم اسلامی است.
    کلیدواژگان: جبران خلیل جبران، سهراب سپهری، شعر معاصر عرب، شعر معاصر فارسی، نماد دینی
  • ناهید جعفری* صفحات 71-84
    در ادبیات ملل آثار فراوانی را می توان یافت که در آن ها عشق، آن هم از نوع ناپاک و ممنوعش، موضوع و محور اصلی داستان ها باشد. داستان «سودابه و سیاوش» از حکیم توس و رمانس «تریستان و ایزوت»، نوشته ژوزف بدیه فرانسوی، از جمله آن آثار است. این دو اثر دارای همسانی ها و ناهمسانی های بسیاری با یکدیگرند که هر دو اثر منظوم و منثور را با یکدیگر قابل قیاس و انطباق می سازند. این مقاله به منظور بررسی و شناخت وجوه اشتراک و افتراق دو اثر، انجام شده است. نوع پژوهش، تحلیلی- توصیفی و براساس کتب و اسناد معتبر کتابخانه ای بوده است. نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد که شباهت اساسی هر دو روایت در آن است که دختری جوان با پادشاهی پیر ازدواج می کند و پس از مدتی میان شه بانو و یکی از خویشاوندان شوهر که در داستان سودابه و سیاوش، «پسر شوهر» و در تریستان و ایزوت، «خواهرزاده شوهر» مطرح است، عشقی ممنوع آغاز می شود و در پایان هر دو روایت مرگ قهرمانان را به همراه دارد؛ تفاوت اصلی نیز در آن است که در روایت فردوسی عشق شه بانو به سیاوش یک طرفه، اما در داستان تریستان و ایزوت این عشق دو سویه است.
    کلیدواژگان: عاشقانه حماسی، عشق، سیاوش و سودابه، تریستان و ایزوت
  • فاطمه جمشیدی*، وصال میمندی صفحات 85-102
    موسیقی به عنوان یک عنصر اصلی در شکل گیری و ساختار شعر، پیوند تنگاتنگی با عاطفه و خیال شاعر و اغراض وی دارد. شاعر توانمند با بهره گیری از دانش زبانی و نیز با گزینش موسیقی متناسب با عاطفه خود، ارزش ادبی و میزان تاثیرگذاری شعر خود را افزایش می دهد؛ از این رو می توان گفت لایه های آوایی شعر به خوبی معنا، تخیل و عاطفه نهفته در شعر را به مخاطب منتقل می کند و باعث انسجام و هماهنگی معنوی در شعر می شود. در این پژوهش که با روش تحلیلی توصیفی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است، پس از نگاهی به زندگی «علی فوده» (1982-1946م) شاعر معاصر فلسطین و بیان دیدگاه های ناقدان ادبی در باب موسیقی شعر و اقسام آن، رابطه میان سطوح موسیقایی شعر با عاطفه و اغراض این شاعر در سروده «فلسطینی کحد السیف» واکاوی شده است. مهم ترین دستاورد این پژوهش، تناسب کامل موسیقایی سروده مورد بحث با مضامین و عواطف شاعرانه حاکم بر آن است که خود را در سطوح سه گانه موسیقی بیرونی، کناری و درونی نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: شعر معاصر فلسطین، موسیقی شعر، علی فوده، قصیده «فلسطینی کحد السیف»
  • مریم درپر* صفحات 103-120
    پژوهش حاضر، گشودن ابهام ساختاری بوف کور را ازطریق روایت کوتاه عاشقانه ای مورد توجه قرار می دهد که دارای دو موقعیت است و در هر موقعیت یک کنش به انجام می رسد؛ کنش موقعیت نخست عبارت است از اینکه پیرمرد قوزکرده ای انگشت سبابه دست چپش را به حالت تعجب بر روی لبش گذاشته است و در موقعیت دوم، دختری خم شده و گل نیلوفری را به پیرمرد تعارف می کند. با این دو موقعیت، مناسک عشقی به نمایش گذاشته شده و ارجاع سازی صحنه عاشقانه به جهان بیرون بر ناکامی دلالت دارد. در متن بوف کور از روایت مذکور با عنوان مجلس بر روی قلمدان یاد شده و این مجلس نقاشی در پژوهش حاضر، «نقش روایت» نامیده می شود. نگارنده، تبیین نقش روایت را با طرح این پرسش ها که نقش روایت چیست، چه ویژگی های برجسته ای دارد و نقش روایت بوف کور چگونه در گشودن ابهام ساختاری روایت اصلی اثرگذار است، مورد توجه قرار می دهد. هدف پژوهش این است که مفهوم برجسته عشق را در این نقش روایت ازطریق نظام دیداری و برمبنای شکل زایی تجسمی نشان دهد و این نقش روایت عاشقانه را به عنوان ابزاری معرفی کند که گره روایت بوف کور با توجه به عناصر آن باز می شود. برپایه مطالعه انجام شده در پژوهش حاضر، می توان به این تعریف از نقش روایت رسید: روایت تصویری موجز و فشرده که روایت اصلی، صورت گسترش یافته آن است و در آن عناصری مانند نور، رنگ، فضا، مکان، عمق، سطح، حالت و... که ویژگی های برجسته متون دیداری هستند، در یک کادر مشخص با ابزار واژه قاب بندی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: نقش روایت، تجسم دیداری، عناصر روایی، درون مایه عاشقانه، بوف کور
  • مریم رحمانی، محمد فولادی* صفحات 121-134
    نظامی گنجه ای ازجمله منظومه سرایان برجسته ادبیات فارسی است که تاثیر شیوه داستان سرایی اش بر شاعران پس از او کاملا مشهود است. هفت پیکر نظامی گنجه ای، چهارمین اثر برجسته اوست. وی در این اثر ازطریق داستانک های رمزی، سیر اعتلایی انسان را در قالب داستان بیان می کند. «سفر» یکی از مضمون های رایج در داستان های عرفانی است که در آن سالک طی مناسکی با خلع لباس بشری، از حضیض نفس به اوج قطب نورانی اش دست می یابد. گنبد سیاه اولین داستان برجسته این اثر ادبی است که در این داستان، سالک در پی یافتن علت سیاه پوشی مسافر سیاه پوش، مشتهیات دنیوی را رها می کند و برای دریافت پاسخ سوال خود، سفری را آغاز کند. البته این سفر برخلاف پژوهش های پیشین، نه تنها نقشی در سقوط شخصیتی او ندارد، بلکه سالک با صعود به آسمان به دیدار معشوق ازلی نائل می شود؛ بنابراین این ضرورت ایجاب می کند تا ضمن اشاره به سیر اعتلایی سالک در این سفر، به روش تحلیلی و تفسیر داستان براساس مبانی عرفانی، به چگونگی دست یابی او به این مقامات و دلیل اصلی سیاه پوشی مردم شهر مدهوشان پاسخ دهیم.
    کلیدواژگان: نظامی گنجه ای، هفت پیکر، سیر و سلوک، سیر استعلایی، مکاشفه
  • رمضان رضایی* صفحات 135-158
    یکی از اقسام شعر غنایی، حبسیه یا زندان نامه است که بیشتر اجزایش را شکایت و حسب حال تشکیل می دهد. این نوع شعر بیانگر غم و اندوه و رنج های بی پایانی است که در محیط زندان نصیب زندانی شده است. برخی از شاعرانی که مرارت حبس را چشیده اند، موضوع بعضی از اشعار خود را نیز به زندان نامه اختصاص داده اند. این موضوع در ادبیات قدیم و جدید فارسی و عربی به نحو مطلوبی منعکس شده است. بهار و صافی در دوره معاصر دو نمونه برجسته برای معرفی در این زمینه هستند. مقایسه نگاه این دو شاعر و نیز اوضاع اجتماعی و سیاسی همسان در ایران و عراق، ضرورت این پژوهش را نشان می دهد. نوشتار پیش رو سعی دارد با استفاده از شیوه توصیفی- تحلیلی و براساس مکتب آمریکایی ادبیات تطبیقی، وجوه مشترک حبسیات بهار و صافی نجفی را تبیین کند. یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که هر دو شاعر موضوعات مشترکی مثل علت به بند کشیده شدن، توصیف بند زندان، توصیف زندانبان، صبر در تحمل بند و استعطاف یا پوزش نامه را در اشعار خود به تصویر کشیده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: حبسیه، زندان، ادبیات تطبیقی، ملک الشعرای بهار، احمد صافی نجفی
  • ابراهیم کنعانی* صفحات 159-176
    کمال خجندی، شاعر شیرین سخن سبک عراقی و یکی از درخشان ترین چهره های غزلی شعر فارسی است. یکی از گونه های گفتمانی که در غزل های کمال کاربرد گسترده ای دارد، گفتمان شناختی است. در گفتمان شناختی، فرایند کنشی در تعامل با فرایند شوشی ایفای نقش می کند و به همین دلیل، شناخت به گونه ای باز، متکثر و پویا تبدیل می شود. یکی از مباحثی که در گفتمان شناختی مطرح می شود، گسست و پیوست گفتمانی است. در فرایند گسست و پیوست، من شناختی کنشگر با من پدیداری و استعلایی او مرتبط می شود؛ حال زمانی در ارتباط با نه حال زمانی و مکان گفته پردازی در ارتباط با نه مکان گفته ای قرار می گیرد. در مقاله حاضر، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، گفتمان شناختی و فرایند گسست و پیوست گفتمانی در غزل های کمال خجندی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار می گیرد. پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است که فرایند گسست و پیوست گفتمانی چگونه در غزل کمال تحقق پیدا می کند و از این طریق چه معنایی تولید می شود. در فرایند گسست و پیوست در غزل کمال، شاهد تعامل دوسویه فضای گفته پردازی و فضای گفته ای، یا دنیای گفته پرداز و گفته خوان هستیم. با وجود این، ساختار غالب گفتمان از آن گسست است و پیوست های گفتمانی نیز در خدمت گسست گفتمانی قرار می گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: کمال خجندی، گفتمان، شناختی، شوشی، گسست و پیوست
  • اعظم گله داری، سیدجعفر حمیدی*، شمس الحاجیه اردلانی صفحات 177-196
    شاعران همواره تلاش کرده اند تا با به کارگیری عناصر ادبی، مفهوم موردنظر خود را به شکلی آراسته و موثر به مخاطب منتقل کنند. یکی از عناصری که همواره در شعر -چه سنتی و چه نو- مورد توجه شاعران بوده، عنصر تکرار است. در این جستار سعی شده است کارکرد عنصر تکرار، که محور اساسی موسیقی درونی است، در شعر جاویدنامه اقبال لاهوری بررسی شود. این پژوهش در پی پاسخ به این سوال است که شاعر به چه شیوه از این صنعت استفاده کرده و تا چه حد در استفاده از آن درجهت انتقال مفهوم مورد نظر خویش موفق بوده است؟ شیوه پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه جمع آوری داده ها کتابخانه ای است. در این پژوهش با تقسیم تکرار به دو نوع مرئی و نامرئی به بررسی نمودهای این دو شیوه و نیز کارکرد آن در شعر اقبال لاهوری پرداخته شده است. ازجمله کارکردهای برجسته تکرار در جاویدنامه، تاثیر این عنصر در تقویت موسیقی درونی و غنای آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: اقبال لاهوری، تکرار، جاویدنامه، موسیقی درونی
  • علیرضا محمودی*، رشید دامیار صفحات 197-216
    گستره زبان و ادب فارسی تنها به کشور ایران محدود نمی شود. چه بسا شاعران پارسی گویی که در دیگر کشور های فارسی زبان جهان، هنوز دل به این زبان شیرین بسته و آتش شوق سرایش اشعار ناب فارسی از وجودشان زبانه می کشد. خلیل الله خلیلی از جمله شاعران برجسته دوره معاصر افغانستان است که عشق و علاقه مندی وی به زبان فارسی، همواره او را به سرودن اشعار زیبا و در عین حال پرمخاطب واداشته است. در این پژوهش که با هدف شناخت هرچه بهتر ویژگی های شعر معاصر فارسی در کشور افغانستان صورت پذیرفته، تلاش شده است تا به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی، اشعار این شاعر از حیث فراهنجاری در هشت سطح معنایی، دستوری، آوایی، زمانی، واژگانی، نوشتاری، سبکی و گویشی بررسی شود. بررسی های به عمل آمده نشان دهنده این موضوع است که خلیل الله خلیلی در سرودن اشعار خود از انواع گوناگون فراهنجاری بهره برده است که در این بین سهم فراهنجاری های معنایی و زمانی بیش تر از سایر موارد است.
