فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 108 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • احسان لشگری * صفحات 249-267

    در فلسفه علم، به ویژه در علوم انسانی، شناخت مفاهیم و موضوعات ممکن است مبنای هستی شناسانه، معرفت شناسانه و روش شناسانه متفاوت یا حتی متضاد داشته باشد. از این جهت، تعیین چارچوب نظری شناخت یک مفهوم بنیادین، از اصول اولیه مطالعه و شناخت مفاهیم و موضوعات است. در علوم جغرافیایی، شناخت رابطه سیاست با فضای جغرافیایی، یکی از موضوعاتی است که تفسیر آن در مکاتب مختلف از جمله در روش شناسی پسااثبات گرا متفاوت است. این پژوهش، ناظر به تحلیل علل سیاسی ظهور تغییرات فضایی و چگونگی شناخت این تغییرات در چارچوب روش شناسی پسااثبات گراست. با توجه به ماهیت بنیادین موضوع، در این پژوهش با مراجعه به مستندات معتبر نظری، کارکردهای شناختی روش شناسی پسااثبات گرا درباره شناخت رابطه سیاست و فضا ارائه می شود. یافته های تحقیق بیانگر آن است که با توجه به کیفی بودن عامل قدرت، شناخت رابطه سیاست با ابعاد مختلف فضای جغرافیایی و برجسته شدن هرچه بیشتر این رابطه، تنها در چارچوب رویکرد پوزیتیویستی و کمی امکان پذیر نیست. از آنجا که تحولات پدیده ها و فرایندها در فضای جغرافیایی تا حد زیادی از روابط و الگوهای قدرت سیاسی حاکم بر فضای جغرافیایی تاثیر می پذیرد، دارای ویژگی های اختصاصی است و قابلیت تعمیم پذیری ندارد. بر این مبنا، روابط سیاست و فضا الزاما ابعاد فرامکانی و فرازمانی ندارد و در جهت شناخت آثار قدرت سیاسی در تولید و بازساخت فضای جغرافیایی، الزاما نمی توان از روش های اثبات گرا که یکی از ویژگی های مهم آن تعمیم پذیری است، استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پسااثبات گرا، روش شناسی، سیاست، فضای جغرافیایی
  • مهدی نیری، اسماعیل شیعه*، محمود رضایی، نوید سعیدی صفحات 269-290

    بشر از دیرباز با پدیده های مخرب طبیعی روبه رو بوده است. از این رو، پیوسته در تلاش بوده راه حل هایی برای مقابله با این پدیده ها پیدا کند. در این میان، بافت فرسوده و ساختمان های واقع در این بافت بیشترین آسیب را دیده و از حداقل پیامدهای آن قطع لوله های تاسیساتی، ایجاد آتش سوزی، مسدود شدن مسیرهای دسترسی، کمک رسانی ضعیف و به تاخیر افتادن تخلیه افراد را می توان ذکر کرد. بررسی میزان آسیب ها و صدمه های ناشی از زلزله در شهرها، در بسیاری موارد نشان داده درصد بالایی از صدمه ها به طور مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم به وضعیت نامطلوب برنامه ریزی و شناسایی و کاهش خطرها مربوط می شده است و درواقع علل عمده آسیب ها و تلفات ناشی از آن را در بی توجهی و سهل انگاری در رعایت استانداردهای ایمنی سازه ها، در فقدان اصول، برنامه ها و طرح های شهرسازی مناسب می بایست جستجو کرد که با شناخت بافت و عملکرد و رفتار زلزله و استفاده بهینه از زمین و کاربری های آن، می توان اقدام موثری به منصه ظهور رساند. هدف این مقاله بررسی مولفه های تاثیرگذار بر تاب آوری بافت فرسوده در برابر زلزله در محله عبدل آباد منطقه 19 شهر تهران است. روش پژوهش در این مقاله، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی استفاده شده و با مدلAHP و نرم افزارExpert choice  به تحلیل پرداخته است. یافته های این مقاله نشان می دهد که عامل مدیریتی، اقتصادی و مشارکت اهالی در فرایند بازآفرینی و احیا، به ترتیب با امتیاز 0/145، 0/112 و 0/110در جایگاه های اول تا سوم قرار دارند و نشانگر اهمیت این مولفه ها در بین مولفه های مورد بررسی است. همچنین در این پژوهش با توجه به تحلیل مولفه ها و زیرمعیارها با استفاده از نرم افزار یادشده، بین عبدل آباد شمالی و جنوبی، عبدل آباد شمالی در جایگاه نخست واقع شد و براین اساس، بهترین محدوده از لحاظ برنامه ریزی بعد از وقوع زلزله را می توان مدیریت و ساماندهی کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: کاربری زمین، تاب آوری، بافت فرسوده، زلزله، محله عبدل آباد
  • مرتضی اکبری*، مریم سادات رشادی، حمید پاداش، محمد کریمیان صفحات 291-306

    کشورهای درحال توسعه با ایجاد منطقه آزاد تجاری و صنعتی تلاش دارند موانع قانونی و حقوقی را از پیش روی سرمایه گذاران برداشته، موجبات توسعه اقتصادی، ورود و انتقال فناوری و سرمایه را فراهم سازند و درنهایت، به بهبود شرایط اقتصادی شان کمک کنند. بسیاری از صاحب نظران حوزه کارآفرینی تاثیر فرصت را در فعالیت های کارآفرینانه بسیار کلیدی و اجتناب ناپذیر می دانند؛ به طوری که معتقدند بدون فرصت، کارآفرینی وجود نخواهد داشت. پژوهش پیش رو با هدف شناسایی و اولویت بندی فرصت های کسب وکار در منطقه آزاد تجاری ارس انجام گرفته است. این پژوهش به صورت توصیفی - پیمایشی انجام گرفته و طرح تحقیق از نوع آمیخته اکتشافی بوده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 150 نفر از کارشناسان و متخصصان و خبرگان مناطق آزاد و همچنین کارآفرینان فعال و مستقر در منطقه آزاد ارس بوده است. داده ها در مرحله کیفی با استفاده از کدگذاری و در مرحله کمی با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SPSSتجزیه و تحلیل شده اند. پس از گردآوری داده ها، فرصت های کسب وکار در منطقه آزاد ارس در 5 حوزه کلی کشاورزی، گردشگری، بازرگانی، خدماتی و صنعتی شناسایی و اولویت بندی شده اند. نتایج نشان داد حوزه بازرگانی در بین حوزه های مختلف، رتبه اول و حوزه کشاورزی در اولویت آخر قرار دارد. همچنین، در حوزه بازرگانی، فرصت کسب وکار در زمینه ایجاد پایانه صادراتی و بازرگانی، در حوزه خدماتی فرصت کسب وکار در زمینه احداث مجتمع درمانی و خدمات توریسم درمانی، در حوزه صنعتی فرصت کسب وکار در زمینه تولید سیستم های گرمایش خورشیدی (آبگرمکن خورشیدی)، در حوزه گردشگری فرصت کسب وکار در زمینه احداث مجموعه هتل-آپارتمان و کمپینگ خانواده و در حوزه کشاورزی فرصت کسب وکار درزمینه درجه بندی و بسته بندی میوه رتبه های اول را به خود اختصاص داده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: حوزه بازرگانی، حوزه کشاورزی، فرصت های کسب وکار، منطقه آزاد تجاری ارس
  • محمدرضا رضایی، یحیی علی زاده * صفحات 307-322

    در پژوهش پیش رو، در مرحله اول به ارزیابی پایداری منابع آب شهر یزد براساس مدل های توسعه شهری پایدار پرداخته شد و سپس جمعیت بهینه یزد براساس تامین آب مورد نیاز در سال 1395 تعیین شد. بر اساس ماهیت هدف گذاری، از روش تحقیق ترکیبی (اطلاعات کیفی پشتوانه ای برای اطلاعات کمی) استفاده شد. در این پژوهش، با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای، فرم های پایدار شهری بررسی و در ادامه، مدل های پایداری منابع آب شناسایی شد. وضعیت منابع آبی استان، دشت یزد-اردکان و شهر یزد با استفاده از اسناد مرتبط تعیین و سپس با استفاده از تحلیل های کمی، جمعیت بهینه شهر بر اساس دو گزینه تولید و مصرف آب محاسبه شد. نتایج پژوهش، نشان می دهد دشت یزد-اردکان فقط 2 درصد از منابع آب زیرزمینی استان را دارد؛ در حالی که 58/82 درصد جمعیت شهری استان، در شهر یزد ساکن اند و 80 درصد آب مورد نیاز از منابع سطحی تامین می شود که متعلق به آب انتقالی از زاینده رود در فاصله 330 کیلومتری است؛ بنابراین برای تعیین اندازه بهینه جمعیت و پایداری شهر بر اساس مدل های ویلیامز و هال، شهر یزد در ارتباط با منابع آبی، شهر پایداری نیست و براساس عدم وابستگی به خارج از حوزه نفوذ، ادامه حیات در آن ممکن نیست و حتی با وابستگی به خارج از حوزه نفوذ (آب انتقالی از زاینده رود) 59000 نفر جمعیت مازاد دارد. از این رو، باید در جهت کنترل جمعیت از یک سو و مصرف بهینه آب از سوی دیگر، تدابیر لازم اندیشیده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: اندازه بهینه جمعیت، پایداری، منابع آبی، یزد
  • عباس امینی*، نصرت مرادی صفحات 323-340

    سکونتگاه های روستایی نخستین الگوهای مکانی تعامل انسان با طبیعت و تاثیر محیط بر جوامع انسانی اند. در تحول این الگوها طی زمان، علاوه بر عوامل غیرمحیطی، محیط نیز همچنان موثر بوده است. پژوهش پیش رو به شناسایی جمعیت گریزی و ناپایایی (تخلیه)های روستایی استان اصفهان طی ربع سده 1365 تا 1390 و تبیین محیطی آن در محیط GIS پرداخته است. توان یا نارسایی محیط، از روابط متقابل و غیرجبرانی عوامل محیطی ناشی می شود و سکونت پذیری سرزمین، مستلزم برخورداری همزمان از کمینه کارکردهای محیطی مصالحه ناپذیر برای فعالیت و معیشت است. بر این اساس، در این پژوهش تبیین پدیدآیی و ناپایایی سکونتگاه های روستایی استان، با رویکرد چندمعیاره فضایی و روش های آماری صورت گرفت و پایگاه داده ها شامل پراکنش فضایی روستاهای دارای سکنه در سال 1365، روستاهای ناپایا (تخلیه شده) تا سال 1390، لایه های محیطی پردازش شده موقعیت ژئومورفیک، شیب، راستای شیب، دما، منابع اراضی و فاصله از منابع آبی چاه و چشمه بود. تحلیل فضایی و آماری تراکم پدیدآیی روستاها در پهنه های توان محیطی و درصد روستاهای ناپایای هر پهنه نسبت به ابتدای دوره، بیانگر رابطه مثبت (80 درصدی) توان محیط با تراکم پدیدآیی و رابطه مثبت (56 درصدی) نارسایی محیط با درصد ناپایایی روستاها بود. به این ترتیب، گرچه محیط هم در پدیدآیی و هم در ناپایایی روستاها موثر است، تعیین کنندگی غنای الگوهای محیطی در پاگیری نظام های سکونتگاهی بیشتر از تعیین کنندگی ضعف محیط در گریز جمعیت از آنهاست. بنابراین، ناپایایی روستاها از سازوکارهای غیرمحیطی نیز متاثر است و هم افزایی «فرسودگی بنیان های محیطی» و «ناکارامدی ساختارهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی»، به بازتولید آن و نارسایی توسعه متوازن و آمایش سرزمین دامن می زند.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی چندمعیاره فضایی، پدیدآیی، سکونتگاه های روستایی، محیط، ناپایایی
  • رحمت الله فرهودی، علی محمد ناصری*، زهرا پیشگاهی فرد صفحات 341-356

    شهر تهران، پایتخت ایران، از گذشته تا کنون چالش های اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، سیاسی و طبیعی متعددی همچون جنگ های جهانی، گذار از سنت به مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم و آثار تحولات جهانی را پشت سر گذاشته است. روند شهرنشینی و شهرسازی تهران، از شکل گیری تا کنون، در کنار تغییر و تحولات متاثر از عوامل و شرایط گوناگون زمانی-مکانی داخلی و خارجی، سبب ایجاد دگرگونی هایی در شکل و محدوده شهر و بروز شرایط جدیدی، با عنوان توسعه فیزیکی و کالبدی شهر به سمت حومه، حاشیه و پیرامون شده است؛ فرایندی پویا، با توالی و تسلسل که طی آن محدوده فیزیکی و فضای کالبدی شهر در جهات عمودی و افقی ازنظر کم و کیف به طور مداوم در حال گسترش و تغییر است. تداوم این روند سریع رشد، بدون اندیشه و برنامه، ترکیب فیزیکی فضای شهر را تخریب و بنیان پایداری شهر یا منطقه شهری را دچار بی تعادلی فضا می کند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی نحوه شکل گیری و توسعه عناصر و اشکال فیزیکی فضا و تاثیر آن بر شرایط موجود با تحلیل تناسب انتظام این عناصر در منطقه 22 تهران به مثابه یک منطقه رشد یا گذار است. در این بررسی، هدف ارزیابی تاثیر عوامل مختلفی ازقبیل دریاچه چیتگر، شکل مسکن-معماری، زیر ساخت ها، چیدمان عناصر فضای کالبدی به خصوص شهرک ها، مجموعه های ورزشی تفریحی، در ایجاد شرایط موجود و وضع آتی منطقه است. در این پژوهش، آثار مستقیم و غیر مستقیم عناصر و اشکال فضایی در ایجاد شرایط موجود از منظر رویکرد پایداری شهری در قالب تناسب عناصر کالبدی و انتظام عناصر در مواجهه با مبانی برنامه ریزی، طراحی و شهرسازی پایدار و چگونگی تحقق پایداری فضای شهری ارزیابی و تحلیل شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار شهری، رشد فیزیکی شهر، مطالعات کالبدی، منطقه 22، منطقه رشد
  • فائزه مهری، زهره داودپور* صفحات 357-371

