فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Medicine - Volume:13 Issue:4, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue:4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Sani Abdulrazak *, Adulmumin Abdulkabir Nuhu, Zakka Yashim Pages 332-341
    BACKGROUND
      Canine low-dose sepsis model provides a reliable setting to study innovative drugs. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a major constituent of bacterial outer membrane, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the initiation of pathogenesis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis has been extensively studied in laboratory animals; but its importance has mainly remained unknown in dogs.
    OBJECTIVES
    The aim of the present survey was to examine the effectiveness of quercetin, along with hydrocortisone on clinical and hematological alterations, and organ failure (liver and heart) in low-dose lipopolysaccharide-induced canine sepsis model.
    METHODS
    For this purpose, fifteen clinically healthy mixed dogs were randomly divided into three equal groups. Lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/kg, IV) was injected to dogs in group A (control). Group B was similar to group A, but quercetin bolus (2 mg/kg, IV, once) was injected 40 minutes after LPS injection. Group C was similar to group B; however, hydrocortisone bolus (2 mg/kg, IV, once) was administered instead of quercetin. Serum levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase isoenzyme muscle/brain (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) concentration were measured by commercial kits.
    RESULTS
    In control group, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) significantly decreased and serum activities of AST, ALP, LDH, CK-MB, and plasma cTn-I significantly increased (P<0.05). RBCs, Hb, and HCT significantly increased in quercetin group, compared with hydrocortisone and control groups (P<0.05). Quercetin group significantly decreased LDH, CK-MB, and cTn-I compared with hydrocortisone and control groups (P<0.05). Quercetin significantly decreased AST in comparison to control group and ALP in comparison to hydrocortisone group, also (P<0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS
    These results suggest that quercetin protects RBCs in the early stages of sepsis and decreases organs dysfunction (heart and liver), therefore it has a positive influence on sepsis and may be more effective than routine corticosteroid (hydrocortisone) therapy.
    Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Ginkgo biloba, haematology, rats, vitamin E
  • Zohre Eftekhari *, Mohammd Reza Mokhber Dezfouli, Babak Beikzadeh Pages 343-352
    BACKGROUND
    Inflammatory reactions in pathophysiologic conditions of lung are a critical problem in the treatment process, which in some cases lead to death, particularly in neonate. Exogenous lung surfactant has been considered as a candidate to treatment of inflammation in the lungs.
    OBJECTIVES
    The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of this substance in vivo and in vitro.
    METHODS
    Calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE) was obtained from freshly slaughtered calves’ minced isolates. For in vivo study: the New Zealand white rabbits as appropriate animal model were treated with formulated CLSE, then peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected and the level and gene expression of IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and TGF-β were assessed before and after surfactant treatment for 30 days. In vitro study: four different formulated drug concentrations were added to rabbit PBMC and cytokines level and gene expression were evaluated.
    RESULTS
    Our results indicate that IFN-γ and TGF-β increased at 24, 48 and 72 h which were statistically significant compared to baseline. While, IL-6 and IL-1β also started to decrease, IFN-γ and TGF-β increased due to surfactant therapy which reached its maximum expression after 7 days.
    CONCLUSIONS
    This study suggested that CLSE could contribute in reducing pathology effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inducing regulatory response in lung which can be used as auxiliary and protective drug in respiratory diseases.
    Keywords: Calf lung surfactants extract, cytokines level, exogenous lung surfactant, regulatory response
  • Seyed Sina Bagheri, Seyed Mostafa Peighambari *, Mohammad Soltani, Mohammad Malekan Pages 356-364
    BACKGROUND
    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen of a large number of domestic ani- mals, including avian species. There is limited information about S. aureus isolated from companion and wild birds in Iran.
    OBJECTIVES
    The aim of this study was to determine drug resistance and random-amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) pattern of S. aureus isolated from birds referred to the pet birds’ clinic of University of Tehran.