    کلیدواژگان: آشنایی زدایی، خلیل الله خلیلی، هنجارگریزی، شعر فارسی
  • حسین مهتدی* صفحات 217-236
    فهد العسکر شاعر معاصر کویتی، از شاعران دردآشنای کشورهای عربی حاشیه خلیج فارس است. اشعار شاعر بیانگر دردهای شخصی و اجتماعی اوست. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی موضوع درد و رنج در اشعار شاعر در حوزه های وجودشناسی، غایت شناسی، وظیفه شناسی و علل درد و رنج می پردازد. نگارنده در این مقاله بر آن است تا به این سوال پاسخ دهد که مهم ترین دردهای گریزپذیر و گریزناپذیر فهد العسکر چیست و علل آن کدام است؟ آنچه به عنوان فرضیه مطرح می شود این است که دردهای گریزناپذیر شاعر بیشتر از زمره دردهای شخصی و دردهای گریزپذیر او بیشتر از نوع دردهای اجتماعی است. مهم ترین هدف این مقاله، بررسی ماهیت و مفهوم دردهای شاعر به منظور آشنایی با مشکلات و اوضاع جامعه اوست. از منظر وظیفه شناسی، شاعر برای انسان دردمند وظایفی را بیان می کند؛ گاه صبر و شکیبایی و توکل بر خدا و گاه نیز بازگشت به دین، اتحاد و داشتن روحیه امیدواری را وظیفه انسان دردمند می داند. در زمینه علل درد و رنج نیز شاعر مهم ترین علل درد و رنج بشری را گناه و دوری از فرمان خدا، تعلق خاطر، محرومیت از حقوق طبیعی و حقوق بشر و نگاه به گذشته یا اینجایی و اکنونی نزیستن می داند. در این پژوهش نگارنده با استفاده از روش استقرایی و توصیفی- تحلیلی به بررسی وجودشناسی و غایت شناسی و وظیفه شناسی و علل درد و رنج در اشعار فهد العسکر می پردازد.
    کلیدواژگان: درد و رنج، شعر معاصر عرب، شعر معاصر کویت، فهد العسکر
  • بتول مهدوی*، قدسیه رضوانیان، هدیه کثیری صفحات 237-260
    مکتب رمانتیسیسم در اواخر قرن هجدهم در اروپا و در برابر مکتب عقل گرای کلاسیسیم به وجود آمد. این مکتب زمینه های گوناگونی مانند ادبیات، فلسفه، علوم اجتماعی، سیاسی، هنر و... را دربرمی گیرد. اوج رمانتیسم، در اروپای قرن نوزدهم بود؛ اما بعد ها به سرتاسر جهان رسید و کشورهای دیگری را تحت تاثیر قرار داد. ایران نیز مانند سایر کشورها تحت تاثیر این مکتب قرار گرفت. محققان برآنند که رمانتیسم در ادبیات معاصر ایران با «ایده آل» عشقی و «افسانه» نیمایوشیج آغاز شد. بعدها شاعران دیگری تحت تاثیر این مکتب شعر سرودند. فردگرایی و توجه به هویت فرد، از تاثیرهای رمانتیسم بر جهان مدرن است. اتوبیوگرافی یا خودزندگی نامه، نوشته ای است که نویسنده از ذهن و زندگی شخصی خود حکایت می کند. امیری فیروزکوهی، از شاعران سنت گرای معاصر است که در انواع قالب ها شعر سروده است و اغلب شعرهای وی نیز روایتی از زندگی شخصی و هنری و به تعبیری حسب حال اوست که ماهیتی رمانتیکی دارد و سرشار است از احساس درد، غم، رنج، اندوه، نا امیدی و... . این جستار به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده است. از جمله نتایج این پژوهش می توان به جلوه هایی از رمانتیسم، همچون احساس گرایی، طبیعت گرایی، نوستالژی، میل به سفر و... در اشعار زندگی نامه ای امیری فیروزکوهی و همچنین وجود تصویرهای رمانتیکی در شعرهای اتوبیوگرافیک او اشاره کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: رمانتیسم، اتوبیوگرافی، رمانتیسم اتوبیوگرافیک (شرح حالی)، امیری فیروزکوهی
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  • Hossein Ettehadi, Mahmoud Abbasi *, Abdolali Oveisi Pages 9-32
    Introduction
    Rhetoric is the knowledge dealing with different ways of expressing meaning. Simile is one of the techniques of it. Various definitions of simile have been offered that all of them are based on the notion that simile indicates the affinity between two things or persons. Particularly, it is said “simile in rhetoric means showing the similarity of one thing with another thing in sense” (Erfan, 1395: p. 46). Simile is regarded as the most significant element in reflecting experiences, beliefs, and thoughts of a rhetorician. Hence, it is considered as the commonest literary figure because it is “the core of most of poetic imaginings. The different types of simile found their origin in similarity that imagination discovers and expresses in various forms” (Pornamdaran, 1390: p. 214).
    Simile assists a poet to make the abstract concrete through looking at tangible phenomena from fresh angles. A major part of discussion concerning simile turns round the point of similarity, a common feature that establishes the similarity between two things. The best type of simile shows the most amount of affinity between the two sides.
    There is scanty biographical information about Sanjar Kashani. In Tazkareh Riyaz Ashoara, Aligholikhan says “ he was an artist of his time, came to India, and prospered (p. 666). Amin Ahmadrazi believes that “in his speech and poetry he surpassed his father” (p. 1032). Sanjar died when he was returning to Iran after being summoned by Shah Abbas.
    Methodology
    To approach Sanjar’s poetic style, this study investigates all the similes employed in his collection of poems. This study is done in a descriptive-analytic method.
    Discussion
    Sanjar was so interested in using simile with other literary figures. It causes the reader to discover the claimed similarities and to enjoy fully the artistic pleasure in his poems. In addition to simile, Sanjar uses irony, metaphor, syllepsis. It is required to note that every new simile can be used in one of the two ways in a literary work. First, reintroduction of stereotypical similes. Second, creation of new similes by the poet himself. There is no doubt that the second type of similes are more valuable.
    Conclusion
    Snajar Kashani was a great poet o Indian Style in eleventh century who employed plenty of similes in his poetry. There is a wide range of things compared in his similes. He was inclined to use to choose abstract ideas, human beings, and their parts of their bodies as his tenors. His vehicles mostly include objects, tools, and natural phenomena. More than half of his similes are structurally eloquent and they have major role in the richness on images in his poetry. Though Sanjar associates simile with other literary figures and it has caused compression of literary images, it has not led to vagueness and ambiguity in his poems. Some of the methods for using similes are personalized by Sanjar and he connects them by symmetry. Besides, Sanjar had special interest in in words such as “grass” and “store” and has created many similes using these terms. He also defamiliriazes some of common similes by adding a new element to them. It must be noted that the images offered by his similes are mostly static and fixed.
    Keywords: SanjarKashani, Simile, Decoration of Simile, Conflict of Image, Angle of Simile, Simile materials
  • Leila Amiri, Mohammadhosein Karami * Pages 33-48
    Perface
    Undoubtedly, Saeb Tabrizi is one of the greatest Theme-maker and Punctilious poets in Persian poetry and his detailed and diverse themes of his poetry show that he has been poetic in all the phenomena and affairs of existence, The reason for the various, narrow, and fresh themes of his poetry is waved. This has led Saeb to play the most important role in Indian style and even some say that Indian style is Saeb style. Some sources have described him as the hero of Indian style (Ensani, quoted from Saeb, 2000: 34) and (Ehteshami Honegani, 1989: 14).