    توزیع نابرابر منابع و موقعیت های اجتماعی-اقتصادی در فضاهای شهری، ارتباط بین گروه های اجتماعی مختلف را کاهش داده، با تاثیرگذاری بر فرصت مشارکت در زندگی شهری، انزوای اجتماعی-فضایی را منجر می شود. اگرچه در زمینه تاثیر شکل شهری بر انزوای اجتماعی، پژوهش هایی صورت گرفته است، دانش کمی درباره تاثیر پیکربندی فضایی شهر بر ظهور شبکه های اجتماعی مختلف وجود دارد که به واسطه تاثیرگذاری بر حرکت، بر انزوای اجتماعی-فضایی نیز موثرند. این مقاله با تاکید بر امکان حضور افراد در فضاها و مکان های عمومی در مراکز محله ای دوازده محله از شهر زنجان، به بررسی اهمیت چیدمان فضایی در فرایند تعاملات اجتماعی پرداخته است تا نحوه تاثیر پیکربندی فضایی شهر را بر فرصت مشارکت در زندگی شهری بررسی کند. از سوی دیگر، در پی بررسی جایگاه طراحی شهری در تسهیل دسترسی به منابع و ظهور شبکه های اجتماعی به منظور کاهش تاثیرات منفی انزواست. نوع پژوهش، کاربردی و روش پژوهش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است. اطلاعات به روش میدانی و کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده اند. تحلیل های پیوستگی فضایی به وسیله ابزار Space Syntaxو نرم افزار UCL Depthmap و تحلیل اجتماعی با نرم افزار SPSSصورت گرفته است. نتایج نشان می دهند که چگونگی روابط فضایی فضاها و مکان های عمومی در سطح محلی و فرامحلی و قابلیت دسترسی متاثر از آن، نتایج اجتماعی مهمی درپی دارد. در صورتی که پیکربندی فضایی شهر، پیوستگی محله ها را در مقیاس های مختلف تامین کند، توزیع عادلانه منابع و فرصت های کار، زندگی و فعالیت، از انزوای اجتماعی-فضایی می کاهد و منجر به افزایش همبستگی اجتماعی در سطح محله های شهری و شهر می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: انزوای اجتماعی-فضایی، پیکربندی فضایی، چیدمان فضا، شهر زنجان، طراحی شهری
  • رسول قربانی*، امیدعلی خوارزمی، نعیمه ترکمن نیا صفحات 373-385

    براساس آمار وزارت راه و شهرسازی، جمعیت سکونتگاه های غیررسمی در شهر مشهد در سال 1385، 820 هزار نفر و در سال 1393 نزدیک به یک میلیون و دویست هزار نفر بوده است و این روند افزایشی جمعیتی و کالبدی، اسکان غیررسمی را به موضوع پیچیده ای در کلان شهر مشهد تبدیل کرده است. این مقاله به شناسایی عوامل و متغیرهای شکل گیری و گسترش سکونتگاه های غیررسمی در کلان شهر مشهد و معرفی این ابعاد و متغیرها و به بررسی تحلیلی دو عامل اقتصادی و اجتماعی پرداخته است. این پژوهش از نظر روش پژوهش، توصیفی-تحلیلی است و  اطلاعات آن به روش اسنادی و میدانی گردآوری شده است. تحلیل کمی پژوهش متکی بر استفاده از نرم افزارهای SPSS برای تجزیه و تحلیل آماری و VENSIM برای رسم دیاگرام های علی و معلولی است. داده های ورودی این نرم افزارها از راه تکمیل پرسشنامه ها برای دو جامعه کارشناسان (مرتبط با امر اسکان غیررسمی) و ساکنان سکونتگاه های غیررسمی شهر مشهد (8 پهنه سکونتی) به دست آمده است. بنابر نظر کارشناسان و ساکنان، عامل اقتصادی به خصوص متغیرهای درآمد اندک، خشکسالی و رکود کشاورزی و بیکاری تاثیر بسیار مهم تر و قوی تری نسبت به عامل اجتماعی داشته اند. در فرایند گسترش اسکان غیررسمی، این متغیرها چرخه هایی را ایجاد می کنند که خود سبب تقویت و به حرکت درآوردن سریع تر چرخه های متغیرهای اجتماعی و درنهایت، گسترش سکونتگاه ها شده اند. درآخر، پیشنهادهای پژوهش در جهت تضعیف قدرت چرخه های اقتصادی بیان شده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: عامل اجتماعی-فرهنگی، عامل اقتصادی، کلان شهر مشهد، گسترش سکونتگاه غیررسمی
  • حسن حکمت نیا* صفحات 387-409

    تخلفات در ساخت وسازها در تعارض با طرح های توسعه شهری بوده، تاثیرات منفی بر ابعاد مختلف شهر داشته است. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر عملکرد کمیسیون ماده 100 و تدوین راهبردهایی به منظور تاثیرات مثبت عملکردی کمیسیون مزبور بر روند شهرنشینی و شهرسازی شهر یزد است. جامعه آماری تعداد پرونده های ساختمانی ارجاع شده به کمیسیون ماده 100 شهرداری یزد است. برابر آمار و ارقام، تنها در یکی از مناطق سه گانه شهر یزد در سال 1390، تعداد 721 پرونده تخلف به کمیسیون ماده 100 ارجاع و متعاقب آن، رای قانونی صادر شده است. در میان آرای کمیسیون بدوی، آرای مربوط به حکم «تخریب-جریمه و موکول به بازسازی» بیشترین مورد را به خود اختصاص داده است که متاسفانه 100 درصد اجرای این آرا، به پرداخت جریمه ختم شده است که این عملکرد کمیسیون ماده 100 در بعد اجتماعی، کاهش نظارت اجتماعی؛ در بعد شهرسازی، ناهمگونی در خط آسمان؛ در بعد محیط زیستی، ناسازگاری ناشی از همجواری نامناسب کاربری ها؛ و در بعد امنیتی و ایمنی، کاهش ایمنی و امنیت ناشی از بی توجهی به مقررات ملی ساختمان را برای شهر یزد رقم زده است. نتایج برنامه ریزی سناریو نشان می دهد که متغیرهای مرتبط با قوانین شهری و ناهماهنگی بین سازمان های مرتبط با ماده 100، تاثیرگذاری زیادی بر عملکرد ماده 100 داشته اند و همچنین، کمبود قوانین و مقررات ساخت وسازها و ابهام در آنها، بیشترین تاثیر را بر عملکرد ماده 100 داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی سناریو، تخلفات ساختمانی، شهرنشینی، شهر یزد، کمیسیون ماده 100
  • محسن رفیعیان، مجتبی رفیعیان*، محمدرضا بمانیان صفحات 411-428

    کیفیت معنای مکان های عمومی شهری متاثر از شاخص هایی است؛ تعدادی از شاخص ها سهم بیشتر و تعدادی سهم کمتری در شکل گیری کیفیت معنای مکان دارند. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که شاخص های اصلی دخیل در کیفیت معنای مکان های عمومی شهر یزد و اولویت بندی آنها از منظر شهروندان کدام است؟ این پژوهش از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بهره گرفته است. با مطالعات اسنادی در تدوین مبانی نظری، شاخص های کیفیت معنای مکان توصیف شده و سپس میزان تاثیر هر شاخص در ادراک کیفیت میدان های منتخب (به مثابه معرف مکان های عمومی شهر یزد) بررسی شده است. واحد تحلیل پژوهش، هریک از شهروندان شهر یزد است. نمونه آماری 384 نفر بوده و پرسشنامه ها سوالاتی دارای جواب های مبتنی بر طیف لیکرت 5 امتیازی داشتند. با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS، بر روی داده های حاصل از پرسشنامه، آزمون T تک نمونه ای برای پی بردن به صحت شاخص های به کاررفته در پژوهش و آزمون فریدمن برای رتبه بندی شاخص های منتخب به کارگیری شده است. یافته ها نشان داد که از میان شاخص های 22گانه، 3 شاخص محیطی برای همه، دسترسی و کارایی بیشترین سهم در ادراک کیفیت معنای مکان را داشته اند. از این یافته ها این گونه می توان نتیجه گرفت که از منظر شهروندان، برنامه ریزی و طراحی مکان با کیفیت نیازمند طراحی محیط برای همه و تمرکز بر دسترسی (سهولت دسترسی به میدان و فضاهای آن بر اثر فرم ادراک شود) و کارایی (متناسب با اهداف فعالیتی کارایی میدان ادراک شود) است و اگر مکانی همچون میدان امیر چخماق یا بعثت، دارای ویژگی های تاریخی باشد (به لحاظ معنایی، رمزگشایی از آموخته های قبلی کند و با معانی فرهنگی و تاریخی موجود در ذهن ارتباط برقرار کند)، شاخص توجه به ارزش های تاریخی و فرهنگی بودن در آن، در اولویت بیشتری نسبت به محیطی برای همه، دسترسی و کارایی قرار دارد؛ یعنی می توان به سطوح معنا و سطوح شاخص های سنجش آن قائل بود. برخی شاخص ها با جنبه های فرمی و مبتنی بر ویژگی های مکان، قضاوت از کیفیت را رقم می زنند. برخی دیگر با تکیه بر جنبه های فرهنگی و تاریخی و جهان بینی و ایدئولوژی شهروندان، کیفیت مکان را رقم می زنند. شاخص های فرمی بالاترین رتبه را به خود اختصاص دادند و شاید بیشترین قابلیت را برای کیفی سازی مکان های عمومی داشته باشند؛ یعنی برنامه ریزان و طراحان با تکیه بر جنبه های عمومی بودن مکان، دسترسی و کارایی بتوانند، سطح کیفی آن را در ادراک شهروندان به طور چشمگیری افزایش دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: ادراک، کیفیت معنای مکان، معنای مکان، مکان های عموی شهری، یزد
  • نوبخت سبحانی، پروانه زیویار*، رحیم سرور صفحات 429-451

    کلان شهر تهران در چند دهه اخیر شاهد دگرگونی های متنوع و متعددی در عرصه های مختلف جمعیتی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و کالبدی- فضایی بر اثر سیاست تمرکزگرایی در فضای حریم بوده است. این موضوع از یک سو، با افزایش تمایل به ساخت وسازهای مسکونی و غیرمسکونی بیرون از محدوده قانونی شهر تهران و از سوی دیگر، با توجه به رویکرد کسب درآمد از اراضی پیرامون شهر تهران و ایجاد رقابت شدید برای تصاحب سهم بیشتر توسط ذینفعان مختلف، به بحران مبدل شده است. نوع پژوهش از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت، توصیفی-تحلیلی است. هدف پژوهش، سنجش حریم پایتخت به لحاظ شاخص های تاثیرگذار و اثرپذیر بر مدیریت یکپارچه حریم است. براساس آمار به دست آمده، از تعداد کل جامعه که شامل 30 نفر است، 11 نفر کارشناس اداره حریم و مابقی متخصصان و خبرگان موضوع پژوهش بودند. برای پایایی پرسشنامه از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که مقدار 0/8 به دست آمد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل یافته ها از روش دیمتل فازی بهره گرفته شد. مولفه های بررسی شده در این پژوهش، در4  عامل کالبدی، اقتصادی، مدیریتی و حکمروایی خوب شهری تقسیم بندی شدند. نتایج نشان داد عواملی چون مدیریت مجمع الجزایری حریم از لحاظ عملکردی، قلمروی و جغرافیایی، نبود حکمروایی خوب شهری، ضعف مدیریتی در تامین زیرساخت ها برای عرضه مسکن مناسب و وجود اقتصاد غیررسمی در کانون های اسکان مستقر در حریم، بیشترین تاثیر را بر وضعیت حریم شهر تهران داشته اند. از سوی دیگر، نبود سامانه کنترل هوشمند، توسعه متراکم ساختمانی و ضعف بنیان های اقتصادی مبتنی برزمین در حریم، از اثرپذیری ترین عوامل بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: تهران، حریم، دیمتل فازی، مدیریت یکپارچه
  • کیمیا محمدی، بهادر زارعی* صفحات 453-469