    METHODS
    During the study period, 53 isolates of S. aureus were recovered from companion birds of var- ious species using standard bacteriologic procedures and the respective drug resistance patterns were deter- mined for a panel of 30 antimicrobial agents by agar disk-diffusion method. RAPD-PCR was performed with two different 10-bp oligonucleotide primers in a duplex-PCR procedure.
    RESULTS
    The findings of this study demonstrated that S. aureus resistance to oxacillin, clindamycin and methicillin were 58, 53 and 53%, respectively. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found among all isolates. The MDR pattern was variable and ranged from 0 to 17 drugs. In total, all 53 isolates generated 43 different resistance patterns. In RAPD-PCR, five different patterns of A, B, C, D and E were found. Among 53 isolates, 20, 62, 3, 9 and 3% belonged to RAPD patterns of A, B, C, D and E, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS
    This study showed the widespread antimicrobial resistance among S. aureus isolated from pet birds; in particular, the presence of MRSA isolates. The value of RAPD-PCR for epidemiologic monitoring of S. aureus in pet birds also was noticed
    Keywords: Companion birds, drug resistance, molecular epidemiology, RAPD-PCR, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Saeed Omid Salary, Saam Torkan *, Mohsen Jafarian Dehkordi Pages 365-375
    BACKGROUND
    Recently, the researches about herbal medicines as substitutes for chemical drugs have risen in number.
    OBJECTIVES
    To add more aspects to this research area, this study evaluated the changes in biochemical factors of the blood serum due to the consumption of Thymus daenensis extract and the effect of the period of its consumption into the diet of herd dogs.
    METHODS
    Eight adult male dogs were chosen and fed with a fixed diet for 1 month. Then they were ran- domly assigned to two groups of four. The members of first (control) group were fed only with the fixed diet and the second group received 200mg/ml, administered as 1ml/kg of Thymus daenensis extract into their fixed diet. Finally, the dogs were bloodlet at 3 different times, namely before intervention, 7 and 14 days after the in- tervention to measure the factors of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferases.
    RESULTS
    Comparing to the control group and the starting point of this experiment, levels of FBS, LDL, TGL, CHOL, AST factors significantly decreased 14 days after intervention, but the HDL factor increased after 7 and 14 days of intervention (P 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS
    Consequently, oral consumption of Thymus daenensis extract led to decrease in the amounts of glucose and lipids of blood and this herb can be recommended for treating diabetics and persons suffering from high cholesterol.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Dog, extrac, serum, Thymus daenensis
  • Alale Soltanian *, Bahman Mosallanejad, Mohammad Razi Jalali, Hosein Najafzadeh, Masoud Ghorbanpoor Pages 377-387
    BACKGROUND
    Canine low-dose sepsis model provides a reliable setting to study innovative drugs. Li- popolysaccharides (LPS), a major constituent of bacterial outer membrane, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the initiation of pathogenesis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis has been extensively studied in laboratory animals; but its importance has mainly remained unknown in dogs.
    OBJECTIVES
    The aim of the present survey was to examine the effectiveness of quercetin, along with hydrocortisone on clinical and hematological alterations, and organ failure (liver and heart) in low-dose lipo- polysaccharide-induced canine sepsis model.
    METHODS
    For this purpose, fifteen clinically healthy mixed dogs were randomly divided into three equal groups. Lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/kg, IV) was injected to dogs in group A (control). Group B was similar to group A, but quercetin bolus (2 mg/kg, IV, once) was injected 40 minutes after LPS injection. Group C was similar to group B; however, hydrocortisone bolus (2 mg/kg, IV, once) was administered instead of quercetin. Serum levels of glucose, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase isoenzyme muscle/brain (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) concentration were measured by commercial kits.
    RESULTS
    In control group, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT) significant-  ly decreased and serum activities of AST, ALP, LDH, CK-MB, and plasma cTn-I significantly increased (P<0.05). RBCs, Hb, and HCT significantly increased in quercetin group, compared with hydrocortisone and control groups (P<0.05). Quercetin group significantly decreased LDH, CK-MB, and cTn-I compared with hydrocortisone and control groups (P<0.05). Quercetin significantly decreased AST in comparison to control group and ALP in comparison to hydrocortisone group, also (P<0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS
    These results suggest that quercetin protects RBCs in the early stages of sepsis and de- creases organs dysfunction (heart and liver), therefore it has a positive influence on sepsis and may be more effective than routine corticosteroid (hydrocortisone) therapy.