    Mirza Mohammad Ali Saeb Tabrizi is the greatest sonnets poet composing of Gazal of the eleventh century. By creating his own style of poetry, he created impeccable imagery in the style of Indian style, found neat themes, introduced allegory and Hosne- talil into a new way, and linked poetry with morality and mysticism and life (Anwari; quoted from Saeb, 2005: 23).
    The following verse was written by Saeb in response to those who claimed to have said all the words, and there was no longer any word left to say, and it was similar to the other.
    One life can be said about Zolf Yar/ Do not leave the subject intact (Saeb Tabrizi 1988: 2/974) 
    Research Methodology
    In this Article, we have tried to investigate the functions of “Zulf's” words in Saeb Tabrizi's sonnets in terms of lexical, inventive Moshabbehon- be, and various images. Qualitative research method is of analytical-descriptive type and method of text-research. Saeb has spoken in nearly two thousand verses of Zulf. 
    Discusse
    Zulf means the front of the hair and sometimes it is considered as the Giso “long hair”. Iranian pronounce “Zulf” with “U” which means the few hair around and if especially belongs to beloved and its because of its black hair.  (quoted from Dehkhoda; with tablature). From Zulf and its descriptions, such as twist, restlessness, distress, black and trap, are used to describe the beauty of the beloved. Saeb has selected some features for “Zulf” that have made it a pleasant and attractive one. It is worth noting that Saeb has chosen new attributes for his newly-minded minds and tales of Indian style and delicacies in relation to the poets before Zulf. If  Zulf had already been black before, it become black hair now .If he had been disturbed before Zulf, it had become irritable now. Of course, it should not be overlooked that. Sa'eb, along with the attributes of perfection, sedition, seduction and infidelity, has included completely new features such as life-giving water, pride, robber, and enhantment for Zulf. The word Zulf as an element that has been irrefutable in the beloved beauty of Persian literature, has been repeatedly revealed by Saeb's poetry with its lexical power and extensive semantic load. Saeb was aware of the abilities of the Persian language and the lexical capacities of this language, and "with his special art in a verse, he has put all the words in a special order "(Hasanli, 2004: 117). The active and searcher mind of Saeb, by invoking any term or phrase, have pursued a series of other words and phrases that have had lexical proportions and links in different directions. The relations that have come about in terms of art, the combination of meaning and the resurrection of the word. In his alternative word-of-mouth method, he has used the capacity of word placement in the chain of words, and the components of his biases have obvious and secret connections. Sa'eb has been used to create a foreign meaning from new, primitive, and distant moshabbehon-bes for Zulf, and has broken the limits of traditional traditions. He has advanced beyond the boundaries of the moshabbehon-bes, and has distinguished other distinct, non-existent elements of vulgarity as a moshabbehon-be one. In the poetry of Sa'eb, the words with their complex and repeated relationships have created a variety of visual clusters. The word "Zulf" was added along with the words ‘”Dell” (Heart), "Shane" (Comb), "Khat" (tails) and "Hosn" (Beauty) as pairs of images in poetry poems. Zulf in his poetry is also in line with the tradition of Persian poetry, home and it is the of heart, but the poet has brought this theme with innovative innovations in Indian style and his infinite creativity. As an example, in a pure image, the homeland drove the heart into a zoological, resembling a Muslim in the veil. These pairs of images are not exclusive to the Zulf with Dell (Heart), Shane (Comb), Khal (Mole), Khat (Tail), and Chaneh (chin); but Saeb has created numerous images along with other elements such as Roy (face), Mozhgan (Eyelash), Mouth, Kamar (Waist), Hosn (beauty), Nasim (spring wind), “Goshvareh” (Earring) and “Negah”  (Look). The images, created by the indistinctness and intricacies, uncompromisingness and elegance of the poet, have been created in search of a foreign meaning and in accordance with Indian style indices.
    Conclusion
    The results indicate that the word "Zulf" such as "Sarv" (Cedar) and “Hobab” (Bubble) are key word and determinant in Sa'eb Tabrizi's Sonnets. In most cases, the word “Zulf” has a literal and semantic relation in one verse with other words in the same verse. For example, Saeb likened Zulf to something, and, with the his perfect ability in art, mentioned the lexicon that was appropriate to that one in verse, and was able to form a lexical equation by linking the artifacts of the verse components.This fact expresses the deep awareness of the poet about the capacities of the Persian language and the rich treasure of his mind. Saeb, in strange likenesses associated with his innovation, puts Zulf alongside some innovative and unfamiliarMoshabbahon-bes such as "Changale Shahbaz", "Toughe Qomri” , “Mesra", "Kochehbaghe", "Farrash", “Parrikhaneye Chini", and "Reshteye Goldaste”, which do not have a color of repetition and banality. In addition, Saeb created paired images in unique imagery by putting "Zulf" alongside "Chane" (Chin), "Kamar" (Waist), "Shane" (Comb) and "Khat" (Tail). In particularly, these images have come up with unprecedented and ingenious elements in the structure of oppositional elements. For example, he has seen in a picture (Zulf and Kamar) (prominence and Sonnet). The findings indicate that in addition to the personal taste of Saeb, the usual taste of the time, the dominant rules on the common Indian style, the format of the Sonnet, and the theme of love and mysticism, also played a role in the prominence of the functions of the phrasal word in Sonnet's poems. In the end, it should be said that while Sa'ib may have just posited a poetic claim when it comes to this verse, he has finally proved that with a vast array of themes, Only one life can be said about Zulf Yar.
    Keywords: Vocabulary Links, Creating of Image, Saeb Tabrizi, Innovative Moshabbehon-be, Zulf's Themes
  • Shahriyar Bagherabadi *, Yahya Marof Pages 49-70
    Introduction
    Adaptive literature is the study of literary phenomena among two or more different literatures. Also, comparative literature is the relation between a literary phenomenon and various sciences. Religion and sacred beliefs, is considered as one of the dominant phenomena that has shaped the literature and the arts of nations. This research has examined the extent of the presence of this variable in the poems of Gibran and Sepehri and also tried to study and compare the similarities and thematic differences between the poets of these two poets. Sepehri is a contemporary poet, sometimes included in his poetic illumination, in his poetry contains elements of religious culture and spiritual symbols. The view of this poet is based on Islamic teachings and his mental connection, with Eastern Orientalism. The most significant religious symbols in Sohrab poetry have been revealed in the poems of "Mosafer", "Ma high ma negah" and "Sedaye paye ab". Also, the ideological ideas of Gibran Khalil Gibran are a homogeneous set of Christian beliefs, contemporary Western philosophical trends, and Islamic teachings. He is known as an eastern version of Western look and feel. He confessed: "I am as much as an Arab, as English as I am" (Shakib Ansari, 1375: 226). He knew and was influenced by the thoughts of many western thinkers like Shakespeare, Hugo, Lamartin and Blake. The poetry of this poet painter is a perfect example of the accompaniment of the style of romance and symbolism. Throughout the writings of Gibran, like Sohrab Sepehri, grief, wonder, symbolism and holy elements full of images and colors. are mentioned together.
    Research methodology
    This research has been done to study the sacred symbols in Gibran Khalil Gibran's and Sohrab Sepehri's poems based on the American method of comparative literature. Some scholars of this method have argued that the mission of comparative literature is to study the relation of literature to other domains, arts, philosophy, religion, etc. (RK: al-Khatib, 1999: 50). The main sources used in this research are library resources, academic journals and scientific websites. This research responds to the question of how Gibran Khalil Gibran and Sohrab Sepehri used sacred symbols to enrich meaning in their poems? To answer this question, it has been analyzed and compared with the religious symbols as well as the main goals of mentioning them in the themes of the poems of Sohrab and Gibran.
    Discussion
    The belief in God and his sense of being in the whole world is one of the main features of the poems of Sohrab Sepehri and Gibran Khalil Gibran. Sacred beliefs in the perspective of Sohrab poetry are the single truths that have been taken with a simple human perception of different colors. His poetry is the position of the beliefs of thousands of species that appear to be heterogeneous and contradictory in the religious field. Also, his poetry is the intersection of concepts that are in the world of others' eyes. Gibran Khalil Gibran, like Sohrab Sepehri, believes in unity in beliefs. In his emotional isolation, he has guest and guest reader in a pleasant way, God and a holy space in a conscientious partnership. That is why in his poems, like Sepehri, poetry themes are chosen from religious elements. The poems of Sohrab and Gibran are full of symbols drawn from distant and near-believing beliefs of human thought. Many symbols in Sepehri's poetry refer to Hinduism's beliefs. Among these symbols, we can express the mysticism, Varanasi, Veda and Sernat Road. Also, some symbols like Rose, Sajada, Goldset and Takbirat al-Ahram are also from the beliefs of the heavenly religions. Many of these symbols have been used in poetry for compensation. Among the symbols of the poem of Gibran Khalil, one can mention the Yahve, Ain dour, Lil'at al-Qadar, Kowsar, Sajdah, temple and synagogue. The poetry of these two poets is the holy place of symbols, in a way that can be said that this is one of the special features of their poetry.
    Conclusion
    From the sum of what is mentioned in this research, it can be concluded that the following results, in a glimpse:This research studies the comparative study of the presence of sacred symbols and universal religious beliefs as a variable to be studied in Sepehri and Gibran's poems based on the American method of comparative studies. In this view, the comparison and the content of the content was the main topic of the research, and the subject has not been impressive. Therefore, many of the poetry of these two poets has been examined and the differences and differences between the presence of these symbols and elements have been discussed. Sohrab Sepehri and Gibran Khalil Jabran are two modern contemporary poets in Persian and Arabic literature. They succeeded in combining the two literary methods of romanticism and symbolism, and using emblems of human beings and beliefs, to make these sacred social symbols in order to construct their poetry and cultivate its themes. In the poetry of these two poets, they have played a romantic and symbolic symbol in creating an artistic atmosphere. The existence of sacred symbols in Sohrab and Gibran's poetry is in a way that has given guests a global perspective of religious truths and human beliefs, regardless of geography or time. In the shadow of this ideological coexistence, the mystic illumination of Sohrab and contemporary Gibran thought, it is well-documented in their poems. The poetry of both poets is based on the use of the sacred symbol of the East, from thoughts of Hinduism and Buddhism, Confucian teachings, ancient Egyptian beliefs, Babylon, and also influenced by Western ideas and thoughts from Greece. Both poets have used many of the symbols of the heavenly religions of Islam and Christianity. Islamic symbols are abundant in Sohrab poetry, while used in Gibran's poetry, both groups of symbols are abundant. Both poets have tried to present a fluid, calm, entertaining and poetic space by combining religious beliefs and romantic imagination to the audience and maybe this is one of the reasons for the readers' attention to the poetry of these two poets.