    نظام بین الملل و قدرت های بزرگ به مثابه «متغیر مستقل» و نظام های فرعی-منطقه ای به مثابه «متغیر میانی»، سیاست خارجی کشورها را تحت تاثیر قرار داده، با وجود فرصت هایی برای توسعه واحدها، محدودیت هایی برای آنان در جهت پیگیری اهداف و منافع ملی ایجاد می کنند. با وجود این، دولت های کوچک و متوسط در ساختار موجود، توان نسبی برای پیگیری اهداف توسعه ای خود دارند؛ از جمله این کشورها، ایران و مالزی را می توان نام برد. به طور تقریبی، مالزی در قلب ناحیه شرق آسیا قرار دارد؛ منطقه ای که در حال حاضر به یکی از مناطق مطرح اقتصاد جهانی تبدیل شده است و در صلح و ثبات به سر می برد و ایران در منطقه خاورمیانه قرار دارد؛ منطقه ای بحران زا و با نظم هابزی. این شرایط منطقه ای تاثیر ساختار نظام بین الملل و قدرت های بزرگ بر سیاست خارجی دو کشور را دستخوش تحول کرده است. شرایط نامناسب منطقه خاورمیانه در کنار موانع و محدودیت های آمریکا، سیاست خارجی ایران را به ویژه در بعد تاثیر بر فرایند توسعه، با محدودیت مواجه کرده است؛ در حالی که در شرق آسیا، حضور چین و ژاپن در کنار آمریکا، علاوه بر تعدیل محدودیت های این ابرقدرت، سبب ارتقای فناوری، سرمایه و اقتصاد مالزی شده است. در بعد ظرفیت و توان سازمان های محلی نیز عضویت مالزی در «آسه آن»، با زیر مجموعه های کاربردی آن، شرایط دستیابی به سرمایه های محلی و همکاری فنی، به منظور کسب منافع منطقه ای را فراهم کرده است؛ بر خلاف سازمان منطقه ای اکو که نتوانسته چنین جایگاهی برای ایران داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: ایران، مالزی، نئورئالیسم، نظام بین الملل، نظام های منطقه ای
  • محمود واثق*، احد محمدی، جواد حشمتی صفحات 471-492

    پدیدارشناسی یکی از مکاتب مهم فلسفی در حوزه های مختلف علمی به ویژه در علوم انسانی، جغرافیا و خاصه در جغرافیای انسانی است. این رویکرد درپی درک و شهود مستقیم و بدون واسطه اشیا و پدیده هاست و برای این منظور، به نفی فرضیه ها، مقولات و پیش فرض ها می پردازد؛ بنابراین از این منظر، پدیدارشناسی رویکردی واقع گرایانه و بلکه تجربی به واقعیات محسوب می شود و نوعی نگرش پوزیتیویستی، البته با محتوا و روشی متفاوت با پوزیتیویسم سنتی، به حساب می آید. بنابراین، برحسب ظاهر، این سنت فلسفی و علمی را باید در زمره دیدگاه واقع گرایی قرار داد؛ لیکن به دلیل وجود رگه های بارزی از اصالت معنا، به ویژه تعلیق واقعیات جهان خارج و حتی حذف آن به مثابه موجودیتی مستقل از ذهن و تاکید کامل بر ماهیت پدیداری واقعیات و سرانجام به دلیل اتکا بر شیوه تجربه شهودی، به رغم برخی خصیصه های واقع گرایی، این رویکرد را باید در ردیف دیدگاه های ایدئالیستی طبقه بندی کرد. لیکن با وجود جنبه مثبت این رویکرد، یعنی تجربه زنده و بی واسطه اشیا و پدیده ها، این رویکرد دچار برخی نارسایی های معرفت شناختی است که امکان به کارگیری آن را به مثابه رهیافت علمی در حوزه دانش جغرافیا با مشکلات جدی مواجه می کند و از این رو، فاقد قابلیت های لازم برای استفاده در حوزه پژوهش های رشته های علوم اجتماعی و ازجمله جغرافیا به مثابه رویکرد و روشی «علمی» است. هدف اصلی این مقاله که با رویکردی واقع گرایانه با نگرش عقلانیت انتقادی به نگارش درآمده، بررسی و واکاوی این مطلب از منظر تحلیل های منطقی و معرفت شناختی است.

    کلیدواژگان: پدیدارشناسی، تحلیل معرفت شناختی، تعلیق، جغرافیا، شهود
  • شهرزاد میرزاعابدینی*، محمد سلمانی، مجتبی قدیری صفحات 493-512

    مقصد های کویری و بیابانی به سبب داشتن ویژگی هایی مانند بکر بودن، آرامش، مهمان نوازی ساکنان و فرهنگ غذایی غنی، از مقصدهایی محسوب می شوند که قابلیت زیادی در گردشگری کم شتاب دارند. با تلفیق دو گونه گردشگری «کم شتاب» و «زمین-محور» و رعایت ضوابط پایداری محیط زیست، می توان از راه گردشگری کم شتاب، به حفظ ژئومورفوسایت ها دست یافت. این پژوهش درپی شناسایی و ارزیابی مقصدهایی است که با ویژگی های خود به ماندگاری بیشتر گردشگران در مقصد ها کمک کنند. اطلاعات این پژوهش توصیفی-کاربردی، با بهره گیری از منابع کتابخانه ای، اینترنت و گفت وگو با کارشناسان گردآوری شد و به کمک پرسشنامه، تعداد 20 ژئومورفوسایت از دو شهرستان طبس و خور و بیابانک با استفاده از روش فاسیلوس ارزیابی شد. دلیل انتخاب روش فاسیلوس، تعداد بیشتر معیارهای امتیازدهی و هم خوانی بیشتر آنها با معیارهای گردشگری کم شتاب است. داده ها به کمک نرم افزار SPSS و با به کارگیری تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، بررسی و تحلیل شدند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان دادند که ژئومورفوسایت های دق سرد و گرم، کال سردر، معادن و روستای پروده، روستای بیاضه و کویر روح مرغوم به ترتیب امتیاز 1 تا 5 را برای هدف گردشگری کم شتاب داشتند. همچنین، ژئومورفوسایت های کال نمک، تل خاکستری، آب معدنی گرمه، ریگ جن و روستای بیاضه به ترتیب امتیاز 1 تا 5 را برای هدف گردشگری زمین-محور به دست آوردند. در پایان، راهکارهایی پیشنهاد شد، از جمله: تکمیل راه های ارتباطی، فضاهای تفریحی و امکانات گردشگری؛ تهیه و تولید نقشه و بروشور برای معرفی ژئومورفوسایت ها؛ سازگاری اقامتگاه ها با محیط؛ دوره های آموزشی برای گردشگران و مردم محلی؛ بهره برداری از گردشگری علمی برای جذب گردشگران و دیدار از مناطق.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی ژئومورفوسایت، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، شهرستان خور و بیابانک، شهرستان طبس، گردشگری کم شتاب
  • کیومرث یزدان پناه * صفحات 513-530

    فضای مجازی که به دلایل کارکردهای متعدد و جذابیت های نو به دنیای دوم انسان ها تبدیل شده، تاثیرات بسیار پیچیده ای بر رفتار و کردار انسان ها به جا گذاشته است. این فناوری نو ارتباطی که محصول دوره چهارم دستاوردهای فنی بشر به شمار می آید، توانسته است به طرز شگفت آوری در تمام گروه های سنی به گستردگی نفوذ پیدا کند. در این پژوهش، سعی شد که ابعاد مختلف کارکردهای فضای مجازی و شبکه های اجتماعی به مثابه رسانه ای چندوجهی و میزان اثرگذاری آن بر جامعه زنان ایران بررسی شود. بنابراین، سعی شد با درنظر گرفتن قابلیت ها و کارکردهای مختلف آن، ابعاد و میزان اثرگذاری آن بر زنان ایرانی تجزیه و تحلیل شود. در این پژوهش با بهره گیری از روش پیمایشی و جمع آوری برخی اطلاعات از راه پرسشنامه، به بررسی سطح و میزان اثرگذاری فضای مجازی بر زنان، آثار مثبت و منفی آن در تغییر الگوهای رفتاری در متغیرهای رفتاری اجتماعی پرداخت. نتایج نشان داد که فضای مجازی امکان پویایی و تحرک اجتماعی زنان را بیشتر فراهم کرده و با حضور معنادار در گروه های متعدد اجتماعی، آنان را تا حد گسترده ای از انزوای اجتماعی خارج کرده است؛ هرچند پیامدهای ناشی از حضور بدون محدودیت در فضای مجازی نیز برای زنان فراوان بوده و در موارد متعددی منجر به تحمیل هزینه های روحی و روانی به آنان شده است. اما بررسی های علمی نشان می دهد که حضور در فضای مجازی سبب تحرکات بیشتر زنان در جامعه شده و در جهاتی به ارتقای ذهنی و فکری آنان در دسته های مختلف اجتماعی منجر شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: آثار جنسیتی، جغرافیای سیاسی فضای مجازی، زنان ایرانی، شبکه های اجتماعی، فناوری های نو ارتباطی
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  • Ehsan Lashgari * Pages 249-267
     IntroductionIn

    the human science, one concept may be having some definition or even may be this narration was contradiction with each other in different philosophical schools. Therefore, explanation of one concept or relationship in different cognition schools has very great importance. From philosophical aspects in human science, theoretical structure has very fundamental role in cognition. In other word, ontology, cognition and methodology of one concept is deficient or uncompleted without determination of theoretical structure. In this field, in the geographical sciences; relationship between politics and space as very important paradigm in the geography could be taken different meaning in different cognition schools. Space consists of bilateral relation between human and environment. Geographical sciences analyses this space and its issues with human and physical dimension. Between different aspects of Geographical space, political dimension and executive is more important than another dimension. In other word, this dimension and its ideological framework for resolve the issues in the space in different cognitive methodology could be were differed. In the evaluated of Geographical studies from the 1970s with the arrival of Marxist ideas in Geography A number of geographers turn away from focusing on quantitative methods and ecological studies. in the Positivism school, space was considered as perceptual thing. In other word, researcher should be use from their sense and their experience for detection of thing in space. before that, Dominance methodological in geographical studies was defined in positivism school. In this school, researcher should not involve his ideology or his culture for discovering of truth. While, in post positivism thinking quantities’ planning is not nothing except "false consciousness". In post positivism school, meanings, ideas, theories, the whole of them obtain their objectivity and ostensible concept by dominant power and ideology. In this school, geographical spaces also are derived from dominant ideological and power. In structuralism philosophy Major assumption is that invisible force in behind of any symbol in the space that were caused any symbol in space are emerged. So, the space concept does not have actual objectivity. Since the 1970s was conducted a serious theoretical criticism on the quantitative methodology in Geography. This time, the philosophy of geography was full of political and ideological conflicts. This time due to the cognitive shift in geographical sciences among the different dimensions of geographic space. The political dimension of space as one of the most important dimensions of space was more important to resolve these challenges. So, in this article, have been struggled to understand the relationship between politics and geographical space in post positivism methodology and was analyzed the effectiveness of understanding this relationship in post positivism methodology.

    Methodology

    This research has fundamental approaches in the philosophy of geography and for compilation of information has been referred to valid document and bibliography. In this research were struggled with descriptive and analytical approaches, in first step was defined space concept and cognition. Then, the space definition has been accorded with characteristics of post positivism cognition school.

    Result and discussion

    As mentioned, in the definition of geographical space concept, one of the important aspects of production and changes the geographical space is resulting from political power. So that, politics and ideology as a process and geographical space as the form and context is always interconnected with each other. In other words, any action that knowingly or unwittingly crosses with political power considered as political action and therefore spatial structure is the production of political processes. Generally, the main functions of post positivism for understanding the relationship between politics and geographic space is as follows:1- Changing in geographic space phenomena are affected largely by political power and patterns of society. Although the trend of geographical space not to be studied form just one-dimensional. However, Discourse merely not take consider as abstract ideas, in realistic approaches they are as previous existence that takes precedence over any other discovery. So any phenomenon into geographical space is dependent to a discourse. On the other hand, coordination between different levels of space planning regardless of dominant power cannot be achieved in a sustainable way.2- Studies Methods for relationship between politics and geographical space is far from qualitative method and there is no character reproducibility on it. because space necessary is affected by the changing ideologies and political actors. since the change of power and discourse cannot be predicted. Thus, changes in spatial phenomena cannot be identified and predicted and incommensurability of discourses in different historical periods it is one of the inevitable consequences. So in future studies for recognition of relationship between politics and space in trans positivism is needed Genealogy approach. In this approach, since there isn’t accurate knowledge about the future of geographical space changes as a result of political power transition. In this context, recognizing changes various aspects of geographic space-based genealogy of power is carried out through the following steps. A) break points of discourse should be Determined until its historicity be understood. B) Period time should be Determined when the discourse has impacts with current framework on the other aspect of geographical space.

    Conclusion

    As was said, Space is major paradigm in geographical sciences and different aspect of geographical sciences read relation between human and environment that produce the space. But as was said, space has different meaning in distinct cognition schools. In other word, every school for resolve the issue in the space could be make different solution. So, solutions that presented by post positivism are distinct from solutions that was presented by another methodology. Form another side, the evolution of human wisdom considers, collective action coordinated as only way to overcome on the issues in the geographical space. So, studies between politics and space is obtained only by authority and the rule of one class as political dominant over the another of social classes. As a result, for studying of ideology and political construction effects on other dimensions of geographical space must be used from post positivism methodology.