    Keywords: Dog, hydrocortisone, lipopolysaccharide, quercetin, sepsis
  • Seyedeh Alemeh Hosseinian *, Seyed Amir Hashemi Hazaveh Pages 389-399
    BACKGROUND
    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile pathogen of a large number of domestic ani- mals, including avian species. There is limited information about S. aureus isolated from companion and wild birds in Iran.
    OBJECTIVES
    The aim of this study was to determine drug resistance and random-amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) pattern of S. aureus isolated from birds referred to the pet birds’ clinic of University of Tehran.
    METHODS
    During the study period, 53 isolates of S. aureus were recovered from companion birds of var- ious species using standard bacteriologic procedures and the respective drug resistance patterns were deter- mined for a panel of 30 antimicrobial agents by agar disk-diffusion method. RAPD-PCR was performed with two different 10-bp oligonucleotide primers in a duplex-PCR procedure.
    RESULTS
    The findings of this study demonstrated that S. aureus resistance to oxacillin, clindamycin and methicillin were 58, 53 and 53%, respectively. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) was found among all isolates. The MDR pattern was variable and ranged from 0 to 17 drugs. In total, all 53 isolates generated 43 different resistance patterns. In RAPD-PCR, five different patterns of A, B, C, D and E were found. Among 53 isolates, 20, 62, 3, 9 and 3% belonged to RAPD patterns of A, B, C, D and E, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS
    This study showed the widespread antimicrobial resistance among S. aureus isolated from pet birds; in particular, the presence of MRSA isolates. The value of RAPD-PCR for epidemiologic monitoring of S. aureus in pet birds also was noticed.
    Keywords: Companion birds, drug resistance, molecular epidemiology, RAPD-PCR, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Mohammad Reza Aghchelou *, Samane Bakhshi, Dariush Saadati Pages 401-409
    Background
    Intraosseous injection is a way to administration of drugs.
    Objective
    The clinical comparison of intraosseous and intravenous injection of Thiopental-Na.
    Methods
    First all birds (Twenty six healthy pigeons) were split out into two groups randomly. Group A received 20 mg kg-1 Thiopental-Na by intraosseous route and group B intravenous route. After one week that needs for washing out of drug, group A received 20 mg kg-1 Thiopental-Na by intravenous route and group B intraosseous route. The respiratory rate (fR), heart rate (HR) and cloacal temperature (T) were measured before (0 minute) and 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after anesthetic drug administration. Reaction to injection, number of efforts for injection, duration to onset the anesthesia and different scores of anesthesia were checked. Returning from anesthesia in two groups was written out and compared.
    Results
    Statistical assessment showed anesthesia onset in the method of intravenous injection was significantly less than the method of intraosseous injection (p=0.003), and the fR in two groups was different in 1 minute after drug administration (P=0.036). There was not statistically difference in other minutes for fR, HR and T in two groups (P >0.05). Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences in terms of number of efforts for anaesthetizing as well as anesthesia stage in both methods in different minutes (p>0.05). Also no significant alterations were recorded for recovery time for both groups. There was not any visible lameness or pain for intraosseous route after recovery.
    Conclusions
    Intraosseous anesthesia injection in birds is a practicable and fast procedure and comparable with intravenous route.
    Keywords: anesthesia, intraosseous injection, intravenous injection, Thiopental-Na, pigeon
  • Asaad Parnian, Bahman Navidshad *, Farzad Mirzaei, Reza Behmaram, Hamid Deldar Pages 411-420
    BACKGROUND
    In ovo injection of nutrients as an early feeding method in birds directly supplies the nu- trients to the developing embryo.
    OBJECTIVES
    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of nicotonic acid, panto- thenic acid and folic acid on the performance and immune system of broilers.