    Keywords: Gibran Khalil Gibran, Sohrab Sepehri, Arabic contemporary poetry, Persian contemporary poetry, Religious symbol
  • Nahid Jafari * Pages 71-84
    Introduction
    If ferdowsiy’s Shahname and other similar works written in this area are just considered from epic perspective, other aesthetic aspects of them will be ignored since these works consist of a great number of romantic, Gnostic , and educational stories besides being epic. Although these two stories “Siavash and Sudabe” of Abolghasm ferdowsiy  and “Tristan and Izout” written by Joseph Bédier ,French writer, were created in two different lands; they were structurally and conceptually similar, and the magnificent effect of the mixture of inner feelings and external behaviors of their heroes were shown. Therefore, since these stories are both epic and romantic and Both poetry and prose to identify with each other and adapt to them. the researchers aimed to do the current research.                     .                                                                                 But the main questions raised in this study are as follows:           -    What is the position and type of Love in these two narratives?
    -          What are the similarities and differences between two romantic stories of “Siavash and Sudabe”  and “Tristan and Izout” ?
    Besides answering the above mentioned questions, this study aims at comparing two main epic romantic stories of the world and finding their similarities and differences which opens a new window of understanding to the literature lovers of the world.                        
    Research methodology
     The research method in this paper is comparative and based on French School. In this study, in particular, the comparative method has been used, and for this purpose, different documents and references were studied and divided into the first hand and secondary sources, and by considering the comparative method in analyzing the concept of the components in the research objectives, the study was discussed and finally the inferences and results were extracted. The method of data analysis is based on the library study method and comparing and analyzing of research data. By referring to various sources, while extracting the related subjects, the researcher collected and analyzed the theoretical foundations such as comparative literature, epic and romantic stories, etc. and at last, compared and analyzed the data obtained from library study documentarily.                                                                           
    Discussion
    Discourse Comparative literature analyzes the intersection of literature in different languages and its complex relations in the past, present, and their historical relations in terms of their influence in the fields of art, literary schools, intellectual currents, and the impact of people on each other, etc. In comparative literature, the unity of human thoughts can be seen above all, and it is found that how human thought is posed by a scientist, scholar, and/ or poet somewhere in the world and the same thought is presented somewhere else in another way (kafafi, 2004: 15). Anyway, throughout the history, the life and story of lovers has always been the subject of attention by many narrators and critics, so romantic stories occupied a wide area in the literature of nations, and in comparing literary works, many works can be found in which the forbidden love is the main subject, including, the story of “Sudabe and Siavash” and the romance of “Tristan and Izout”.                                                                                                                              
    The romance “Tristan and Izout” is an independent novel written by Joseph Bedieh, a French writer who used to be an expert in the medieval literature; he rewrote several texts of this era including Tristan and Izout  story into contemporary French; this story is divided into separate chapters and in contrast, the story of Siavash and Sudabe is a unique masterpiece of a great book called Shahname which is known as its main name of “Siavash”. There are many similarities and differences between these two stories of “Tristan and Izout” of Joseph Bédier and “Siavash and Sudabe” of Abolghasm ferdowsiy, which are discussed in this article.   
    Conclusion
     What inspires the reader’s passion for reading two epic romances“Sudabe and Siavash” and “Tristan and Izout” is to be love-oriented; but in contrast, what is undesirable from the beginning of these two stories is the forbidden love of their heroes. Of course, this forbidden love is the spirit of both stories, and results in events and conflicts and attracts the readers to read them. It seems that the authors of both stories have been able to keep their readers satisfied and inform them of the forbidden love; as Sudabe’s impure love of her husband’s son caused the innocent death of Siavash, and in the romance of Tristan and Izout, the same immodest and of course unwittingly love happened between them led to their sacrifice, and at the end of both stories the tragic death of their heroes is seen; but the tangible thing that is impressive in both stories and adds to their beauty and longevity is the growing of some plants on heroes’ graves who were unwillingly pushed to the world of love, and the growth of plants indicates their innocence, and their greenery is the symbol of their survival, immortality, liberation and revival.
    Keywords: :love, Epic amorous, Siyâvo?, Sudabeh, Tristan, Iseultstory
  • Fatemeh Jamshidi *, Vesal Meymandi Pages 85-102
    Introduction
    Poetry and music have always been accompanied and are of the same origins moving in the same line. About the music of the Arabic poetry, it must be said that the Arabic language is the language of poetry. Technically, this poetry contains special music without following any traditional Al-Arud poetic meter. the verbal music is the result of the appropriate combination of all the verbal elements such as poetic meter, rhyme, Rdif, consonants, vowels, the stress and the pauses. This study aims at investigating the relationship between the meaning and the words of the poem “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf” by “Ali Foude” and the effect of the music on the transfer of the poet,s feelings. What has made the study of this poem necessary is the unfamiliarity of many of the researchers and students of Arabic Language and Literature with “Ali Foude” who are supposed to be more and more familiar with the contemporary Arab poets on the one hand,  and the study of the relationship between music and meaning in this poem which is of great importance in transferring the intended meanings of the poet, on the other.  Undoubtedly, understanding the hidden relation between the music of this poem and the inner feelings of “Ali Foude” can unravel many of the aims and intentions of the poet and lead to a better conception of the poems. Since the analysis of the poems is not possible without considering the music and the harmony between the music and the text, the internal music, peripheral and the external music of the poem musical structure are analyzed and finally, the following questions are answered:
    How are the different musical layers analyzed in the ode “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf”
    How is “Ali Foude” poetic power is reflected in his poetic music?
    How are the content of this ode related to the internal music?
    Methodology
    This study has been conducted in a descriptive-analytic method using the library resources. After studying the biography of “Ali Foude” and his works and introducing different musical layers of his work, the factors which create music in the poem “ Phelestini Kahado Alsayf” are specified and the relation between this music-creating elements and the thoughts and viewpoints of the poet is studied. The samples are selected and analyzed after several studies of the poem and based on the dominant thought, according to each music layer.
    Discussion
    “Ali Foude” was born in Ghaanir village in 1946 and was martyred in 1982, after many years of homelessness and fight to achieve the aims of Palestine.” (Khalil, 2005: 76-81)
    The music of a text is created by the sound and the movements of the letters, their locations, and the arrangement of different parts of a text and the long or short distances between them and is in fact “ a device by which the poet or the writer is able to transfer his hidden feelings in the form of the words” (Kavaz, 1388: 303). In what follows, different types of music are studied and their relations with the feelings of the poet are analyzed.
    The  external music  is “  the tone made of the Arud and the meter of the poem. (Tousi,1369:22). Each poem is compatible with a special poetic meter according to the sentimental state and from among the different meters, the poets select the one which is in accordance with the content and their inner feeling. This ode has been recited in the Bahre Hazaj and because of its fast rhythm is an indication of the inner anxieties of the poem and is the best evidence of his inner excitement and revolt.
    The peripheral music is the musical effects created by the repetition of the words at the beginning or the end of any line and at the end of each line in the model poetry and includes Radif and rhyme.
    In this ode, 51 of the rhymes end in long vowels  and since “ the long vowels in the rhyme are an indication of the deep feelings of the poet, especially of  his sorrows” ( Alsadani, 1987:37) this is apparent in the ode and can be an approval to the poet,s efforts to reveal his sorrow and worry and his inner suffering.
    The internal music is the result of the appropriate selection of the sounds and the use of the rhythmic sounds (Zaif,1966:97) and the most important elements of this music are rhymed prose (Saaj) and pun.  Pun is  the similarity between two words in the sounds which are not the same in the meaning. In this ode, Ali Foude has used the  puns in order to increase the music of the poem which consequently leads to the increase of the effectiveness of the reader.  Saaj is one of the other elements which creates poetic music and leads to the beauty and cohesion of the utterance. In this ode the punned words have been arranged by the sameness of the rhymes and the ending letters and this has led to the internal music as well as the increase of the meaning relations of the words.
    Repetition is “ one of the mostly uses of the techniques of the contemporary poets which increases the music of the words and the cohesion of the ode. Ali Foude has started all the lines of the ode by the word “phelestini” and has emphasized on his identity and his deep inner feelings to his home country.
    Conclusion
    By an overview the music of the ode, it can be claimed that Ali Foude,s  technique in using the external music , shows that he has chosen the rhyme of the ode in a way  that they are close to his inner feelings and mood, particularly, because this poem has been recited to show his love for his home country and depicts his inner excitement.
    The iinternal music of the ode has also an important effect on the accordance and relation of the poem with the content and the poems feelings. Also, it must be pointed out that Ali Foude has made his ode more effective by using different kinds of Radifs because he has not limited himself to the music created by the rhyme, pun and saaj and by the use of the repetitious words, has transferred some contents such as sentimental reinforcement, ennui, surprise, and homelessness, considering the fact that the more a poet has the mastery of the of the words, the more artistic creations he can have. It must be said that Ali Foude,s mastery over the words and his  contemplation and subtlety in the structure of the words and the relation between the sounds and the moves have created a beautiful internal and external music  which is in accordance with the contents of the poem. To conclude, the relation between the music of the poem and the content, thought and the feelings of the poet is one of the aspects which Ali Foude has considered very  well in this poem in a way that the music has been used as a device for expressing the content of resistance, revolutionary excitements, imaginations and sentiments to the readers. In this ode he is not ignorant of the main intention which is the home country but he has followed his commitment to the poetic music and it can be said that the rhythm of this poem is all an outcry and it is the cohesive music which expresses the meaning not just the words.