    Keywords: &quot, Politics&quot, Geographical space&quot, Philosophy&quot, Methodology&quot, Post positivism&quot
  • Mahdi Nayyeri, Esmaeil Shie *, Mahmud Rezaei, Navid Saeidi Pages 269-290

    Human has always encountered natural disasters; attempting, consequently, to find solutions to deal with them. Meanwhile, worn-outtexture and buildings situated in them faced most damages including; snapped pipelines, fires, blocked access routes, poor assistance and late evacuation. Studies on the damages caused by earthquakes indicate their relationship with improper planning and the process of detecting and mitigating them. Actually, the main reason for the damages caused by earthquake is the negligence in structure safety standards due to lack of proper urbanism plans and designs for which effective measures should be taken, identifying the textures and their function and behavior during earthquakes. The purpose of this paper is to study effective components in resilience of worn-outtexture during earthquakes in Abdolabad in district 19 of Tehran. The research method is analytical- descriptive and library and document studies have been conducted as well as AHP and Expert Choice- based analyses. Results indicate that management, economy and citizens’ involvement in renewal and revival process with 0.145, 0.112 and 0.110 scores are in first to third place, respectively and this reflects their importance compared with other components of the study. Additionally, in this paper, considering the components and sub-criteria and using the software, North Abdolabad, compared with South Abdolabad, was in the first place and accordingly, best area in terms of post-earthquake planning to manage and organize.

    Introduction

    As an influential tool for urban authorities, land use planning plays an important role in the increased resilience of urban communities. Considering the importance of the subject in different aspects and diverse conditions in the pursuit of justice, land use planning with equitable distribution of resources and services has been ignored by scholars, policy makers and urban planners and managers with no worthwhile results in this regard (Mousavi, 2012). Due to inattention and loss as a result of erosion, worn-outtextures contain the potential for various types of damage. Physical development and rapid growth of cities during recent decades led to poor distribution of urban centers resulting in lack of equal enjoyment of services by the citizens (Pourmohammadi, 2016:92).

    Methodology

    Studying land use resilience during the earthquakes in vulnerable textures, with minimum use of facilities and land, this paper seeks provide a land use planning and other effective components in order to propose best reaction and least damage during critical conditions. In terms of method and type, this study is descriptive- analytical i.e. the issue is handled systematically and its components are analyzed. Identifying the variables affecting a problem through descriptive and library methods, first, an effective pattern and appropriate indicators for components analysis were provided and then, using experts’ ideas, factors were weighed. Setting critical components, a hierarchical structure of factors was provided in AHP to determine, prioritize and take optimal components. AHP was used for calculations and Microsoft Choice and Microsoft Excel for components rating and priority.

    Result and Discussion

    Results from Expert Choice indicate that, from measured components, management is in the first place with undeniable role in the evolution of the city and its center. Meanwhile, the important point is that a manager should be able to make a relationship between their goals in worn-out areas and urban system as a whole. Economy (0.112), also,is in second place impacting the formation and urban texture content regarding the indicators such as job, income, various activities and services. Distribution of poverty and wealth and creating an average level of life for the residents, appropriate distribution of accessible urban services around the city results in the integration and flow of life in all city areas and their renewal and prosperity (Ziaii Thani, 2012). Citizens’ involvement in revival and renewal process is the third component (0.110). According to this component, despite community cohesion and strong social textureas a result of its position compared with other urban areas, worn-outtexture suffers problems beyond construction methods and similar issues. Accordingly, physical intervention in these textures is ineffective and other solutions such as public involvement need to be considered. Fabric and land use (0.093) were in fourth place that indicates theirs importance compared with other components. This type of planning with resilience management to counter natural disasters increases the safety of the spaces used by citizens and easy access by rescue groups. Function was in fifth place (0.084) in Expert Choice. Today, creating user diversity in urban space is an important issue and in real life, also, when working space predominates, compared with residential and touristic spaces, many social and spatial problems occur in that area (Qanavati, 2011:15). Environment was the sixth component (0.082)in which production and emission of land and air pollutions result in declined quality of urban texture, migration, stopped renovation and thereupon, worn-outtextures. Population was seventh component (0.081) with considerations such as high population density, high number of children, elderlies, women and disabled people and high household density in housing units result in increased vulnerability. As the eighth component, culture had a great impact on neighborhoods; especially during earthquakes for preserving and effectiveness of which during critical situations, factors such as increased social communications, strengthened sense of community, participation in periodical events and ceremonies, satisfaction measurement, reduced social and cultural disorders in the texture are considered; therefore, the more homogenous the community in terms of culture, the less the vulnerability will occur (Taherkhani, 2012: 102). Ninth component was society (0.076) according to Expert Choice, indicating positive relationship between emotional satisfaction of people and physical environment. Place attachment depends on people’s participation in environment and their cultural interactions considered more important than fabric by some experts (Marcus& Sarkissian, 1988). The last component was traffic and transportation and considering its unimportant place among other components, it concerns normal conditions of the society.

    Conclusion

    According to the explanations, factors resulting in increased risk include: population growth, unplanned urban development, rapid development of informal residencies, overflow of the population of urbanized areas, degraded ecosystem, etc. Therefore, urban planners should attempt to create a quiet, safe and healthy place for residents.

    Keywords: Land Use, Resilience, old tissue, Earthquake, Abdolabad
  • Morteza Akbari *, Maryam Sadat Reshadi, Mohammad Karimian, Hamid Padash Pages 291-306

    Identification and Prioritization of business opportunities in Aras free trade zone

    Objectives

    Opportunity is a central concept within the entrepreneurship field, and there is now a critical mass of literature centered on the concept. Entrepreneurial opportunity emerges at the nexus of individual aspirations with economic and social conditions perceived as favorable to create a new product or service, either in an existing market or a new one. The concept of an ‘entrepreneurial opportunity’ is central for the study and theory of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs are individuals who pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Without entrepreneurial opportunities, therefore, there will be no ‘entrepreneurship’, conceptually speaking. The most important exception is the literature in management and organization theory on opportunity discovery or opportunity identification, or what Shane (2003) calls the "individual–opportunity nexus." Opportunity identification involves not only technical skills like financial analysis and market research, but also less tangible forms of creativity, team building, problem solving, and leadership. While value can, be created not only by starting new activities but also by improving the operation of existing activities, research in opportunity identification tends to emphasize new activities. These could include creating a new firm or starting a new business arrangement, introducing a new product or service, or developing a new method of production. Investment on one hand is one of the most important factors in economic growth and development in every country and on the other hand, investing is not a casual phenomenon, identification and prioritizing the investment opportunities in every country and region could improve the economic growth and development in addition to attracting the investors. Aras Free Trade - Industrial Zone (abbreviated as AFZ) is located in the Northwest of Iran at the border point with neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. AFZ is located in semi dry and semi cold North-West part of Iran. Annual rain fall is about 225 to 400 milliliters per year and average temperature is about 15 degree Celsius. The AFZ is in very close reach of high mountains ranges, which have a cold climate. Facilities include railways and roads, electricity network, irrigation and water distribution network, gas distribution network, communication network, branches of all major banks and insurances, border terminals, customs warehouses, airport (Tabriz), government offices and ministerial branches, hotel, motel and restaurants. The AFZ have different business opportunities in the fields of economy, agriculture and tourism. This study has been done to identify and Prioritization business opportunities in the Aras free trade zone.

    Methods

    This research is a descriptive survey. Research population consists of 150 people. The mixed exploratory method has been used in data collection. In mixed exploratory methods researchers first conducted to collect qualitative data. Then, based on findings from qualitative data, the quantitative data collected to be more generalizability of the findings. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical software. As for describing qualitative characteristics was calculated percent and frequency distribution. And for describing quantitative characteristics were calculated central and dispersion indexes using one-sample t-test. Finally for test and prioritization of variables, Friedman nonparametric test was used. The study carried out a qualitative paradigm and the case study method. Using purposive sampling, 10 experts in the field of Entrepreneurship in the Aras free trade zone were interviewed. After data collection, business opportunities in the Aras free trade zone in five category including agriculture, tourism, trade and industry was identified and Prioritization. In order to data analysis, at first all Recorded dialogues were converted to written texts. In the next step, using Sentence by sentence strategy, Important statements and related to the subject were identified. Finally, in order to data interpretation in this study, Constant comparative analysis method or open coding and axial was used. And also to determine the questionnaire reliability of the present study, Cronbach's alpha technique was used.

    Results

    The results of encryption, 41 general categories (coded optional) and business opportunities is identified in Aras Free Zone, The opportunity is classified in five general areas: agribusiness, tourism, commercial, industrial and service. The results showed that between different category, commercial and agriculture part were placed in the first and last priority, respectively. The difference observed between the different domains is a significant error level of less than 0.05. Also in the parts of trade business opportunity in building export terminals and trade, services business opportunities in the integrated health and medical tourism services, industrial business opportunities in the solar heating systems (solar hot water), tourism business opportunities in the construction of hotel and tourism business opportunities and in the field of agriculture business opportunities in sorting and packaging fruit have the first rank.

    Discussion

    Developing any factor in countries requires investing in economic sectors and activities in that country. One cannot expect to increase employment, production and economic welfare without investing in infrastructure plans. Establishing and promoting free zones can act as a fast policy and a shortcut for achieving the goals such as attracting foreign and home investments and rapid industrialization in order to develop non-oil export. So the business opportunities in the field of trade and tourism will specially be attention in the area. Thus, with respect to the special position of Aras Free Zone, relevant authorities given more attention to identify opportunities and create new opportunities with investing in this area, to improve the economic situation and job creation. Moreover, considering the obtained priority in decision-making for investment can cause providing facilities and infrastructures, accelerating in infrastructure and construction affairs, developing economic growth, investment and increasing general revenue, creating healthy and productive employment, adjusting the labor market and goods, presence at international and global markets, production and export and finally will be in line with free zone goals.

    Keywords: business opportunities, free trade zones, Aras free zone, Business Sector, Agricultural Secter
  • Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Yahya Alizadeh * Pages 307-322
    IntroductionIran

    is a dry country eith alittle precipitation , as that downfall average is under third of downfall average in world. Whiles yazd province placed in dry and desert area and have 100 milimeter of precipitation in year.Yazd as one of industrial city in our country was confront el with upand coming prodedure of population and migration and this ascensional growth caused the requisition for water consumption increase. Requisition in creasing have been caused that the level of underground waters in mean have falled off equal of 16 meter in 30 years period. Thus , answering to onging requests and procurement of water required yazd city led to the city for supplying needed water become connected to nonrenewable resources and out of penetration basin and for inhabitation of regional and national tension crisis in them selves re search program , responsibles set solutions for supplying needed water of city.Among of this programs can allude to water transfer from zayanderod fountainhead that started of 1369 year and exploitation program of that started in 1378. On this basis the aim of this study is valuation of yazd city resistancs wise water resource bases on civil development models and determination of civil optimized population in 1395 year and on the basis of two swith from water's provision and consumption.

    methodology

    To this end,Urban development forms were examined by using library studies and then sustainability models concerned with water and sewage network were identified and the status of water resources in Yazd province and Yazd_Ardakan plain as well as Yazd city were determined by using relevant documents and then quantitative analysis were conducted to calculate the optimal population of the city based on two options for production and consumption of water.The type and manner of this research is descriptive and analytic and under the care of targeting essence and aim s achievement tools we was used of combinational qualitative and quantitative analysis .In this direction with using of librarian researches , civil resistant form's was studied and in continuation , resistance models about to civil's sewage and water system be identified.Situation of province's water sesources , ardakan-yazd plain and yazd city was determined by relevant document and then by using of auantitative analysis, city optimal population based on water production and water consumption be counted.

    Results and discussion

    The present research,first of all, is devotes to the assessment of sustainability of Yazd concerning water resources based on sustainable urban development models and then touches on the optimal population of Yazd according to the options for water supply in 2016 with regard to the water transferred from Zayande rood to Yazd and examines the second phase of water transfer as well as water transfer project from Persian Gulf based on goal setting which applied mixed research method..in first step for determination of water deficit rete in the inhabitan population calculated difference of water need average from inhabitant population (44.9 milion cubicmeter in year) of production capacitance that water deficit for inhibitant population is founded.In second step for determinatiosn of excess population water deficit rate in the in habitant population (30.3 milion cubuc meter in year) calculated equivalent to 83 milion liter minated 357000 unit and optimum population in 1395 under the care to produced capacitance (with out numeration of transitional water from zayanderoon) calculated 218000 unit.More over determination of optimum population in 1395 year that altogether 44.2 milion cubic meter produced. In sequler , for determination of excess population water defict from inhabitant population (0.5 cubuc meter in year)That is calculated 1369000 liter a day and based on percpita formula excess population.59000 unit is achieved and optimum population under the care of pro non de centralization for removing deficit of needed water bases on this case in addition of transitional water from duces capacitance in this case 525000 unit is calculated.Thus, even if exterior dependence to city permeation basin(zayanderood water ) we will meet to water deficit and population excess. Whiles transitional water from in long tern isn’t reliable and is un like to resistant development principles.In the vent of population non decentralization , for removing deficit of needed water based on this case in addition of transitional water from zayanderood simultaneous. With second phase of transitional water project of behesht adad and also Persian guif with better sped is did. Foregoing ingredient gatherum besides embedment of yazd in dry region caused than water provision and distribution of this city install in critical and friable conditions. thus for managing and planning of water resources may emphasize that addition population achieved is minimum population rate and should decentralize from yazd city that actually isn’t possible.