    METHODS
    450 Ross 308 fertile eggs were divided into 5 groups and placed in a hatchery machine. Five experimental groups included in ovo injection of 0.121 mg of nicotonic acid, 0.052 mg of pantothenic acid, 0.007 mg of folic acid on the 14th day of incubation period, positive control or injection control (physiological serum injection) and negative control (non injecting control).
    RESULTS
    At the age of 18 days of the rearing period, injection of pantothenic acid and nicotinic acid in- creased the antibody titre against Newcastle Virus and folic acid and pantothenic acid reduced the SRBC titer. At 35 days of age, nicotinic acid and folic acid had lower SRBC titer than the negative control group. The highest lymphocyte to heterophilia ratio was observed in the pantothenic acid group and the lowest levels were seen in the folic acid group. In ovo injection of nicotinic acid and pantothenic acid caused weight loss in chicks during the first and second weeks of rearing period compared to positive and negative controls groups.
    CONCLUSIONS
    The results of this study indicated a positive effect of in ovo injection of pantothenic acid and nichotinic acid on some immune parameters of broiler chicks. In despite of the negative effect of in ovo injection of nicotinic acid and pantothenic acid on growth rate of chicks during the first and second week of age, there was a compensatory growth for the nicotinic acid group such that this treatment positively influenced the final weight of the broilers.
    Keywords: broiler, folic acid, In ovo injection, nicotonic acid, pantothenic acid
  • Zahra Tulaby Dezfuly *, Mojtaba Alishahi, Masoud Ghorbanpoor, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Mehrzad Mesbah Pages 421-435
    BACKGROUND
    Recently, the researches about herbal medicines as substitutes for chemical drugs have risen in number.
    OBJECTIVES
    To add more aspects to this research area, this study evaluated the changes in biochemical factors of the blood serum due to the consumption of Thymus daenensis extract and the effect of the period of its consumption into the diet of herd dogs.
    METHODS
    Eight adult male dogs were chosen and fed with a fixed diet for 1 month. Then they were ran- domly assigned to two groups of four. The members of first (control) group were fed only with the fixed diet and the second group received 200mg/ml, administered as 1ml/kg of Thymus daenensis extract into their fixed diet. Finally, the dogs were bloodlet at 3 different times, namely before intervention, 7 and 14 days after the in- tervention to measure the factors of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferases.
    RESULTS
    Comparing to the control group and the starting point of this experiment, levels of FBS, LDL, TGL, CHOL, AST factors significantly decreased 14 days after intervention, but the HDL factor increased after 7 and 14 days of intervention (P<0.05). The level of ALT factor did not change during period of the study (P> 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS
    Consequently, oral consumption of Thymus daenensis extract led to decrease in the amounts of glucose and lipids of blood and this herb can be recommended for treating diabetics and persons suffering from high cholesterol.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Dog, serum, Thymus daenensis
  • Farhang Sasani, Hosein Ali Arab, Seyed Hossein Mardjanmehr, Sara Shokrpoor *, Hamid Reza Fakhri Moghadam, Diba Golchin Pages 437-443
    Melanomas are malignant neoplasms originating from melanocytes. They reported in birds.  In this  case, macroscopic and microscopic (the histopathologic and IHC) findings supported a final diagnosis  of cutaneous malignant melanoma in a mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos). A female mallard duck  (Anas platyrhynchos) was observed with a mass on the ventral portion of the neck. The bird was anes- thetized with Diazepam/Ketamine. A skin incision was made on the ventral surface of the mass and blunt dissection was performed to separate the mass. The incision was sutured by a simple interrupted suture pattern. Mass was surgically excised for histopathological evaluation. Histologically, the mass was composed of nests and sheets of anaplastic, epithelioid, multinucleated and polygonal cells con- taining variable amounts of brown to black granules of melanin. The neoplasm showed immunoreactiv- ity for S-100 and Melan-A in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Based on the histopathological and IHC findings, this is the first report of malignant melanoma in a mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos).
    Keywords: Anas platyrhynchos, Female, IHC, malignant melanoma, mallard duck