    Keywords: Contemporary Palestinian Poetry, Poetry music, Ali Fodeh, Palestine Decreases Al-Sayyaf
  • Maryam Dorpar * Pages 103-120
    Introduction
    Since the publication of Empson's book The Seven Types of Ambiguity (1930), Ambiguity was taken into consideration, especially in modern fiction-writing mode; As mentioned (Sahba, 1392: 125) "Ambiguity for the author is one of the best manners in the field of narration and text processing". Blind Owl, as a text with a high structural ambiguity is read much; In reading the text, only the influential force would not be the reader, it should be noted that what the text provides to the reader in terms of the structure and methods of expression or the particular cultural-social status (ibid; 86), Therefore, opening the ambiguity of narration is a fundamental issue. In this study, with the assumption that visual narration is the possibility that the text gives reader to open up the structural ambiguity, Pencil case painting ofBlind Owl is considered as a Tool that resolves the structural ambiguity of multi-level narrative of it. By asking these questions; what is visual narration, what are its outstanding features and how can it be effective to open up the structural ambiguity of the main narrative, we introduce visual narration as a stylistic instrument in opening the narrative structural ambiguity.
    Research Methodology
    The present study is carried out in two stages; In the first step, by studying the features of the visual text and verbal narrative, we characterize the distinctive features of visual narration and will try to reach a definition of the visual narration. We make the second stage in three sections; First, as a verbal narrative text we read tense, narrator, plot, location and actions. Then, as a visual text, we will examine the surface, depth, space, color, light and mode /gesture. In the following, we will look at the love inside in such a bold way. In the second part, the signs that have been selected and placed in the cover of the Pencil case and highlighted will be discussed in the context of the romance discourse. Finally, in the third section the relationship between the signs of the Pencil case and the examples of the main narrative of the blind owl Will be analyzed and in the definition of the narrator of love as a sacred, supreme and pure, we will see the unification of the signs of the ethereal girl, mother and lakate.
    Discussions
    In this visual narration, the narrator is outside of the narrative and the tense is past, It represents two positions that are performed an action in each position; action of the first position is that The old man put his left finger in surprise on his lips and in the second position, a curled girl gives the old man a lilies flower. With these two positions, the rituals of love on display and the referral of the romance scene to the outside world implies failure; Because there is a stream between them. This distance is shown with a spatial dimension, In the continuation of the narrative, heard as a voice, adds to the visualization of painting. The old man's repellent laughter is a sound sign that is reproduced several times in the text and fit a few characters on each other. 
    In the semiotics of visual narration's space, what is striking is the open space without limitation; The girl is on the surface of the painting, so it is prominent and considered and the old man is in the depths of the painting, behind him is a cypress tree and a desert with open nature. This visual narration represents fluid and floating images; The black-dressed girl depicts the mother of the narrator - Bugamdasi of the temple of Lingam - until the childhood of the lakate and "ethereal daughter", and next to the image of the cypress tree, the river and the flowers of the lilies, there are some meanings from lakate's hide and seek of childhood to slow rhythmic dance and movement of Bugamdasi. The Curved old man with repellent laughter in the lower layers of the text fit on the father /uncle of narrator, father of lakate and the butcher. The meanings that are united with the other, and ultimately all of these characters form the "self" of narrator.  
    The semiotic analysis of colors is also significant within the romantic discourse; Three colors are highlighted in this visual narration, including black, burgundy and green. Black color is on the surface of the image, color of the girl's dress. Presence of the black color is the hidden presence of all the other colors; This color goes on to describe the narrator's mother clothes of a broader range of colors: olive, lemon, red, golden and shiny. The color of the burgundy symbolizes the meaning of the failures of love in the narrative. Finally, the green color, color of the cypress tree, which lies in the depth of the image, reflects the concept of steady being, despite the failures of love.
    Conclusion
    Based on the features we've listed for visual narration, we define it as "concise, compact, and dense narrative Which the main narrative is its expanded form and in it elements such as light, color, space, depth, surface, state, etc., prominent features of visual texts, are framed in a specific with the word tool". The visual narration has features the verbal and visual texts of both. In visual reading the reader creates images. In fact, the visual narration resembles an episode within the original narrative, except that the episode is a complement to the original narrative, but visual narration is the basic element and the original narrative can be described as the extended form of visual narration.
    The visual narration of Blind Owl, two positions and two actions shown in it, simplify the story of the Blind Owl and open its multi-layered narrative. In the main narration of the Blind Owl, it is difficult to find the causal relationships, but in the visual narration, the plot can be easily retrieved; The narrator is deprived of the girl's love and is therefore old and broken.
    Keywords: The blindfold blindfold, the failure of love, the opening up of the structural ambiguity of the text
  • Maryam Rahmani, Mohammad Fouladi * Pages 121-134
    Introduction
    Djamal Al-Din ABU MUHAMMAD ILYAS b.Yusuf is the sixth century great poets and narrator. The influence of Nizam’s work on the subsequent development of Persian literature has been enormous. Not only his unique style but also his profound effect on other poets is obvious. The Haft Paykar is the fourth course of his poetic idea. Using code of human’s transcendence, them of most “flash fiction” is journey, imaginary aspect.  To find out way back to his orgin , whitin undergoing rituals, Wayfarer( Salik) ,in these journies, passes several valleys so that he reaches high peak of luminosity from depth of soul.
    Research methodology
     Through analytical method, the paper interprets content based on the  mystical foundations of text.
    Discussion
    The black dome is the first story of the Haft Paykar’s ladies whose analysis is an important issue. On the contrary  past researches that  indicate  wayfarer’s falling of the personality, the present study shows this journey is a mean of ascension and transcendence. Journey doesn’t have a negative consequence in it, but, the journey makes wayfarer ascend heaven to meet the eternity beloved .The king, in this spiritual journey, convey boundless enthusiasm that emerges in the black passenger to return his origins. He steps in a circle of progression in the path and, while power of compassion  encompasses  him, In every stage, by eliminating the contamination of the senses, it finds that it is possible to cast a burqa out of a curtain,looks at the wayfarer and sees the signs and wonders of the realm of the kingdom. This mode is called mystic interpretation and intuition. There are changes in the personality of the wayfarer ,which are formed  in three stages.  In The stage of the call, the first stage of” progression in the path”,wayfarer  decides to change inside and outside  unfavorable situation.In the same way,a kind of inner temptation tries to make wayfarer gives up his decision .Meanwhile, the mentioned stage the ‘director must be required to awake the  wayfarer’s seductive psyche while uncovers its mysterious mystery in the world of affairs At this juncture, wayfarer concludes that the mortal universe is not his official, so the craving to his original source is prompted in his heart in way that Shah decides to put in effort to find out his answer the answers. (This determination [tells] a deep desire for internal change. This stage begins in the story of the black dome when a black man comes to the king's presence. Therefore, by gaining some kind of knowledge the wayfarer begins his inner journey to achieve perfection, which is necessary to provide spiritual reciprocity. It is not possible unless through the “progression in the path”, thus, the wayfarer must go through the levels and authorities to achieve it In the aftermath of this transformation, he will achieve self-cultivation, which is interpreted  in mysticism as evaporation and analysis, respectively. Therefore, the king, in search of the discovery of his own darkness, decides to abandon the world of monarchy and conspiracy, and move to the clear horizons in search of a secret secret slowly. To get a clue of the existing fact. The Shah must go to the planet to enter the next stage and cultivates the soul, (evolution). The sky in this story (the story of the black dome) is a big boon The place where the ghosts climb right. In the sky, the king descends on a lush and beautiful land within a half-day; A crowd of Houris with a beautiful lady suddenly attracted his attention. These women are manifestations of divine nature and promising joining him; that the wayfarer for divine knowledge should see their beauty The king at the same meeting wants to join the queen, but in pursuit of such a status, the seeker must  go through the levels and authorities to achieve it In the aftermath of this transformation, he will achieve self-cultivation, which is interpreted  in mysticism as evaporation and analysis, respectively. Therefore, the king, in search of the discovery of his own darkness, decides to abandon the world of monarchy and conspiracy, moving to the clear horizons in search of a secret .To get a clue of the existing fact. The king at the same meeting wants to join the queen, but in pursuit of such a status, the wayfarer must learn the philosophy of patience that entails the pleasure of connecting. This land is a (Agitation Office ) who is trait of” possessor spiritual states”. Therefore,as  he is not allowed to stop him permanently its ruler is in any case condemned to return. (So asking for a visit and joining with him is not an answer anything than ‘You will not see me".
    Conclusion
    Haft Paykar is the fourth revolutionary circle of Nizami's poetic idea in which he explains human's transcendence in form of mystical ascension. It involves in three ways in which wayfarer not only achieves mystical stations but also finds out what makes the city silent and wearing in black is anything than comprehension of the spiritual unveiling.