    Conclusion

    The results are demonstrated that yazd –ardekan plain has just 2 percent of underground water resources. While 82.58 percent of pronince civil population are inhabited in yazd city and 80 percent of needed water is provided of surface resources that is appuratant to transitional. Water from zayanderod , this water resources in distance of 330 kilometer of yazd city is located thus bsed on resistant civil models from hall ana viliams , yazd isn’t yesistant wise to civil water resources. Bases on disrelation to out of permeation basin , subsistence possibility isn’t existed and even with dependence to out of permeating basing (transitional water from zayanderod ) has 59000 unit excess population .In this model for being confine of permeation basin request management and sewerage resumption, Emphasize to using of resources with subtraction of external dependence pattern. Evidently population decentralize as better policy along side promotion of people culture at using of water , deducation of consumption percapita , managing pf water system , deducation , of casualties, progressive incease of water rate price and deducation of domesticated consumption and more basic that percipotating drinkable water from consumption water can be effectual step in improvement of water resources situation.

    Keywords: Keywords:the size of optimal, population, Sustainability, water resources, Yazd
  • Abbas Amini *, Nosrat Moradi Pages 323-340
    1- IntroductionRural

     settlements are actually the primary spatial patterns of man and nature interaction, reflecting the environmental effects on community behaviors. Inevitable evolution of these patterns temporally, also affecting from environmental factors as well of none environmental ones. One of the major structural evolutions of rural areas, beyond a demographic one, is extraordinary migration depopulating some villages, namely rural exodus, which can be considering as a geographical phenomenon related to the environmental contexts. Transformation of irregular extended rural-urban migrations to the escape of rurality and rural life style is one of the serious environmental, socioeconomic and structural dilemmas of third world under developed countries. Technological evolutions and especially the information and communication revolution in recent century have extended the broadness, impacts and importance of this phenomenon. The problem originates from the incompetent structures and foundations for encountering the contingences of the new era. These situations are unfortunately reproduced in all of the third world countries as Iran as an unavoidable reality that generates and expands a significant abnormalities and shortages against the indigenous development process of the societies, especially rural communities. In the other words and from a systemic point of view, rural-urban migrations and escapism of villagers toward the cities, is one of the chain-work mutual interactivities among the weakened communities to encounter the new world mechanisms and arisen institutions, which is occurring as a last resort. In such bi-polarized societies, the process of development has been imbalanced towards the urban areas. Centralization of investments in the forms of developmental infrastructures and import technologies often in the progressive urban areas has changed them to the destination of mass populations of undeveloped and under developed rural areas. This action is taking unavoidably place as a last resort against the new global contingences, which has weaken and disabled the old traditional societies and their orders for living now and here.

    2- Materials and Methods

    This study is aimed firstly at identifying of depopulated rural settlements over a quarter century since 1365 (1986) by 1390 (2011) in Isfahan province and secondly representing an environmental interpretation of the phenomena, using statistical methods and spatial analysis in the geographic information system environment. To do this, at first, layers of the spatial distribution of settled villages of 1365 and identified depopulated ones over the two and a half decades period of the study have based on the detailed reports of public censuses’ results of Iran statistical center identified and prepared in ArcGIS environment. Afterwards, the rural settlements exodus analyzed based on the prepared environmental layers of altitude, slope, aspect, temperature, land types and distance from wells and springs, spatially.

    3- Results and Discussion

    Spatial analysis of exoduses in relation to each of these environmental factors indicated that there is a significant relationship between exoduses and environmental factors of slope, land types, altitude and distance from wells respectively. While that wasn’t true for aspect parameter. Environment’s potential (or poverty, contrarily) emanates from mutual and especially none compensatory relationships between all environmental factors. Therefore, the land inhabitability necessitates the least liability of all none compromisable environmental functionalities and their simultaneity to guarantee the communal durability and livelihood. Taking this principle into consideration, the exodus of rural settlements also analyzed based on the overplayed raster layer of all studied environmental parameters, calculated as their weighted linear combination (WLC), using map algebra in ArcGIS. To do this, at the first the layers normalized linearly so that the negative (or cost) criteria such as slope and distances (the less, the better) and the piecewise linear or moderation criteria such as altitude and temperature, transformed both positively (the more, the better) and re-ranged from zero to one. The operation performed using the linear and fuzzy normalization procedures appropriately. Flowingly the different relative importance of the layers evaluated and obtained using the eigen vector method, based on the experts’ pairwise comparison judgements. Like the previous individual ones, two statistical indicators calculated and used for spatial and environmental analysis of rural settlements’ exodus; “the settled villages density at the beginning year of 1365” and “relative percent of depopulated villages over the study period with respect to the total beginning settled ones”. The indicators calculated separately for each of five environmental potency/poverty classes verified using the natural breaks method in GIS. The standardized scores of overall environmental potency/poverty for any of the classes calculated using the “zonal mean statistic” function from the spatial analyst tool of ArcGIS. Correlation analysis of environmental potency/poverty and previously mentioned indicators, revealed 80 percent positive relationship between the environmental potency and settling density, and contrarily 56 percent positive relationship between the environmental poverty and relative exodus percent.

    4- Conclusion

    Although the role of the environment is undeniable in both formation and the exodus of rural settlement, its role is more determinant in terms of formation and continuity of rural settlements compared to their exodus and depopulation. It is perceivable that the exodus and depopulation of rural settlement is affected by various none environmental parameters and mechanisms even more than environmental elements. In this regard, internationally it is mentionable that the predominant industrial development approach caused by the industrial revolution and the information and communication revolution of the contemporary era, have also deepened the gap and inequalities between the quasi-developed urban and undeveloped rural areas of the third world countries. The strategy of rural areas in facing of these undesirable national and international situations interacting with environmental disadvantages has commonly been expansion of the rural-urban migrations, in some instances as a geographical phenomenon of villages’ depopulation and rural exodus. Both of the rural origins and urban destinations have disadvantaged from such of unavoidable rural depopulation. In this regard, counter-ruralism is the attitudes and psychological situation of villagers, drives them to leave the village. It is so that the synergic trade-offs between the “poverty of environmental functionalities” and “socio-economic insufficiencies” reproduce and accelerate this inauspicious phenomenon, conducting subsequently to delay and deficiency of the whole society’s development process.

    Keywords: environment, rural settlements, Formation, Rural Exodus, Spatial MCE
  • R. Farhodi, Alimohammad Naseri *, Z. Pish Pages 341-356
    Introduction

    Since Tehran has been chosen as Iran’s capital, it has left behind several difficult challenges as: world wars, the transition from tradition to modernism and postmodernism and the effects of global development. Since the primary formation the process of urbanization and urban development has undergone a lot of changes. These changes and vicissitudes influenced by a variety of conditions such as, place, time, internal and external factors has made changes in the form, shape and size of the city which in turn lead to a series of new conditions such as the dimension and physical expanding of the suburb. A continuously dynamics process during which the physical surrounding of the city and its dimension are always developing and changing in different qualities and directions. The continuous process of this rapid growth destroys the physical form of the city and loses the balance of the sustainable base of the city or the zone. The purpose of this research is to study the formation and development of the physical shape of space layout and its effects on the present situation and also to study the proportionality of these elements on Tehrans zone 22 as a developing zone. The physical development growth is influenced by natural and human phenomena and parameters, and causes the spans, and these changes are continuous and sequential. The effect of this factor has been different and varied in different parts of the world. Urban growth in its nature has rebellious substantiate character, which needs to harness, direct, control, and policy makers. Because, it must be with intellectual and logical, advocate, control making houses, and so it could lead to eliminating the causes of reasonable construction of physical abnormalities that prevent arises. Despite the awareness, the adverse effects caused by uncontrolled development cannot be prevented from developing cities today. Reviewing the research about mantagheh22, the question that is importance is: Is there any method for sustainability in the new regions, around the city as the main bases of the city? The recent face, morph and form of mantagheh 22 Tehran city, how much is the nearby sustainability in city and power and potential of this zone important? And how we can try to whit the sustainability view in remaining city morph, the houses of region?

    Methodology

    The method used in this study is descriptive method, library studies, field operation and frequent visits to sites, maps, tables and graphs. This study is an applicable descriptive analysis.This research is a descriptive, objective, consistent, and genuine characteristics of Tehran 22 zone as a study subject, that is, the urban sustainability of this zone. The approaches used in this study are data analyses such as random sampling by interviewing the different peple in the area as shopkeepers and sightseers of Chitgar Lake, analysis of the causes, forms and contemporary forms, structural elements of space and expression of the results in the context of sustainable urban development on individual bases.

    Results and discussion

    This research is an analysis of the proportionality arrangement of the spatial physical elements in Mantaghe 22 Tehran with urban sustainable development view whom at the beginning explained physical space of Mantagheh 22, then, spoked about the arrangement of spatial element and physical space in this zone. The function and situation of regional towns in this zone and their location show this reality, that distribution of physical space consists of full and vacant space. Types of houses generally are similar in, material, forms, quality architecture, density and floors. In older spaces limit and boundary domains are blend, so we can, see boundary of towns, in such area, the image of the city loses its identity. In new towns apartment building the image of city faces with contradiction, conflict, space illegibility.They destroy the sky line, porosity, the landscape and the symmetry, and they also caase unsustainability in the design of physical space. So design is without quiddity and modality, the main space is lost, and alienism, so that spectator has faced confusion. Spaces are strongly unsustainable, without sense, emotion, spirit, and it seems that these town spaces just build to sleep role. This condition and problems of space is less seen in the oldest towns, because that’s built with plan.

    Conclusion

    At the beginning of this research I asked a question of how the new regions around the city, which in this research named growth zone, is led to sustainability? It seems that because these regions, are in different condition, they are always in physical growth.The changes are continuing until get relativey stabe, that may take event several years. In length of this long time, City growth zone as the result of input and output condition behind the challenges may take a long time to reach relative stability to get out to relative balances. So we can say that it may get out to sustainability in urban planning, city design, but to receive that it needs more study of the different and local condition of the city. It seems there are solutions for the city but it maybe like an exam that includes true and false options problem. Another subject that is explained in this research is how we can try to get optimized image and form of Mantage 22? It may be said that today this region of Tehran city is in bad condition, as some people who have some common and illegal interests may be interested in misusing the situation. These common interests cause a form of competition. These competitions may result in the changes of the image of the city, and put it in bad conditions, which is outside the usual rules. These regulations change the image of the city.

    Keywords: City sustainable development, physical studys, physical growth of city, growth zone, Mantagheh 22
  • Faeze Mehri, Zohreh Davoudpour * Pages 357-371
    Introduction

    Unequal distribution of resources and social situations in urban spaces reduces the relation between different social groups. This affects the participation chances in urban life and causes socio-spatial segregation. However some studies have been done regarding the role of urban form in social segregation but there is little knowledge about the impact of urban spatial configuration (relations between spaces) on social networks appearance. The presented paper with emphasizing on potential of co-presence in public spaces studies twelve neighborhoods of Zanjan to explore the role of urban design in facilitating access to resources and appearance of social networks in order to decrease the negative impacts of socio-spatial segregation. The type of research is an applied one and its method is descriptive-analytical. The analysis of spatial integration has been done by Space Syntax Tool and UCL Depthmap to study the influence of urban spatial configuration on resources distribution. The social analysis has been done by SPSS software. The results shows that the quality of public spaces spatial relations in local and ultra-local levels, also the accessibility influenced from it have important social results. If the spatial configuration of city provides neighborhoods integration in different scales, the equal distribution of resources and job opportunities reduces socio-spatial segregation and increases social solidarity in city.

    Methodology

    In analysis of spatial configuration, the zoning of city is a base for physio-spatial analysis. Neighborhoods are selected from each region. They are different in aspects of spatial arrangement, distribution of non-residential land uses and distance from city center. Neighborhoods not only are studied in relation of their larger context and effected area but also analyzed in aspects like spatial accessibility, distribution of resources and job opportunities. The emphasis is on aspects that are important for creation of participation chances in life, job and activity in different neighborhoods like the potential of space in creation of social interactions and accessibility to attractive land uses. Local centers and streets - which provide possibility of co-presence- studied in different functional scales (local, ultra-local, city). The analysis of configuration is done base on indicators like integration, choice/ betweenness and spatial accessibility to determine the relation between urban spatial characteristics and the quality of urban spaces application. Detailed information about the users of the space has been provided by asking questions through setting up 384 questionnaires. The statistical population is the city of Zanjan and the sample is twelve neighborhoods. Moreover, daily activities have been observed directly in six days in two consecutive weeks at certain times (in the morning and evening). Finally spatial and social data have been combined with each other through correlation analysis in SPSS.

