فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:12 Issue:11, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Farnoosh Razmara, Mina Khayamzadeh * Page 1
    Context

     Oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatments, which affects all the patients receiving radiation treatment. Oral and oropharyngeal mucosa are involved in the treatment process. Also known as stomatitis, oral mucositis is one of the most common side effects of cancer treatments, which is associated with cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is estimated that this complication affects about 40% of the patients. Mucositis occurs when cancer treatments collapse the epithelial cells. Some of the main symptoms of mucositis include pain, discomfort, and inability to consume food or fluids. Severe mucositis may delay the treatment and hinder the efficacy of cancer treatment. Patients suffering from reduced immunity and damaged oral mucosa are prone to mouth infections. Several treatment agents can be used to reduce the lesions of mucositis. Given the fact that natural herbal remedies have fewer side effects than synthetic drugs, they are commonly used to treat mucositis.

    Evidence Acquisition

    In this regard, the Best Practice Information Sheet aims at not only providing evidence on the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis but also at evaluating the efficacy of natural agents for managing oral mucositis, particularly in patients with cancer.

    Results

     Although these agents have been used to reduce the severity of intolerable mucositis pain, there is yet no definitive treatment. Some agents are not cost-effective and some involve adverse side effects.

    Conclusions

     The present study showed that new traditional alternative medicines are promising alternatives for treating cancer-induced mucositis. It is recommended that dentists use these agents in clinical practice.
     

    Keywords: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Oral Mucositis, Treatment, Radiotherapy
  • Samaneh Ahmadi , Mojtaba Saffari, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi , Reza Shirkoohi , Marjan Jamalian , Hossein Teimori* Page 2
    Background

     Breast cancer, as the most frequent cancer diagnosed in women worldwide, is affected by different regulatory mechanisms and cellular processes such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and autophagy, which influence tumor cell progression. MiRNAs play a crucial role in cancer progression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been described in various human cancers. Growing evidence proposes that miRNAs have a considerable role in tumor development and may constitute robust biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

    Objectives

     The aim of this study was to evaluate miRNA-638 (miR-638) expression level in breast cancer patients and its bioinformatics analysis.

    Methods

     In this case-control study, miR-638 expression was examined in fresh breast tissues of 47 patients with breast cancer using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then the role of miR-638 in various signaling pathways was studied using Target Scan, the MicroRNA-Target Interactions (miRTarBase) database, miRWalk2.0 and the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID).

    Results

     The miR-638 expression level showed a significant decrease in breast cancer patients. Also, this miRNA might be involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis, and autophagy.

    Conclusions

     According to the results, miR-638 can be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for cancer growth, and its low expression is thought to increase cancer progression by disrupting cell death and autophagy, which are considered as important pathways in breast cancer.

    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Bioinformatics, MiR-638 Expression, Signaling Pathway
  • Maryam Hafizi , Somayeh Kalanaky , Hassan Moaiery , Maryam Khayamzadeh , Sajad Noorian , Vahid Kaveh , Hossein Foudazi , Behrooz Gharib , Arash Jenabian , Mohsen Razavi , Saeid Salimi , Saideh Fakharzadeh , Afshin Zarghi , Mohammad Hassan Nazaran *, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Page 3
    Background

     Nowadays, one criterion to assess the impact of various treatments in cancer patients is the quality of life (QOL), which represents the patients’ physical and psychosocial manner. It is already proved that BCc1 nanomedicine enjoys therapeutic behavior in cancer treatment of in vitro, animal, and human studies.

    Objectives

     In the present study, we aimed at investigating the QOL in gastric cancer patients according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire after treating them with BCc1 nanomedicine synthesized based on nanochelating technology.

    Methods

     A randomized, double-blind, and multicenter study was conducted to investigate the QLQ-STO30 of 60 metastatic (8 weeks after treatment) and 60 non-metastatic (20 weeks after treatment) gastric cancer patients in two separate groups named BCc1 nanomedicine and placebo.

    Results

     In the metastatic patients, the mean difference of overall QLQ-STO30 showed a 2.8-score improvement in BCc1 nanomedicine (P < 0.05) and a 5.2-score decline in placebo (P < 0.05); in non-metastatic patients, it showed a 2.3-score improvement in BCc1 nanomedicine (P > 0.05) and a 3-score decline in placebo (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

     The results of the study showed that BCc1 nanomedicine improves a number of indices in metastatic and non-metastatic gastric cancer patients, such as functional domains, symptom scales, and global QOL included in EORTC QLQ-STO30 questionnaire.