    Keywords: Ganjayi nizame, Haftpiker, Garrison, Prophet, transcendental garrison, Revelation
  • Ramazan Rezaei * Pages 135-158
    Introduction
    Since the poets have tasted the suffering of the prison, they wrote poetries about the prison, and this type of poetry received the name "Habssiyeh". "Habssiyeh or a poet about prison is a kind of lyric poetry that most of its components are about complaints and the preson,s present situation. As Habssiyeh is a kind of poem that is clear and simple, it originates from an overwrought and wounded feeling. The bitter and sad moments and heartfelt scenes of the life of a helpless poet in the deadly silence of the prison, which is presented in the form of words and phrases, and when some sections of prose  are depicted in the absence of current known rhythm. But in a simpleand clear manner, the upheaval , anger and grief, allows the speaker to speak clearly. Therefore, the style of the expression of the prison is generally fluent, clear and far from arbitrary and arbitrary "(Zafari, 2009: 23-24). The prison and its related issues are one of the most important basic  parts of the prison system. The poets have also talked about it in various aspects: they sometimes said about the cause of imprisonment, and sometimes described the prison as a place, and often they explained  their views on prisons. Some  poets also described prison constraints, jailer's mistreatment, difficulty and pressure, and the chains, the suffering of torture, the racket of clothes, the lack of broadness (darkness, pollution, bad food, timelessness and being the same  of night and day, and year and month, coldness and warmth, etc.) Prison and aging and disability, night blindness and other illnesses, redness of tears, confiscation of property, poverty, conflict and incompatibility of fortune and time, incomplete knowledge and Lord of grace and the most painful of all, the loneliness and disrespect for friends and people, and usually these complaints are accompanied by a description of the same issues (ibid., 19) Bahar and Safi are two great contemporary poets, and both have received imprisonment for their political thoughts. Concurrence and even coexistence, having a rogue spirit and a critical look at the issues of their country are among the other common subjects of these two poets. Although Safi had lived in Iran for many years, He had many  meetings with Bahar, but this article does not seek to examine the impact between the two in poetry, it is only a comparative study of these two poets' issues and the explanation of the issues. It deals with analytical descriptive methods. In the present study, the following questions have been asked to explain: What are the common issues of Bahar and Safi poems about prison? The purpose of the present paper is to provide a true picture of the concept of prison and its related issues in Bahar and Safi poetries, as well as the comparative explanation of their commonalities. comparing Bahar and Safi views about the prison and imprisoned matters, as well as examining the common views of the two poets, as well as the similar social and political situation in Iran and Iraq, show the necessity of this research.
    Research methodology
    This research has been written with a descriptive analytical method that the theoretical foundations of the research are based on comparative literature and the statistical society is poems written by Bahar and Safi Najafi. The methodology is that after reviewing the biographies of both poets, their views on the issues related to the prison are mentioned and analyzed by bringing examples of the poems of both poets.
    Discussion
    Comparative  literature is one of the most innovative and fascinating literary approaches that has attracted the attention of many scholars today. An international perspective on the literature is the origin of this thinking. "It is easy to find common factors between the two literature, because, along with finding literary intermediaries, the aspects of differentiation and similarity between them are clarified, but the French school did not answer this important question. If between the two literaries , it was found that there is no historical relationship with each other, how should this similarity be assessed, and where is the position of such cases in comparative research? "(Jamal al-Din, 2010: 20). In the American school that is intended in this essay, the criterion of  comparison in two works is nationality and culture, not merely language. For this reason, problems can be a good topic for comparative studies. Habsiyyeh is one of the types of poetry that most of its components are complaints and person,s present situation. This kind of poetry is an expression of sadness and endless grief that has been imprisoned in prison. Some of the poets who have been imprisoned have also dedicated a section to their prisons, among the topics of their poetry. This topic is well reflected in the old and new Persian and Arabic literature. Bahar and Safi in the contemporary era are two outstanding examples in this field. The social and political conditions of these two poets necessarily linked them to political issues. That's why both of them were imprisoned by the rulers of time and tasted the suffering of imprisonment. In their poems, they have depicted common themes such as the cause of being stripped down, describing prison clauses, describing prison guards, patience, tolerance, or apology in their poems. This type of poem can show the characters and thoughts of these two poets for the reader.   
    Conclusion
    Habsiyyeh is a collection of poetry topics that have long been known in Persian and Arabic poetry. However, this recognition has varied throughout the different periods, but, given the many commonalities between Arabic and Persian, they share the same themes in this kind of poetry. These common themes are also apparent in terms of social and political conditions and libertarian tendencies in Bahar and Safi poetry. Indeed, the poetics of both poets provide a clear picture of their conditions in prison. The capture and imprisonment events have led both poets to describe the prison and their inner states, and how their confrontation with the prison the audience has an offer. On the other hand, the prison has not been able to negatively influence the poet's poetry feeling and put them into recession, even some  parts of their most poems are about prison. These sections shows the character of both poets and the editor of the poetry are the insistence of the two on their resolve and their intentions, and even the prison did not stop them from freedom and liberating. In addition to these similarities, some differences can be observed, including the fact that most of Bahar habits are about the prison itself and its description, while the smoothness of the matter involves more sub-topics. Bahar also cautioned in many issues and events with rulers of his time and even made an apology, but Safi did not do it and never gave up.
    Keywords: Habsiyeh, prison, poem, Malek-O-Shoara-Bahar, Ahmad-Safi-Al-Najafi
  • Ebrahim Kanani * Pages 159-176
    Introduction

    Kamal Khojandi is a mellifluous poet of Iraqi styl. He is a those greatest characters of Persian sonnet. One type of disputation which is used widely in sonnets of Kamal is called discourse. Acting process plays a role in discourse when it interacts with Shaveshi process and  accordingly recognition turns to be clear and dynamic then it forms a new disputatious system. One of the issues which is discussed in discourse, acting and Shaveshi processes the disputatious disjunction and conjunction. In the process, the acting cognitive ego connects with emergence and transcendental ego; Time now and connects with non Time now and place of discourse is connected with anti-discourse place. This research uses descriptive-analytic method in order to study disputation and disjunction and conjunction disputatious process in sonnets of Kamal. The main question is that, how disjunction and conjunction disputatious process is proven in the sonnets of  Kamal and how its meaning is produced. In the process, there is a reciprocal interaction between discourse environment and speech environment or between discourse world and speech processor. Still, the basic structure of disputation is connected to disjunction and disputatious conjunctions is also at the service of disputatious disjunctions.
    Research methodology
    The semiotics pattern of discourse is one of the appropriate methods for analyzing literary works that are effective in identifying internal occasions, discursive spaces, and narrative and content chains. The method of this research is descriptive-analytic with a semiotic approach and library information collection method. In the present study, selected samples of Kamal Ghazals are examined using the method of semiotic analysis and content analysis method.
    Discussion
    An enunciative and discursive method is considered as one of the most important methods of semiotic-semantic analysis. In a given system, meaning occurs when a semantic change is created and a semantic change is unthinkable without a viable program that leads to the operation itself. This causes the process of production of meaning to be a productive process. But in the discursive system, the production of meaning is no longer a function of a particular program or operation; meaning can occur phenomenally whenever and wherever it occurs (Shairi, 2009: 116). Due to these features, in the given system meaning has a stabilized state and in a discursive system, meaning becomes fluid and dynamic. The meaning of fluid is also a meaning that has emotional and sensory-perceptual characteristics. To realize meaning and discourse, a discrepancy is formed and this disconnection connects the world of narration to the given world.
    Greimas sees this discontinuity as threefold: a disconnection of action, temporal and local ( as cited in: Babak Moein, 2009: 159).
    A disconnection of action, that is, a disconnection from the "me" of the narrator to convert it to "no-me" or "him"; the temporal disconnection, the disconnection from the time of "present," the act of saying and saying in the time of "no-present" or " Another time "; and the local discontinuity, the disconnection of" here ", goes into the" no place here "or" other place "of the space (Ibid, 159- 160). In contradiction with this discontinuity, the discussion is disconnection by a discourse. The discourse conjunction is the passage from the given space to the space of action. Namely, the passage from the "No-Me" has been told to the "I" of the spoken space; from "no to now" to "present," and from "no-here" to "here"(Ibid, 161).
    In the sonnets of number 13 (Khojandi, 1993: 17), there is a continuous movement between the disconnection and the conjunction. Of course, the discursive conjunction also serves the discontinuity.
    At the beginning of the first bit, the narrator, as an activator, brings a disconnection with the term "after today" and connects the discourse to the now-said, the near future. This process creates another discontinuity in discourse, which is an act of disconnection. It is based on the same disconnection that the activator reveals another love (you). Another love is nothing more than the conversion of me to the actor and not to another.   
    Conclusion
    In this research, the process of disconnection and  conjunction was studied based on the discourse system. In Kamal's poetry, the actionable and induced species are involved, and these species form a meaning in the interaction with the state process. In Kamal's poetry, various cognitive discourse approaches are visible; In some sonnets, actions form an state and sometimes physical and sensory-perceptual process. In another, state behavior leads to cognitive action. In others, the tension crisis occurs in discourse, which is the result of action  behavior or state behavior, and it ends on the basis of state behavior. In the ghazal of perfection, various types of disconnection and conjunction of action, temporal and local occur in interaction. But the dominant structure of discourse disconnection, and discursive conjunction also serve as a discursive disconnection. By using this factor, the actor converts his own "self" into semiotics into "me" and ultimately unifies with an ethics-based superego.
    Keywords: kamal Khojandi, disputation, cognitive, Shaveshi, disjunction, conjunction
  • Azam Galehdari, Seyed Gafar Hamidi *, Shamsalhajiye Ardalani Pages 177-196
    Introduction
    Poets have always tried to convey their meaning to the audience in a formidable and effective manner by using literary elements. One of the elements that has always been paid attention to by poets in poetry, both traditional and new, is the element of repetition.
    In this essay, it has been attempted to investigate the function of the element of repetition, which is the main axis of inner music, in the poem of Iqbal lahori’s book of eternity to determine to what extent this Persian poet of Urdu speaker has used this industry to express its meaning.
    Shemisa sees the repetition as the third method in the rhetorical revision that creates the music of the word. in his view, Repetition appears in the form of repetition of words, repetition of syllable, word, commitment, repetition, repetition of a phrase or sentence in speech (a fresh look at the novels: 59-60). Kazazi also considers the repetition as vocabulary reverse in a way that does not render the words too expensive, coarse and uneven. Otherwise, it is not a repetition of an aesthetic tool, but a weakness and an "abyss" in speech. According to him, various types of repetition are "rhyme rebuilding", "initial rebuilding", "canonization", "hajib", " Rad Al-Ajz ala sadr ", "coexistence" and "commitment" (Badhi, Aesthetics of Persian Speech: 80-48). This research examines the repetition in two visible and invisible branches in Iqbal Lahori’s book of eternity in order to determine which types of repetitions (visible and invisible) are used more in the book of eternity. And also the repetition of which arrays was more of a poet's attention. And what is the purpose behind using the repetition element? And have these repetitions influenced the poet's intention?