    Results and discussion

    The combined results from spatial analysis maps and social data from questionnaires and observations show that neighborhoods are socially, economically and culturally different and give various chances and life qualification. The residents of neighborhoods located in region 3, 4and 6 are limited to use only some parts of the city. They face with limitation in sharing public spaces and their daily life activities are separated and limited. Limited exchange between different parts of the city damages the producer mechanism of social interactions. Neighborhoods encounter with non-management social contacts and the lack of suitable public spaces which enable the co-presences to be possible. Moreover, the negative impact of unequal distribution of pervasive land uses in micro and macro levels on function of local land uses spoils the social life in neighborhoods. Since social interactions are not formed, social networks cannot be generated or regenerated. Inattention to the quality of spatial relations formation between neighborhoods and the social mobility affected from it gradually spoil the integrated structure of the city. Accomplished spatial separation, limits the relational, social and economic exchange between different neighborhoods. Weak social ties that effect on social mobility’s level and increase social solidarity are weakened because of weak physio-spatial relation between different neighborhoods. These are the base for socio- spatial segregation. But when space planned and designed correctly by making different levels of construction and intensity of the patterns of co-presence can effect on energy level, forming of impression experiences and the tendency of having relationship with other people. So it can cause group solidarity. On the other hand, spatially inequality increases social inequality. People live in segregated regions have less social opportunities than people with similar social characters in other places. Spatial inequalities reduce social and economic relations between income groups. Not only socio- spatial boundaries cut income flows, but also limit access to existence social networks in high income neighborhoods which are important for job searchers.

    Conclusion

    Public spaces are important places for expansion of urban social networks and joining processes in larger community which with being in them, people will be able to participate in different social processes. If spatial relations between neighborhoods organized correctly the residents can entrance and utilize the public arenas in different neighborhoods. By supporting social processes which help the creation of weak ties and appearance of social networks, equal distribution of resources and social activities chances can increase social movement. It can cause socio- economical sustainability in neighborhood and social solidarity in city by reducing the negative effects of socio-spatial segregation.In this regard what is important is:

    1) Considering the role of urban spatial configuration in creation of difference in benefit and spatial nature of public spaces. This influences on daily activity routes in terms of time and space.

    2) Emphasizing on co-presence in public spaces, suitable resources distribution and facilitating access to them in interventions and policies of urban design in relation to urban spatial configuration. This possible the appearance of participation chances in urban life for different social groups. So these two points by reducing socio- spatial segregation have an important role in creating social solidarity in city.

    Keywords: Spatial configuration, socio-spatial segregation, space syntax, urban design, city of Zanjan
  • Rasoul Ghorbani *, Omidali Kharazmi, Naeimeh Torkaman Nia Pages 373-385

    Analysis of the role of socio-economic factors in formation and expansion of informal settlements metropolis of Mashhad

    Introduction

    Informal settlements are tissues that are on the margins of cities and metropolitan areas of the country and have formed outside the official development program. Residents of these tissues are low-income and rural migrants. The tissues that are made quickly are no safety, strength, social security, services and urban infrastructure. Mashhad is one of the most troubled metropolitan centers of informal settlements in the country that 33 percent of Mashhad make up marginalization. The population of the settlements reached in 1393 to one million, one hundred and eighty-three thousand people living in an area of 3894 hectares have been developed within the city and outside of Mashhad city services. The city of Mashhad has inflicted problems: the loss of agricultural land and open spaces, joining the villages adjacent to the city, Unplanned development and horizontal city, the lack of appropriate infrastructure and consequently immediate consequence, legal issues and how to land acquisition problems, age composition Young the settlements and employment, cultural and religious diversity and management problems and pressures imposed economic, social, physical and environmental. The consequences show the necessity of identifying causes the formation and spread of this problem. This consequences shows that it is necessary to pay attention to this issue and identify the causes of the formation and spread of this problem and ultimately efficient and effective planning in Mashhad. In this paper two categories of formation and expansion of informal settlements has been selected as the socio-cultural and economic factors that The factors and variables that are determined by reviewing the literature and interviews with experts and the effects of these factors in this study based on surveys of experts identified and the degree of importance of each of the factors and variables also can be obtained through questionnaires residents of the informal settlement areas....,

    Methodology

    Methodology in this study is descriptive – analytical that the data collection is the documents (the library) and survey that were collected through questionnaires(designed by the researchers) , interviews and surveys. The study population was experts associated with the informal settlements (organizational experts, university professors and companies Consulting Engineers) and residents of informal settlements in Mashhad.Estimating the sample size, we used a stratified cluster sampling method and Cochran formula were applied and 384 people and the number 55 is considered the first community questionnaire that was completed by Delphi method several times. The data were analyzed by SPSS and Vensim softwares. Residents of informal settlements in the questionnaire reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.909 and 0.882 respectively experts in the questionnaire that reliability is valid. In the next step, the second interview (Delphi), the results were used the views of some experts to design the core system.

    Results and discussion

    Informal settlements is very complex and multi-dimensional urban and purpose of this study is to identify factors formation and expansion of informal settlements and ranking and evaluation of their efficacy to regulate and prevent the spread of this phenomenon in Mashhad. In this paper, the theoretical foundations of economic and social factors variables were collected during interviews with experts (55 professors, managers, experts, organizations and consulting engineers) and some fell and some were replaced. The test results showed that economic factors had a greater effect on the formation and expansion of informal settlements Mashhad and the more important variables are low income and poverty, drought and agricultural stagnation and unemployment. The residents and experts on this one is just different look at a more comprehensive experts that the drought and recession agriculture, the main factor has been considered, but these factors have a greater impact on the formation of the settlements and the responses of residents More according to the present state of this zone is the stage to the formation stage. Residents and experts in these two ideas can be most effective variable social factors as migration, rapid population growth and religious attraction in Mashhad. Finally the system diagram drawing the socio-economic development of informal settlements Mashhad and relationships of cause and effect with respect to the effect of variables.

    Conclusion

    Relations between variables is one-sided and double-sided shape that creates a cycles. Strong sycles belongs to the economic variables that act as primary causes that led to the decision of the Immigration and traverse the birthplace especially for villagers. The consequence of this cycle in urban and suburban migration that the suburban migration has a greater role in the formation and the emergence of informal settlements and urban migration occurred in recent years and it has intensified the spread of the informal settlements. Two variable feed of the cycle: drought and agricultural stagnation and inflation and a steady increase in the cost of living that strongly makes the full power of this cycle and this cycle is also driving forces for other cycles which causes secondary or assist role (as Metropolis and religious charm Mashhad) and sometimes the result of informal settlements (rapid population growth, increasing rates of illiteracy). Perhaps in the course of time, the population growth and the expansion of informal settlements fell slightly and cycles move slower but statistics and rate of growth of informal settlement area show that never halt the spread of informal settlements. According to the final diagram should aim for and targeting strategies and recommendations to the weak cycle that affect the expansion of informal settlements that these cycles tend to strategies at regional and national level. Strengthen agriculture in the Mashhad, strengthening intermediate towns and cities adjacent to consider housing for low-income, inflation control, formalization of land ownership in this area and social empowerment of the residents can be a means of weakening or failure of this cycle.

    Keywords: settlement, informal, Factors, Expansion, Mashhad
  • H. Hekmatnia * Pages 387-409
    Introduction

    Urban construction is important from a variety of dimensions of economic, social and cultural in such a way that violations in urban construction in conflict with these dimensions and urban development plans, which leads to the impact and change in the distribution of urban activities, levels assigned to them and distribution of different land use in the city and their logical relationship together, that in common, has broken down the basis of these plans and has had negative effects on different dimensions, it has deprived the city of proper and efficient texture and skeletons. In this regard, one of the important authorities that can handle these dimensions and leads to urban discipline and urbanization, 100 article Commission of the Municipal. According to article 100 of Municipalities Law, owners of land and mortgages within the scope of services must obtain a building permit from the municipalities before construction and the municipality is obliged to prevent unauthorized or unlawful construction operations by their agents on the enclosed or enclosed ground. In the opposite case, it is prevented from referring to its agents and for referral to the 100 Commission. In the city of Yazd, approximately 1,000 building permits with an infrastructure of 354600 square meters annually are issued, which is the number of construction permits 261 building permits in area 1, 341 butterflies in area 2, 543 butterflies in area 3 and 34 butterfly in historical area. Only in one of the three areas of the city of Yazd in 2011 was referred to the commissions under Article 100 of the Municipality Law, 721 violations have been filed and subsequently it has been tried to issue a statutory vote. Given this statistics and the proximity of violations in a region with the construction license number of the whole city of Yazd, the depth and breadth of the phenomenon of construction violations, which only includes violations that have been reported and the case filed, show more. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the function of this commission and formulate strategies for the positive effects of the commission on urbanization and urban planning in Yazd.

    Methodology

    According to the studied components, the method of investigation is functional and the approach taken by this research is "analytical -descriptive". Data collection is sampled through a case of construction violations. The statistical population is the number of construction licenses issued as well as the number of cases of violations during different years in different areas of Yazd. In order to carry out the analytical processes, this research has been used Schematic planning scenario model and Mick Mack software.

    Results and discussion

    The studies show that among the 9934 cases examined, 7824 cases were filed scilicet 78.7% of which were attributed to the Election Commission and 2104 other cases, which include 21.1% of the total number of cases, to appeal to the committee's votes. Among the votes of the Red Election Commission is the "deconstruction-fine and restoration order" assigned The largest number of cases includes 37.3 percent of the total cases, equivalent to 3715 cases, which unfortunately ended 100 percent Implementation of the Commission's 100-member vote to pay fines. This function of the 100th Commission Committee on Social Dimensions leads to a decrease in the level of social supervision, in the urban dimension of heterogeneity in the skyline, in the environmental dimension of incompatibility caused by inappropriate use of the neighborhood and in the security and safety aspects of the reduction of safety and security due to lack of attention to national regulations The building has been erected for the city of Yazd.

    Conclusion

    The variables related to urban laws and the lack of coordination between organizations associated with the subject have had a great deal of impact on the performance of Article 100 and also the lack of ambiguity in construction laws and regulations has had the greatest impact on the performance of Article 100. Among the key factors affecting the performance of the Article 100 Commission in Yazd, the lack of ambiguity in construction laws and regulations has had the greatest impact on the performance of Article 100, Also, the lack of comprehensiveness and transparency in the criteria and even directives and the vacuum of a separate management are selected in the municipal charters as the most effective factors in the performance of Article 100. The most critical factor in the performance scenarios of the 100 article is the two factors of lack of knowledge and information in the field of urban rights by the executives and the lack of coordination and organizational management of urban projects with a mean of -0.66, Next up is the key factor of urban development unit management with an average of -0.6, and it shows that there was a lack of integrated urban management in the good and bad performance of the 100 Commission. Continued factor of serious failures in the urban construction control section with an average of -0.44 indicates weak control of urban construction, which has had a major impact on the unsuccessful performance of the 100 Commission. Accordingly, for the desirable performance of the 100th Yazd Commodity Commission, the following are suggested: Reducing the process of considering construction fines as a source of income for the municipality, Identify construction violations as crimes, Integrated urban management and reducing the lack of coordination and organizational segmentation of urban management, The formation of a separate management for the 100 item in the municipal organization chart, Increasing Comprehensiveness and Transparency in Terms and Sectors, Eliminating old laws and reducing the legal misuse by internal and external elements of urban management, Increasing the capacity needed to increase the knowledge of executives and reduce legal abuses, Increasing volition in the municipality to reduce legal uncertainties and reduce lack of coordination, Increasing will to reduce inter-organizational and managerial disparities at the municipality level and higher levels.

    Keywords: Scenario planning, Article 100 Commission, Construction violations, Urbanization, Yazd City
  • Mohsen Rarieian, Mojtaba Rafieian *, Mohammad Bemanian Pages 411-428

    Analysis on Meaning Quality of Urban Public Places, with Special Focus on Yazd, Iran

    Introduction

    The discussion below can be read as a call for more rigorous and transparent explication of philosophical commitments and implications of one’s chosen methodological standpoint.Physical structure, function and perception is led to place. Place by imagination and memory is defied. Nowadays, urban public spaces are in the lack of meaning they cannot perfectly be percepted by citizens. The purpose of this research is proposing, effective indicators in perception of citizens in urban public places. Meaning quality of urban public places is a big concern. Various indices shape meaning quality of urban public places. Some indices have more roles in perception quality and some of them less. Finding these indices could help planners and designers to improve meaning quality from the perspective of citizens.

    Research methodology

    Studied area The studied area is Yazd city in Iran country. So, Yazd province is located in the center of the country, and its center is city of Yazd. This city have about 582682 population. The city of Yazd is the economic and administrative capital of the province and therefore the most heavily populated. Yazd is one of the best Iranian Architecture samples. It is one of the major and historical cities in the world and this city is preparing a historic texture portfolio to register in UNESCO. This research done on Yazd Materials and methods The aim of research is, introducing indices in perception the quality of urban public places in the view of Yazd (Iran) citizens. So, the research method is "descriptive- analytical". Also, survey analysis method was used. At first, the literature was reviewed due to proposed indicators. In order to analyzing indicators the sample size is 384. So, the questionnaire was used. On the other hand, T-test and Friedman test (Non Parametric Test, K Related Samples), in SPSS, used to analysis data.