    Keywords: BCc1 Nanomedicine, Quality of Life Nanomedicine Quality of Life, Nanomedicine, Nanochelating Technology
  • Bashir Mohammadpour , Mazaher Khodabandehloo *, Morteza Motazakker Page 4
    Background

     Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common cancer worldwide. Despite epidemiological studies, the etiology of EC is undetected. It was recommended that tobacco, alcohol, food carcinogens, and infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of EC. Accumulating evidence suggests the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) on EC.

    Objectives

     The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and association of HPV with EC.

    Methods

     In this case-control study, 86 samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded esophageal tissues were gathered from the pathology laboratory, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran. A total of 43 samples were esophageal cancers (cases) and 43 samples were esophageal non-cancerous tissues (controls). The tissues were sectioned and deparaffinized, and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. The polymerase chain reaction test was conducted to detect HPV, using general (GP5+/GP6+) and type-specific (E6/E7) primers. HPV types were confirmed by sequencing. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software.

    Results

     Out of 86 samples, 23 (26.74%) were positive for HPV (15 cases, and 8 controls). By type-specific primers, high-risk HPVs were detected in the cases (3 HPV-16, 10 HPV-18, 1 HPV-31, and 1 HPV-33) and the controls (6 HPV-18, 1 HPV-31, and 1 HPV-33). No significant association was observed between HPV and EC (P = 0.078).

    Conclusions

     Although no significant association was observed between HPV and EC, high-risk HPV genotypes were found in esophageal cancers more than non-cancerous esophageal tissues. To confirm this result, more studies should be carried out in other populations.
     

    Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Esophageal Cancer, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC)
  • Narjes Mehrvar *, Mohammad Reza Rezvany, Hassan Abolghasemi, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Javad Sabery Nejad , Azim Mehrvar, Mohammad Faranoush, Maryam Gheidi Shahran , Abolfazl Movafagh Page 5
    Background

     Expression of ATB-binding cassette (ABC) transporters could be correlated with drug resistance and treatment failures like recurrence in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The relation of ABC gene expression and relapse in ALL is still unclear. This might be important especially in regions with a high rate of relapse.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to evaluate the role of ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCB1 gene expression in the recurrence of Iranian pediatric patients with ALL.

    Methods

     Iranian pediatric patients with confirmed ALL were enrolled in this study as two groups; relapsed ALL and a control group consisting of 3 years relapse-free survival (RFS). Real Time-PCR was done with GAPDH for expressing ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCB1 transporter genes. Cumulative doses of VCR (vincristine), DNR (daunorubicin), and L-ASP (L-asparaginase) were calculated for each patient. The gathered data were analyzed with SPSS version 22 and REST 2009 software.

    Results

     Total of 39 samples (23 cases; 16 controls) were enrolled during 26 months. High expression of ABCG1 (P value = 0.0068), ABCG2 (P value = 0.0120) and low expression of ABCB1 (P value = 0.0029) related with conferring increased risk of relapse in the patients. The mean relative folds of expressions were 2.3, 1.8, and 1.07 for ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCB1, respectively. In addition achieved expression pattern was related to high doses of VCR, DNR, and L-ASP.

    Conclusions

     Designed expression pattern have the predictive value for estimating of conferring relapse in Iranian pediatric patients with diagnosed ALL.
     

    Keywords: ABC Transporters, Gene Expression, Pattern, Relapse
  • Hossein Yahyazadeh, Ahmad R Mafi, Elham Khatooni , Marzieh Beheshti *, Azita Abdollahinejad Page 6
    Background

     Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion (PNI) are relatively common in various malignancies including colorectal cancers and have been shown to have prognostic significance.

    Objectives

     The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological variables associated with LVI and PNI in patients with colorectal carcinoma, who have been treated at Milad General Hospital in Tehran, Iran.

    Methods

     The records of the patients with the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma, who had undergone an operation at Milad General Hospital (Tehran, Iran) between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed. All patients, whose pathology reports and treatment records were available at Milad Hospital, were included. Relevant demographic, pathological, and surgical data, including age, gender, tumor location, maximum tumor size, pathologic Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) stage, and grade and number of removed lymph nodes were extracted from the medical records.

    Results

     In total, 547 patients (374 cases of colon cancer and 173 cases of rectal cancer) enrolled in the study. The prevalence of LVI and PNI was 16.4% and 30.7%, respectively. LVI and PNI were found to be associated with higher tumor grade, higher T-stage, and higher overall stage.

    Conclusions

     Colorectal carcinomas with positive LVI or PNI are more likely to have a higher grade, higher T-stage, and higher overall stage, and PNI is an independent factor for advanced disease.
     

    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer, Lymphovascular Invasion, Perineural Invasion