    Research Methodology
    .the research method is Descriptive-analytic and data collection tool is library using snippet. In this study, by dividing the repetition into two visible and invisible types, we examine the symptoms of the two types of repetitions, the types of puns, the types of phonemes as invisible repetitions in the poetry, as well as the regular and irregular repetition methods throughout the verses as visible repetition symptoms. To do this, all the verses of the book of eternity were examined from this perspective and their representations were recorded in the snippet. In the end, the obtained information was also categorized and coded.
    Discussion
     Types of visible and invisible repetitions in the book of eternity:
    Table 1: Types of invisible repetitions in the drafts
    array
    Type of puns
    Same-beginning
    Scattered phoneme phonetic
    Same-ending
    Same-beginning and same-ending
    frequency
    965
    315
    276
    110
    27
    As it is seen, the types of puns have most recurrence in the book of eternity. The types of puns used in the book of eternity are: complete pun, distorting pun, redundant pun, repetitive pun, contradictory pun, present pun, connected pun, derivative pun, pseudo-derivative pun, linear pun, word pun and combination pun. After the pun, same-beginning has the largest share in invisible repetitions.
    Table 2: Types of visible repetitions in the book of eternity
    Arrays
    Frequency
    Repetition of the word over a verse
    779
    Regular repetitions of one or more words at the beginning of the verses
    93
    Repeat the word over a few verses
    35
    Rad Al-Ajz ala sadr(bringing a word at the end of a verse until the beginning)
    5
    Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze(bringing a word at the beginning of a verse until the end)
    2
    Visible repetitions in Iqbal’s poems include repeating the word during a single verse, repeating the verse during a poem, repeating one or more words spatially over several verses, regular repetition of one or more words at the beginning of the verses, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze; repetition of words encompasses a large amount of this repetition.
    But the visible repetitions of the book of eternity are sometimes more than a word and include a group of words; this kind of apparent repetition is one of the boosting methods.
    Results
    The inner music is one of the musical effects of poetry, the most important of which is the repetition, because many arrays in the field of internal music are formed on the basis of repetition. Repetition was studied in two visible and invisible branches in the book of eternity, and various effects were observed in this work.
    The types of puns, same-beginning, same-ending, same-beginning and same-ending, the scattered phoneme phonetic are the invisible repetitions of the poems of Iqbal in the book of eternity. Visible repetitions include repetition of the word during a single verse, repetition of a hemistich or verse in the form of a poem, repetition of one or more words spatially over several verses, regular repetitions of one or more words at the beginning of verses, Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze and Rad Al-Sadr Ala Jaze. According to the obtained statistics, Iqbal is more willing to use visible repetitions than invisible repetitions. The invisible repetitions, without being apparent, increase the richness of the inner music of the poem.
    As seen, pun is the most used invisible repetition of the book of eternity. Puns play a significant role not only in the poetry but also in the rhymes, under the title of exquisite rhymes. Other types of invisible repetitions include phonological types. But according to the survey, among the Iqbal goals in applying the repetition element, one can mention the following:1. Strengthening inner music and its richness. 2. Helping to better convey concepts to the audience 3. Highlighting the underlying concept and emphasizing it Therefore by repeating consonants and vowels, Iqbal not only has consolidated the inner music, but also has brought about the concepts and themes of interest and has achieved what is called the magic of adjacency
    Keywords: Iqbal Lahouri, repetition, Javid Namah, internal music
  • Alireza Mahmoudi *, Rashid Damyar Pages 197-216
    Introduction
    The Persian language still has its audience outside Iran. It has been blended with many people’s body and soul around the world and they love it. Afghanistan is an example of such countries. Although in some points in time contemporary politicians showed less concern for the Persian language due to political reasons, this language have always been used by various groups of people, survived and welcomed by people. Khalilullah Khalili (1907-1987) is one of the most renowned contemporary Persian poets of Afghanistan whose poems have been affected by various factors such as poetic language, the environment, war, local languages and dialects etc. Some deviations from standard Persian can be detected in his poems. The present article aiming at better recognizing features of contemporary Persian poetry in Afghanistan attempts were made to study deviations in the poems of this afghan poet on eight levels: semantic, grammatical, phonological, historical period, graphological, lexical, stylistic, and dialectal and to answer the following questions:-          What are different types of deviation in Khalilullah Khalili’s poems?
    -          What is the most significant type of deviation in Khalilullah Khalili’s poems?
    Research Methodology
    The present study was done on the poems of Khalilullah Khalili using descriptive-analytical approach based on library resources. This study was carried out based on Leech’s (1968) categorization of types of deviation from literary language. It should be noted that while studying deviations in the poems of Khalilullah Khalili, the present research sought to discuss issues related to the surface structure of the poetry and not the ones related to its semantic, deep structure. Therefore, archaism through allusions and archaic proper names were not studied in this research. Also, in some articles published in this field, phonological deviations such as epenthesis, assimilation, lenition, etc. have been mentioned. Since such concepts or the like in Khalilullah Khalili’s poems did not lead to defamiliarization which made the poems look repetitive, they were not discussed in this article.
    Discussion
     Defamiliarization is a crucial concept in literary criticism that was first proposed by Russian formalists. “Defamiliarization includes techniques that make the poetic language unfamiliar for the audience and against their linguistic habits. These techniques cause changes in all literary works and make the ordinary language unfamiliar”. (Alavimoghaddam, 1998: 107) Different phenomena gradually become familiar for us and we do not perceive them well. Thus, in order to be better understood, phenomena should be defamiliarized. Defamiliarization in the world of text includes all the techniques involved in highlighting a literary text and is usually associated with a kind of “deviation”. Foregrounding in literature usually takes place through deviation in language. Geoffrey Leech (1968) considers deviation from the standard language as foregrounding. Foregrounding is done in two ways:First- deviation: which is also called unexpected irregularity falls within the scope of rhetorical devices and produces poetry (Shamisa, 1999: 163). Deviation is defined as “deviation from the rules of standard language and its inconsistency with the conventional language, although it does not mean any deviation from the standard language”. (Anousheh, 1997: 1445)
    Second- parallelism: or unexpected regularity which means the rules added to the language (Vahidian Kamyar, 2004b: 271). Despite deviation, parallelism does not entail deviation from the rules of language. Parallelism is at a level below deviation because poetry is the result of deviations and regularity is the outcome of parallelism (Barani, 2003:63). Parallelism is any rhythm that can be studied on phonological, lexical and syntactic levels. According to the Leech’s (1986) model, deviation from the standard language occurs in 8 types: syntactic, lexical, phonological, historical period, stylistic, dialectal and graphological.
    In ancient and modern Persian literature different instances of deviation can be detected in the works of great poems. It can be said that the frequency of such deviations is high in the poems of most poets who created new trends in Persian poetry. Khalilullah Khalili (1907-1987) was contemporary Afghanistan’s Persian poet. He is one of the rare, noted Afghan poets whose intellectual and written works are not only an honor for his own country, but also shine forever in the history of Dari Persian literature. Amounting to fifty, his works are all considered great instances of Persian prose and poetry. Khalilullah Khalili’s poems are reminiscent of the ancient poets and equivalent to the poems of Badiozzaman Forouzanfar, Bahar and Farrokhi in terms of composition and consistency of meaning. He followed the Khorasani style and added innovations literally and semantically. Khalilullah Khalili tries to communicate as simply and beautifully as is common in the Khorasani style. However, some deviations can be found in his poems. Arising automatically to express emotions, sensations and poetic themes, such deviations have caused his poetic language to become different from the standard Persian language.
    Conclusion
     A look into the poems of Khalilullah Khalili revealed that the poetic and literary language of Khalilullah Khalili is very different from the standard language. Although his poetic language is simple and far from any complexity and he was mainly concerned with simply conveying his poetic thoughts and feelings, Khalili’s poetic subconscious mind expressed poetic ideas in such a way that caused deviations in his artistic creation. To create an effective poetic language, he deviated from poetic norms in various areas. His poems were analyzed in terms of deviation on eight levels: semantic, grammatical, phonological, historical period, lexical, graphological, stylistic and dialectal and it was found that such deviations fell in the semantic category and were applied more frequently and more significantly than other levels of deviation using figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, metonymy and sometimes paradoxical images. In addition, there were deviations on historical period, dialectal, stylistic and grammatical levels that added to the beauty and effectiveness of his poems. Deviations on the phonological level did not affect Khalili’s poems and graphological deviations were not found in his poems due to the traditional style and structure of his poems.
  • Hossein Mohtadi * Pages 217-236
    Introduction
    Every human being has a taste of suffering during his lifetime, and there is no controversy in this description. What seems important is the most important causes of human suffering. As many other poets, Fahad al-Askar has utilized poetry to express human pain. Although in his poetry his personal pain -brought forth from emotions such as love and loneliness, alienation and distance from home- is obvious, yet he has also been particularly concerned with the expression of social pains. It is worth noting that he lived in a closed society that regarded any kind of criticism as a kind of new-fangle. For that reason, he stood against the decaying culture of his time, and this led to his exclusion and isolation from society. Fahd al-Askar has suffered a lot of personal and social pain due to this isolation. He is, in fact, the spokesperson for the pain of his own community, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The poet is at the heart of the community and is not indifferent to the pain and injustice of his community. He gave the poetry another color and smell, and put it at the service of the people to express their problems. Violence, injustice, and the observance of human suffering and pain are among the constant concerns of Fahd al-Askar. He always thinks of a human being who, in the shadow of the injustices and hardships, only receives pain and distress in his life.
    Problem Statement and research questions
    The present research studies the issue of suffering in the poet's poetry in the areas of ontology, teleology, deontology, and causes of pain and suffering. The author of this study is to answer the following questions:
    From the ontology’s point of view on the subject of suffering, what is the most avoidable and irresistible pain of the poet?What are the main causes of pain and suffering from the poet's point of view?What is the goal and purpose of suffering from the poet's point of view?From the poet's point of view, what is the task of man in confronting pain and suffering?
    A hypothesis, which is suggested in this paper, is that the inevitable pains and sufferings of the poet are more of the type his personal pains while his intriguing pains are more of the type of the social pains. It is also added that the ultimate goals of pain and suffering in the poetry of Fahd al-Askar is an invitation to liberty and freedom from oppression, and moreover, strengthening the spirit of martyrdom. In this research, the author will respond to each of these questions after briefly mentioning the biography of the poet.