    Findings

    a. Proposed indicators Based on research method, at first scientific studies has been reviewed. So, indicators have been concluded from some ideas such as: Lynch (1981), Violich (1983), Bentli (2005), Coleman (1987), Alen Jacobs & Appelyard (1998), South worth, (1989), Greene(1992), Haughton & Hunter (1994), Punter & Carmona (1997), Carmona (2003), Also, National and international institutions such as PPS, theoretical issues about the quality and the quality of the survey have developed during the past few decades. Table 1 shows, the components of urban space quality in scientific ideas. According to this table twenty two indexes select for analysis in the semi Delfi process. These twenty tow indexes are: Eco-friendly form, Visual compatibility, Visual character, Accessibility, Walk- ability, Environment for all, Social reaction, Variety land use, Customizable, Efficiency, Happiness, Richness, Friendly, According to past values or historical, Eligibility, Learning, Personalization, Security, Sense of time, Culturally, Meanings, manifestations and spiritual themes, Permeability.Table 1: components of urban space quality in scientific ideas

    b. Descriptive findingsIn terms of gender structure about half of the respondents were male and half of them were female. Also, more than half of them were single and others were married. The average age of the subjects was 34 years. In terms of education, about 40 percent of respondents had a master's degree and 30 percent of participation had bachelor degree. The birthplace of half respondents in this study is Yazd city and others were born in other cities. The participants were residing in Yazd city.

    c. Analytical findingsMeasuring the perception of residents (In terms of divided squares)The participants were asked to express their judgments about the quality of urban public places in order to evaluate the effect of the 22 indicators on the perception of respondents and their judgment about the meaning quality. Answers were analyzed using one-sample t-test and the results are presented in

    Table2

    Table 2: analyzed indicators The values more than 3 for each indicator represent significant effect on the quality of judgment in the perception of citizens. According to this analysis, these indicators i.e., variety of land use, Social interactions, Sense of time, The environment for all, Welcoming and friendly, Culturally, efficiency have average above 3 and have been effective to understand the meaning of place quality in Yazd city. The results showed that other indicators are not effective on respondents' perception of the quality squares.Respondent’s prioritization of the meaning quality indicesAchieving to the importance of each indicator in shaping the perceptual quality of the squares was important result of this study that will be used in the future by others. To prioritize the respondents' perception of meaning quality indicators, Friedman test was used. Table 3 shows the results of this analysis.Table 3.The results of Friedman testThe results of Friedman test confirms that there are significant difference between twenty tow indicator’s impacts on meaning quality of spaces perception. It should be noted that the most important indicator in the formation of meaning quality are Environment for all, accessibility and efficiency.Conclusion Analyzing the meaning quality of urban public spaces by means of quantitative methods and experimental models is an approach that is used to identify the overall level of quality. Meanwhile, access to reliable results, close to reality, can be used to planning and decision-making around proceeding strategy and physical, non-physical intervention on public places. This study was done based on using these approaches of measuring environmental quality. This paper indicate that among the indices for all 22 indicators, three indicators (Environment for all, accessibility and efficiency) have the most effect on percept meaning quality. Amir Chaqmaq square has the best quality between Yazd squares. According to past values or historical was the main index in meaning quality of Amir Chaqmaq square.

    Keywords: Place, Urban Public Places, Meaning Quality, Perception, Yazd
  • Nobakht Sobhani, Parvaneh Ziviar *, Rahim Sarvar Pages 429-451

    Investigation and Analysis of causation relationships of Influencing Indicators on Integrated Management of the capital's Peripheral

    In the last few decades, Tehran metropolis has witnessed numerous and varied transformations in various demographic, social, economic and physical-spatial fields due to the policy of focusing on Peripheral space.This issue, On the one hand, with increasing interest in residential and non-residential construction outside the legal area of Tehran, and on the other hand, with regard to the monetization approach of the land around Tehran and the creation of an intense competition to takeover more stakeholders contributions has become a crisis. The research type in terms of aim is an applied and in terms of nature is descriptive-analytical. The aim of the research is to measure the Peripheral of the capital in terms of effective and impressionable indicators on integrated Peripheral management. According to statistics, the total number of the population is 30, of which 11 are specialists in the field of Peripheral and the rest of the specialists and experts in the subject. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used for reliability of the questionnaire which its amount is 0.8. Analysis of the findings was done by Fuzzy Dematel technique. The components in this study were categorized into four factors including physical, economic, managerial, and urban good governance. The research results show that factors such as archipelago management of Peripheral in terms of functional, geographic territory, the lack of good urban governance, the lack of management in providing infrastructure to provide affordable housing and the existence of an informal economy in residential areas have the most impact on the Peripheral situation in Tehran. On the other hand, components such as the lack of intelligent control systems, congested construction development and the weakness of the ground-based economic foundation are among the most effective.

    Introduction

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the population of the planet was 6 billion, and now more than half of it is living in cities, also it is expected to increase in the future decades. So that, by 2050, the world's population in cities is projected to reach over 70%.Therefore, this high growth of urbanization over the last two centuries and the expansion of cities, have caused a lot of quantitative and qualitative changes in urban spaces, including City Peripheral.

    methodology

    The research type in terms of aim is an applied and the method is descriptive-analytical. In this process, the library and reference resources used based on the data requirements of the research. The main tool of research was a questionnaire which was designed as a paired comparison to identify effective and impressionable indicators on integrated Peripheral management of the capital based on the structure of the Fuzzy Dematel technique in two phases of weight determination and prioritization. Statistical population of survey contains all experts of the Tehran city Peripheral office and University experts and professors in this field. According to statistics, the total number of the population is 30, of which 11 are specialists in the field of Peripheral and the rest of the specialists and experts in the subject.in this research, statistical population was surveyed through census because of the limited number of statistical population (experts of the Tehran city Peripheral office and specialists).According to the data, respondents were 66.7% male and 31.3% female.Most respondents (45.8%) have a bachelor's degree and then they have a Master’s degree and a higher degree (39.6%).Content validity method has been used for justifiability the validity of the measure. In other words, after setting up the questionnaire, it was shared by several experienced professionals who verified the validity of questionnaire, and then the questionnaire was prepared. Also, the reliability of research confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.8) which shows that the questionnaire has a desirable reliability and questions have a suitable internal correlation. To analyze the findings, Fuzzy Dematel technique was used.

    results and Discussion

    Horizontal vector (Di+Ri) is the amount of causation of the intended factor.vertical vector (Di-Ri) indicates the effective of each factor. Usually when (Di-Ri) is positive, the factor is cause and otherwise (Di-Ri) is negative, the factor is effect. Looking at the diagram of cause, it is clear that the evaluation factors are divided into cause and effect groups. In terms of management, the caused groups include the weakness of information infrastructure for integrated urban management and the effected groups also include improvements to the intelligent control system and so on. Moreover, In terms of good urban governance, the caused groups include Participation and so on, and the effected groups also include Community-based, etc. In terms of physically, the caused groups include lack of management in providing infrastructure to provide affordable housing and so on, and the effected groups also include Space irregularities in the structure of settlements, etc. ConclusionAmong the criteria, the management criteria (archipelago management of Peripheral in terms of functional, geographic territory) are in the first place in terms of effectiveness and importance. In Good urban governance, the sub-criterion of efficiency and effectiveness with a score of 0.0467 is in the first place, also in the physical section, the sub-criterion of the lack of management in providing infrastructure to provide affordable housing with a score of 0.0661 is in the first place. Finally, the sub-criterion of the economic sector including the existence of an informal economy in the residential areas on Peripheral is in the first place with the highest score (0.0605).Therefore, these sub-criteria are most important and effective in terms of earning points and being in the first place because they have the strongest relationship with other factors in the changes of the capital's Peripheral. In terms of effected factors, It is possible to mention management criteria (lack of intelligent control system), good urban governance (central focus), physical (dense building development), and economic (profitable look at government sectors)

    Keywords: Buffer zone, integrated, Management, TEHRAN, dematel fuzzy
  • Kimia Mohammadi, Bahador Zarei * Pages 453-469
    Introduction

    Foreign policy is phenomenon and influenced by a combination of structural factors, internal political dynamics, regional and international.The structure of the international system is limiting behavior of states. Waltz argues, the international system to define behavior of states and foreign policy is mainly an attempt to adapt to the pressures of the international system. Waltz: international politics is the politics of the great powers, He believes that the structure of the international system after the Cold War unipolar structure in which America is the undisputed power. Despite the weakening of America's economic hegemony in the past three decades, Still USA is the most influential international actor, However, small and medium-sized states in the existing structure,are the relative able to pursue thier development goals. Among these countries,are Iran and Malaysia. Malaysia is located almost in the heart of the East Asian region, South-East Asia, has now become one of the Important region in the global economy, Living in peace and stability, And Iran is located in the middle east. Middle East is Regional with oeder's Hobbes, war of all against all.This status of regional , affected by the Influence of grate powers on foreign policy of the two countries; Conditions in the Middle East, In addition to the constraints of the international system, has failed Iran's foreign policy. The presence of several powers, China and Japan, along with America, In East Asia, Malaysia's economic competitive advantage they enjoy is the addition of the international system, the membership of Malaysia "ASEAN" A functional subset of the local conditions of access to capital and technology.. provided economic benefites for members, Unlike ECO is lacking of such strong subsets or are in the beginning.

    Methodology

    In this study, the comparative method is used, Which means that the two countries of Iran and Malaysia have generally been compared and in the next step, the two countries in three dimensions, "the regional system," "benefit from the advantages of regional organizations", - stressed the ECO and ASEAN and "great power role" and the positive and negative effects its on economic development have been laid to compare.

    Results and Discussion

    The structure of the international system limitations and creates opportunities for policy. Many of the decisions and foreign policies, in response to the behavior of other international actors.International system of all activities that shape international relations are included.Malaysia is located almost in the heart of the East Asian region and is composed of two parts, East and West Malaysia an area that already has become one of the raised areas of the global economy and the peace and stability remains. Malaysia has a good and constructive relations with all countries of the world and In taking its own development policies, could have important role in economic development in the years approaching achieved and as a newly industrialized country to be identified.Iran is a country in Southwest Asia, the geopolitical and geostrategic up in the Persian Gulf, is located in the heart of the Middle East. Iran, the world's two major oil fields Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea is located. Iran is in the Middle East, a region critical and convulsions. The regional conditions, the impact of the structure of international and major powers over foreign policy between the two countries has changed. Conditions in the Middle East, America obstacles, particularly in terms of impact on Iran's foreign policy has limited the development process at the same time, while in East Asia, China and Japan on the side of America, in addition to adjusting the limits of this power, improved technology, capital and the Malaysian economy.

    Conclusion

    The international system and the major powers as "independent variable" and the sub - region to "intermediate variables" foreign policy of Iran and Malaysia have been affected. Political and economic cooperation in the region of limiting the power of Malaysia's foreign policy adjustment and have taken advantage of the competitive power in favor of economic development so that despite the harsh positions and especially during the critical Malaysia Mahathir Mohammad, has a foreign policy worthy successfully pursue its development-oriented. While America's hegemonic supremacy in the Middle East and the impact of the sanctions and the use of existing multilateral in the present world order as the independent variable, limiting Iran's foreign policy and alongside the independent variables, between "area is characterized by tension and internal competition", lack of economic integration, the independent variable in the international system creates limitations for Iran's foreign policy has strengthened and Iran's foreign policy has prevented from reaching the development goals. America in the Persian Gulf is the main power is enormous and its impact on the region, including Iran. Using a tool such as sanctions, multilateral pressure and encouragement from international organizations and countries, especially Iran's neighbors in southern boundaries, limitations and obstacles in the way of Iran's foreign policy has left many. But the dominant power in Southeast Asia with other major powers such as China and Japan and strong institutions "such as the ASEAN" into equations to be competitive and balance, That is why countries like Malaysia with a more suitable space can advance its foreign policy towards economic development

    Keywords: international system, restrictions, Neorealism, Iran, Malaysia
  • Mahmoud Vasegh *, Ahad Mohamadi, Javad Heshmati Pages 471-492
    Introduction

    Phenomenology is one of the dominant philosophical schools that gradually entered the western philosophy in the late 19th century, and then attention has been paid to different scientific domains particularly in humanities, geography and human geography. Phenomenology is the study or recognition of phenomena and the phenomena consists of everything that appears to the mind. In other words, phenomenology is direct perception and intuition, without the intermediary of objects and phenomena. The purpose of the mediator in knowing everything is the conventional philosophical and scientific hypotheses, theories, categories and templates, and particular pre-assumptions of the reader. Knowing anything without using conventional formats will be possible only through direct intuition of nature. So this approach seeks direct intuition of objects and phenomena, and in this regard refuses the hypotheses, categories and pre-assumptions, therefore, phenomenology is considered a realistic but experimental approach toward realities. Thus, seemingly this traditional philosophy of science must be classified under the realistic viewpoint. Nevertheless, due to some typical esoterism, and particularly suspending the realities of external world, and even eliminating it as a mind-independent character and full emphasis on phenomenological character of realities, meaning subjective character of objects and phenomena, and eventually due to the phenomenological tradition relying on the intuitive experience approach, against some realistic attributes, this traditional philosophy of science must be classified under the realistic viewpoint. Nevertheless, regardless of positive aspect of this approach, meaning immediate experience of objects and phenomena, the approach mentioned above has some basic and epistemological insufficiency which will encounter serious hardships utilizing it as a scientific approach in the geography domain, and thus, it lacks the efficiency and required capabilities to be utilized in the study fields related to social science, and particularly geography, as a “scientific” approach and methodology. The main objective of this paper, which has been written with a realistic approach and critical rationalism attitude, is to analyze this issue from the viewpoint of logical and epistemological analyses.