    Objectives and necessity of research
    The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the nature and concept of pain and suffering in the poetry of contemporary poet of Kuwait, Fahad al-Askar. The importance and necessity of research is that by studying the pain and suffering of this poet, one can see the social situation and the problems of that society and at the same time, it gives the researchers the opportunity to compare the common sufferings, difficulties and social status of the two societies by comparing Arab and Persian poets.
    Detailed research method
    In this paper, the author applies his inductive and descriptive, analytical method, relying on the poet's poetry to study in pain and suffering in his poems. At the beginning, the poetry about pain and suffering are elicited, and then categorized, and lastly they are put into the analysis and the ontology, endocrinology, deontology and the causes of pain and suffering are expressed.
    Discussion
    One of the most important issues related to pain and suffering is the issue of ontology and here, the general concept of the ontology is meant which discusses the existence or absence of pain and its types. The most discussed issue in this field is dedicated to its various designs and dimensions. Various types of pain and suffering can be classified into two categories of inevitable pain and avoidable pain, based on how it has been faced with. Inevitable pain is the pain that is unwittingly suffered by humans, and they have no choice at all to accept or reject it. In fact, there is no escape from these kinds of pains, and they are part of the tragic life of man. The most inevitable pains in Fahd al-Askar's opinion are: loneliness and nostalgia, discrimination against the rights of women without paying attention to their values, lost aspirations, love And parting. Given the essence of the inevitable pain, the poet’s only suggested way to face these kinds of pain includes patience, forbearance and trust in God; that is, man has no escape from this kind of pain but to practice patience and tolerance. The most important intriguing pain from the poet's point of view is the lack of feelings and humanity and the expansion of class distance in society, the expansion of the spirit of hypocrisy in society, the spread of war and insecurity in the world, the tragedy and the plight of the Palestinian people. One of the ultimate goals of suffering in Fahd al-Askar's poetry is to call for liberation and freedom from oppression. Sometimes the ultimate goal for suffering is beyond rebellion, and it is the strengthening of the spirit of testimony and self-sacrifice as well as the spirit of martyrdom. In the view of the poet, sometimes the duty of humankind who suffers from pains, either they are whether avoidable or inevitable is patience and trust in God. Another duty is to strengthen the spirit of unity in defense of the homeland and the return to religion. The poet calls out his people whom are away from religion to return to it as a solution to their pain and sufferings. In the eyes of the man of the past, the most important causes of pain and suffering are doing sins and being away from the sacred, weakness of faith, and attachment to the worldly life. From the perspective of contemporary man, the cause of suffering can be the deprivation of the natural and human rights and not living the modern life. In his poetry, the poet points to the primordial rights of humans and turn against their violations like inequality, incivility, lack of freedom and non-compliance with the rights of the weak.
    Conclusions
    1-      In the ontology of pain, Fahd al-Askar's pains and sufferings can be categorized into two classes of irresistible and avoidable pains. The most important irresistible pains of the poet are: loneliness, pain of womanhood, lost desires and the pain of love and parting. The most important irresistable pains in the poet's eyes are the lack of emotion and feeling and humanity, the expansion of class distance in society, the spread of corruption and prostitution in Society, the reversal of values and the replacement of anti-values, the spirit of hypocrisy, war and insecurity, and the plight of the Palestinian people. His irresistible pains are more of the kind of personal pains while social pains and sufferings are mostly among her avoidable sufferings.
    2-      The ultimate goal of suffering in Fahd al-Askar's poetry is to call for liberation and freedom from oppression and fortifying the spirit of martyrdom. In the poet's eyes, the only solution for some sorts of pains such as parting and separation in which there is no hope of joining is patience, silence, even crying. It is because one can tolerate the suffering of the parting of beloved only in these ways.
    3-      In the poet’s point of view, sometimes the duty of the suffering man is patience and trust in God, whether the suffering is inevitable or avoidable. The other duties of suffering and oppressed human beings are to strengthen the spirit of unity in defense of the homeland, to keep alive the spirit of hope for a clear future, the uprising and the struggle against tyranny and occupation, and to return to religion.
    4-      The causes of pain and suffering from the perspective of the past man in Fahad al-Askar's poems are: sinning, transgressing, attachment to the worldly life versus the viewpoint of contemporary man, which are the denial of natural rights and human rights, retrospect, and not living the modern life.
    Keywords: Suffering, pain, Contemporary Arabic Poetry, Contemporary Poetry of Kuwait, Fahad Al-Askar
  • Batoul Mahdavi *, Ghodsiyeh Rezvanian, Hedieh Kasiri Pages 237-260
    Introduction
    Romanticism is a literary school gaining ground in the late 18th century, the period between Classicism and Realism schools’ dominance. This school was a reaction to Industrial revolution or Renaissance disappearance. “It’s not only a literary school, but also a universal movement in different areas like literature, philosophy, social and political sciences, architecture, music, painting, cinema, etc.” (Jafari, 1999, p. 1).
    Romantic and Romanticism have a complicated but interesting origins. Romantic “is an adjective made from the word “Roman”, taken from words “Romano” or “Romi”, primarily referring to a story which is written in various European vernacular languages in a novel way without following any classic principles” (Seyed-hosseini, 2002, Vol.: 1, p. 163).
    “In the late 18th century, France, England and Germany were the first countries started to adopt Romanticism after Classicism, engaging literature and art with myths, imaginations and poetic feelings instead of old norms and conventions” (Razi-zadeh, 2011).
    Freedom, individualism, desertion and travel, contemplation and intuition, verbal magic, unity with nature, rejection of rationalism, emphasis on imagination and feeling, nostalgia, death, love, folklore, religion, patriotism and romantic illustration are among the key themes focused by Romanticism. However; their usage and interpretation may vary from different perspectives.
    Since Romanticism has not addressed one particular class but all the public, “it has become popular in all countries despite of Classicism” (Shamisa, 1993, p. 65). It then expanded to other countries, influencing on different areas. Iran is one of the countries influenced by Romanticism. Parviz Natel Khanlari, Golchin Gilani and Fereydoun Tavaloli, who were under influence of Nimaic poetry, are pioneer romantic poets of Iran (Taslimi, 2004, p. 19). “Romanticism has brought to the modern world the fact that each human being has its own specific identity. Individualism in Romanticism does not rely on rationality which is a general and public phenomena. It relies on the exclusive inner self of individual which can be distinguished from others” (Jafari, 1999, p. 19).
    As Romanticism highlights the public, ordinary people and individualism, poets reflect their self and life in their poems.
    Autobiography, referred to as self-written account, biography, etc., is a literary genre which has recently been emphasized in Iran. “Autobiography is consisted of the words “auto”, meaning self and “biography”, meaning one’s life story and it has various translations and equivalents like personal life story, self-written account, self-life account, life story, etc. in Persian language” (Anousheh, 1997, p. 763). “Self-life account refers to the writings describing author’s mental state and life setting” (Meghdadi, 1999, p. 278).
    Autobiography or self-written account is one of the literary genres in which it is private, however; some poets and authors has honestly narrated their private life. Autobiography is often seen in writings, however; there are some poets who use it in their poems. Amiri Firuzkuhi is one of the poets who places an emphasis on autobiography in his poems.
    Seyed Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi (1909-1984) is a contemporary Iranian poet. He is a poem who has talked about his life in his poems. His poems are autobiographic poems with romantic themes. He becomes popular for the simple language and subtle nature reflected in his poems. He is mainly depicting his life events, which are mostly romantic. In other words, he illustrates his life in a real and imaginary way. Therefore, the present article aims at studying poems of Amiri Firuzkuhi with regard to romanticism and autobiography reflected in his poetry. Romanticism elements and features are hence explored and analyzed in his poems.
    Methodology
    This study is a descriptive-analytic study based on the data collected from library resources, related documents and articles, internet, etc.
    Discussion
    Amiri began composing since he was a teenager. “As he was influenced by Indian genre poets especially Saib Tabrizi, his poems were acquainted with the subtleties and thematic expressions” (Badragheh, 2013, p. 2) and he became an adherent of Indian genre thereby. “Indian genre represents life events and routine experiences… Amiri’s poems are also reflecting everyday experiences, conveying various themes through this style” (Kardgar, 1994, p. 37). Words like death, senescence, despair, sorrow, etc. are widely used in his poems. He stated that he suffered from different diseases during his lifetime. “His poetry is surrounded with grievance and whimper. He speaks of transient and unstable lifetime, individual failure and poetic pain and suffering” (Yahaghi, 1999, p. 12). “The reason of repeating such themes in his poetry certainly stem from his physical condition and continuous disease” (Hossein Pourchafi, 2008, p. 102). He composed poems in different forms and his poems are mostly depicting his personal and artistic life. In other words, he is portraying his romantic autobiography representing all of his emotions including pain, sorrow, sadness, despair, etc. Romanticism themes like emotionalism, naturalism, nostalgia, tendency to travelling, etc. are widely seen in his autobiographic poems. Furthermore, his autobiographic poems are embraced with romantic images.
    Conclusion
    Key romantic themes in Amiri’s autobiographic poems are: death, nostalgia, love, religion, desertion and travel, feelings and emotions and naturalism.
    He always focuses on individualism in his poems. However; he has not ignored his society and composed several poems criticizing modern urban life while indicating that he is reluctant about technology and misses simplicity.
    He blends Romanticism themes with his autobiographic poems in order to depict what’s on his mind in a romantic way. His poems are a blend of reality and feeling. His poems represent a real feeling and he links reality and feeling through use of image and metaphor. His images builds a bridge between his real and imaginary life (just like other romantic poets).
    He always portrays images belonged to a past place and time, describing them with regret, just like romantic images pertaining to a dark and shadowy setting.
    His metaphors indicate his feelings, representing what he feels about himself. He is so obsessed with his personal emotions that sees all the nature and objects in the same boat with himself.
    Keywords: Romanticism, Autobiography, Autobiographic Romanticism, Amiri Firuzkuhi, Poems