    Methodology

    The present study due to the nature of philosophy and own logical, is among the fundamental and theoretical research. This study is based on descriptive and analytical method (logical) and its analysis is done based on logical reasoning and arguments. Therefore, discussions and matters from this series of documentaries and library are considered.

    Result and Discussion

    Across the last few decades, the Philosophy of phenomenology has been one of the main and dominant schools in the field of western thought, which gradually from the second half of the 20th century, has contributed to the formation of intellectual foundations of western scholars and has influenced many fields particularly humanities domain especially geography. In human geography, across the last decades, we see an evolving tendency among geographers in the field of urban studies, urban design and planning, rural planning, social geography, economic geography, political geography, cultural geography, and some other subcategories are directed towards a kind of human geography that have been influenced by philosophy and methodology of phenomenology, or its derivatives, such as existentialism and interpretive and hermeneutic methods. The question is to see what methodology and principles the inspired geography is based on and what is its ultimate goal? Phenomenological geography refers to geographic studies in which geographic phenomena and subjects are studied by researchers without any intermediaries, regardless of formal and abstract templates, and without reliance on pre-assumptions, theories and customary prejudice in scientific studies and merely as a phenomenology. Thus, in this regard, phenomenological geography has the following characters:1. Immediate experience of objects and phenomena 2. Review of place identity individually and uniquely (monography) 3. Intuitive and interpretive method in recognizing and understanding the phenomena 4. Recognition of phenomena in the form of common sense 5. Utilizing descriptions instead of explanation in identifying the phenomena 6. Refusing pre-assumptions and categories and theories in identifying the phenomena.Meanwhile, the presence and close participation of the researcher in the study of subjects and environmental phenomena and the description and explanation of phenomena and their real descriptions are considered as a positive character of this approach, however refusing the hypotheses and pre-assumptions (which are actually impossible) and the focus on awareness and subjective cognitions and suspension of external world (Epoché) in the process of recognizing phenomena actually turns it into an idealistic approach, and unique cognitions of phenomena also lead to the lack of validation independent of the researcher, and ultimately confronts this approach with relativism, and thus making phenomenology inefficient as a scientific method in geographic studies.

    ConclusionIn

    a general sense, since philosophy and phenomenological methodology in different sciences, particularly in the field of humanities and social sciences, especially geography, merely refer to the participation of the researcher in the study of subjects and environmental phenomena and consider remote description and explanation of the phenomena inefficient and emphasizes on their real and deep description through direct and immediate intuition, and particularly suggests direct descriptions and real experiences in the field of researches related to practical plans for geographic places, it is worthwhile and important, and this aspect of phenomenology approach is considered a positive and strong point. Nevertheless, regardless of this positive aspect, the approach mentioned above has some basic and epistemological insufficiency, such as: refusing hypotheses and pre-assumptions, idealistic attitude and subjectivism, nomothetic approach in reviewing the phenomena which leads to the lack of true and false criteria or a lack of validation independent of the researcher’s mind; and in other words, leads to the lack of objectivity and, eventually; historicity and relativism. These issues encounter serious hardships utilizing it as a scientific approach in the geography domain, and thus, it lacks the efficiency and required capabilities to be utilized in the study fields related to social science, and particularly geography, as a “scientific” approach and methodology.

    Keywords: Phenomenology, Intuition, Suspension, epistemological analysis, Geography
  • Shahrzad Mirzaabedini *, Mohammad Salmani, M Ghadiri Pages 493-512

    Domestic tourism with overnight stay is one of the most important type of tourism in each country. So this is very important to identify and assess destinations that have potential for developing slow tourism. Destinations in dry and arid areas have factors such as silence, hospitable people and rich culinary. So these destinations have high potential to be developed as slow tourism sites. By combination of slow tourism and geotourism because of their sustainable objects we can reach to the aim of protecting and conserving of environment. The target of this study sought to identify and assess potential destinations which can feature up to more consistency of tourist. The study is descriptive-functional research and using library resource, internet, field research. Required information was gathered from experts and tourist, using applications such as SPSS24 and GIS10.2. the results shows that the first selected geomorphosite for slow tourism was Dagh-Sard-Garm and the first selected geomorphosite for geotourism was Kal-Namak. Aesthetic value has the highest rating and ecological value was the lowest. According to tourists' point of view the most important criterion of slow tourism was attraction and benchmark and planning and infrastructure has the lowest score. Finally based on findings and take advantages of SWOT technique, review strategy (WO) is the adapted strategy for development planning of slow tourism in geomorphosites in this case study.

    Introduction

    In general, all new models of tourism infrastructure of two topics, namely environmental protection and socio-individual well-intended. One type of the tourism from both branches (environmental and socio-individual well-intended) has emerged, with slow tourism emphasizing on Geomorphosites.The desert and its wilderness is vast and beautiful and is one of natural attractions of our country. Today deserts including attractive areas for ecotourists. By using existing conditions can be started new activities in the field of tourism. The optimal approach, could be the development of the tourism market with low impact and reduce the negative impact of tourism. In the process of this development, slow tourism will play a key role.

    Methodology

    This is an applied research. We use field and library information to provide information and data, and also Fassoulas geomorphosit's assessment had been used. This paper as a leading research have to assess geomorphosites to develop Slow tourism, and earlier studies (external or internal) had never developed Slow tourism in Geomorphosites; hence The measure of the facilities and services according to Articles and reliable sources of slow tourism, have been added 5 sub-criteria. 10 experts in the field of tourism on the theme of geotourism, or experts whom dominated tourism in areas of Khoor-Biabanak or Tabas were asked about 20 locations. According to expert's opinion 10 Geomorphosites in the Khoor-Biabanak county and 10 Geomorphosite in Tabas county had the greatest potential for tourism development. The experts using a questionnaire to assess and evaluate each Geomorphosite.

    Results and Discussion

    Since scrutiny of tourism potential of Geomorphosites of each county and the utilization of expert's opinion, 10 Geomorphosites had been selected from each county. Experts evaluated 20 Geomorphosites by Utilizing the criteria defined by the values of scientific, ecological, cultural, aesthetic, economic, and facilities and services. Total topmost scores on different criteria related to Kal-Sardar Geomorphosite and total lowest score on different criteria related to Mehrjan's Aqueducts Geomorphosite. Cronbach's alpha values were then determined. This amount was reported for all values equal to 0/858. The KMO exploratory factor analysis was performed on the data. Using factor analysis Varimax rotation for six main criteria were expressed them in two categories. Factor analysis results showed that for slow tourism purposes cultural, economic, facilities and services criteria are more important. For land-based tourism, scientific factors, ecological and aesthetic play more important role. Then, using the weighting of factor analysis for ranking Geomorphosites which is from -3 (lowest score) to +3 (most points).

    Conclusion

    This study was based on surveys of experts and also based on their opinion scientific and aesthetic criteria had gained the most points scored. This shows that geomorphosites gained high value and high potential for tourism development, especially scientific and educational tourism. Ecological and cultural values had gained less scored compared with other Criterions, for ecological criteria because of the lack of protective measures. For cultural criteria because of the lack of population and in some cases uninhabited area, the lack of cultural programs such as festivals and cultural gatherings is due to low rating criteria. Generally geomorphosites of each county have great potential to attract tourists, and statistically significant differences among Khoor-Biabanak county and Tabas county's geomorphosites had not found. Although Tabas county's geomorphosites were better for slow tourism purpose; This could be due to having more facilities in the area, stay more services and facilities, there are festivals and conferences and things like that. Khoor-Biabanak county's geomorphosites were better for land-based tourism purposes.Average rating of geomorphosites in Khoor-Biabnak county for land-based tourism purposes were diagnosed more and this can be the result of originality and unfamiliar of the region and therefore the integrity of the geomorphosites affect the scientific , ecological and aesthetic criteria In the end some suggestions is provided to improve the management of geomorphosites for the purpose of slow tourism. In the following we will refer to some of the most important of them:• Organize the physical environment, transportation, communications, electricity, health infrastructure should be built in the region;• Various training courses should be organized for tourists and locals, for the recognition and protection of the natural and socio-cultural environment;• Project's Management needs local people support. Local managers should be trained and anthropology galleries in villages and local products for sale must be prepared;• Brochures distributed between tourists and encourages operations can be created through distribution of promotional products in tourist buses;• Museum for Geology and Earth morphological parameters for tours during all of the appeal, the importance of plant and animal species and museums should be obvious;• Photo exhibitions, poetry, essays, stories and competitions in schools should be held to introduce the area;

    Keywords: Slow Tourism, Geomorphosite Assessment, factor analysis, Khoor-Biabanak County, Tabas County
  • Q. Yazdanpanah * Pages 513-530

    Cyberspace, which has become the world's second world for many of its many functions and new charm, has left a very complex impact on human behavior. This new communication technology, which is the product of the fourth round of human technical achievements, has been able to surprisingly penetrate all age groups. In this research, the effect of cyberspace on Iranian women has been studied. Therefore, it has been tried to focus on the features of cyberspace as a comprehensive media, and considering its capabilities and functions, the dimensions and extent of its impact on Iranian women should be analyzies. Therefore, in this research, using a survey method and collecting some information through a questionnaire, the level and effect of cyberspace in women, its positive and negative effects on changing behavior patterns or the degree of adherence to this space in social behavioral variables They took advantage. The results show that cyberspace has allowed women to move more dynamically and socially than before the emergence of this space, and with significant presence in various social groups, they have largely excluded them from social isolation. Although the consequences of unrestricted presence in cyberspace have also been numerous for women and have led to mental and psychological costs in many cases. But scientific research shows that the presence of cyberspace has driven more women into society and in some ways their mental and intellectual development in different social categories has been

    Introduction

    In emerging concepts, geopolitics, cyberspace, and the functions of this space have been considered in different areas. This space has been considered by various gender groups in various dimensions and has made them more prominent roles in various social fields. In such circumstances, one of the important indicators for measuring the national development of countries, the type and manner in which women participate in large contributors (social, political, cultural, and economic participation). Because the significant expansion of communication technology and its breakthrough in all individual and personality dimensions has led to a shift in the methods of the mostly traditional package and provided a way for different partnerships of different human groups.On the other hand, the lack of encumbrances and extensive freedoms in cyberspace has left the women's community afraid of traditional encounters and gave them the courage to be effective in society. The study of the multiple dimensions of these changes and their socio-political and cultural implications will highlight the main objectives of this article, which we will discuss in the content of the paper and the findings. Because of the most important effects of using cyberspace and social network, its direct role in promoting the social status of women in Iranian society can be pointed out. Cyberspace provides a varied environment of political geography for women in Iran, through which active social activists can make individual and collective creativity in order to create their own abilities in different fields and, in my opinion, to a real place To reach their own.In this regard, the role of the World Wide Web is becoming more and more colorful with the diversity of information provided to users in cyberspace. Therefore, in this article, all the thematic functions related to the positive and negative effects and consequences of it in the Iranian society have been analyzeis. Because of the passion created by cyberspace, Iranian women have a different place for themselves, and with bold advent in various areas of the space, they are looking for different and continuous roles in society. In this research, we try to address the various dimensions of cyberspace and social networking functions as multifaceted and influential media in Iranian women's society.Theoretical Foundations of ResearchIn recent years, Iranian society has faced widespread social mutations in various areas. In the meanwhile, and from the point of view of political geography, cybercafe has different functions with many effects, and some of these functions are definitely at the service of upgrading The intellectual and social aspects of women in different fields and the strengthening of their social consciousness. In such a society with such an evolutionary pace, this level of cyberspace permeability over Iranian women should not be ignored and analyzed in many dimensions.On the other hand, this study finds the strategic significance that some social scientists do not consider the reasons for the influence of such a trend in Iranian women solely related to the short-term course, and they have been the product of step-by-step growth in the past five decades. In the Iranian society, the woman changes rapidly, the algebra of time and the extent of the means of affecting him from what he is and removes from him all his qualities and values to create the creature they want. (Bell, 1389,: 7). According to Parsi-rad, women may face a lot of problems in their social life if they do not consciously deal with life's issues (Jalali, 1395: 359). These views, along with other research perspectives, reflect the impact of technology on social behaviors and widespread changes in behavior patterns in Iranian women's society. In addition, the research shows that simultaneously with the changing individual and group patterns of Iranian women, Due to the increasing tendency of this group to have intangible communication tools in cyberspace, the taste of Iranian women has undergone many changes in various age groups.The virtual networks and the second world of humans, formed by communication technology, act as an unconventional plot in the present age, and this function has greatly influenced the emergence and appearance of social phenomena. Meanwhile, the effect of virtual phenomena and networks on traditional and so-called confinement groups in the fence of houses is more effective. Researches show that the unknowing, emotional and non-teaching effectiveness of the disadvantages and advantages of Iranian women's society has it. presence of dense and massive presence of Iranian women and girls in the modern communication and diverse activities in cyberspace represents the consolidation of new approaches and extensive passage of traditional space in Iran

    Keywords: Political Geography, Cyberspace, Communication Technologies, Gender Effects, Iranian Womens