فهرست مطالب

بیماریهای عفونی و گرمسیری - پیاپی 86 (پاییز 1398)
  • پیاپی 86 (پاییز 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/11/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Sadegh Kargarian Marvasti, Nematolah Rahimi, Sima Afrashteh*, GholamReza Rafie, Maryam Aslani Pages 1-6
    Background and objectives

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral sexual infection (a protozoan parasite) that affects 276 million people in the world, annually, and it’s transmitted in adults by sexual contacts without condom. The aim of this study was to determine of risk factors for the incidence of Trichomoniasis in affected women with one of the sexually transmitted infections in a 2-years period.

    Materials and methods

    In this case cohort study, 547 syndromic cases of trichomoniasis screened by census method, 38 etiologic patients were identified and selected as cases. The control group were 3-times the cases using simple random sampling. The statistical analysis was performed with a total sample size of 152 people using univariate (P <0.20) and multivariate logistic regression model (P < 0.05). Direct smear using Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method was used for laboratory diagnosis.

    Results

    The prevalence of syndromic and etiologic trichomoniasis in affected women with one of the sexually transmitted infections was 48.9% and 3.4%, respectively. The "age of the patient" (P = 0.001, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03-1.14) and "education level" (P = 0.003, OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.13-0.64) were considered as risk factor and Protective agent in the incidence of trichomoniasis infection, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The findings of this study indicate a high prevalence of infection in patients with clinical symptoms. Level of education Reduction and increasing age of the patient are the most important factors in increasing the risk of infection, and it is necessary to reinforcement the regular prevention and screening programs at aged 25-44 years.

    Keywords: Sexually transmitted infections, Trichomoniasis, Case-cohort study, Logistic regression analysis
  • Alireza Bahonar*, Akram Bahrainipour, Abbas Rahimi Foroshani, Samad LotfollahZadeh, Karim Amiri, Seyed Bahman Naghibi Pages 7-15
    Background and objectives

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Control and prevention of disease in animals in addition to preventing economic losses to the animal industry, it can prevent human disease and its losses. The present survey was carried out to determine the contamination status of industrial and semi-industrial dairy cows under the cover of Veterinary Brucellosis Testing and Slaughter Operations in 1397

    Materials and methods

    This is a descriptive survey and the required information was obtained from the Veterinary Organization of Iran in 1397. Cows with positive results for Rose bengal and Wright and 2-mercaptoethanol tests were used sequentially recorded as positive sera and in this survey, the farm with at least one seropositive cow was considered positive for brucellosis.

    Results

    In this survey, the percentage of contamination (Seropositive) in herd level in dairy cows covered by brucellosis testing and slaughter operations was 3.94% and individual level was 1.70 per thousand. The highest percentage of contamination in herd level and individual level was 14.29% and 8.39 per thousand respectively in breeding complexes. Most of the contamination at individual level was 18.03 per thousand in Yazd province.

    Conclusion

    According to the results of this survey, there is an essential need to pay more attention to management systems of breeding complexes and their problems

    Keywords: Brucellosis, Cow, Industrial, semi-industrial dairy cows
  • Masoumeh Douraghi*, Morteza Karami Zarandi, Amir Aliramezani, Sedighe Ghourchian, Mohammad Rahbar Pages 16-25
    Background and objective

    The first imipenem-resistant A. baumannii emerged shortly after the introduction and therapeutic use of carbapenems, particularly imipenem. The resistance to imipenem in this strain was found to be associated with oxa23 which is the most widespread gene conferring resistance to carbapenems. Because of the wide distribution of oxa23 in Iranian isolates, identifying the genotypes of endemic or circulating isolates in hospitals is of prime importance. This study aimed to identify the genotypes of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates carrying oxa23 recovered from clinical specimens in selected hospitals of Tehran.

    Materials and methods

    A set of 92 A. baumannii isolates was collected and identified. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion. A multiplex PCR was done for screening oxa23, oxa24 and oxa58 genes. The genetic pattern of the isolates was identified by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) using ApaI enzyme.

    Results

    Of the 92 isolates, 81 (88%) harbored oxa23. In the current study, 72 distinct pulsotypes were identified and of them 61 pulsotypes contained only one isolate while in the remaining 11 pulsotypes, two or more isolates were clustered.

    Conclusion

    This study showed the polycloncal distribution of the carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates carrying oxa23 in selected hospitals. Some of the isolates carrying oxa23 were detected for several months in target hospitals.

    Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem resistance, oxa23, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
  • Atefeh Karimi, Fateh Rahimi* Pages 26-35
    Background and objective

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of a variety of infections in humans, such as urinary tract infection; which is due to its ability to form biofilm in different parts of the urinary tract. In this study we characterized the phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biofilm formation among S. aureus strains isolated from urinary tract infections in Isfahan.

    Materials and methods

    During 2016, a total of 96 S. aureus strains were collected from a referral hospital in Isfahan and were identified at the species level using specific primers. The ability of strains to form biofilm was measured using phenotypic qualitative Congo-red agar and quantitative microtiter plate assays. The different genes involved in biofilm formation were detected by the specific primers.

    Results

    All isolates were confirmed as S. aureus using the PCR test. The results of Congo-red agar test revealed that 5% and 72% of the strains were able to produce black and dark red colonies, respectively. Moreover, in microtiter plate assay, 72% of the strains were biofilm positive. The frequency of icaA, icaD, clfA, fnbA and cna genes among biofilm producing strains were 84, 86, 75, 61 and 43%, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study indicating the high prevalence of biofilms producing S. aureus strains in the desired hospital. Moreover, our findings revealed the importance of genotypic method for identification of biofilm positive strains compared to phenotypic methods.

    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, urinary tract infection, Biofilm, Congo-red agar, microtiter plate, ica locus
  • Abedin Saghafipour *, Hadi Hamidi Parsa, Reza Fouladifard Pages 36-43
    Background and objective

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as a common disease in many tropical and subtropical countries has adverse economic consequences for patients and health care system. Some rural areas of Qom are considered as active foci of disease. This study was performed in order to evaluation of economic burden associated with CL in Qom, central Iran using Activity Based Costing.

    Materials and methods

    In a cross-sectional study, data of 207 patients with CL based on laboratory diagnosis in the year 2018 were used to estimate the economic burden of the disease. Charts, frequency tables, and the financial softwares (Azarakhsh and Roozamad) in Excel were used to costs analysis.

    Results

    The incidence of CL in Qom province was 16.02 per 100,000 people (207/1,292,000). Economic burden of the disease was estimated at 4,265,246,799 rials (85,387$). The average direct cost paid for each person with CL was 10,631,250 rials (212$) and indirect costs (overhead) for each person was about 9,653,807 rials (193$), the governmental cost per patient 20,285,057 rials (405$), direct out of pocket payments for each patient was around 320,000 rials (7$) and the total costs was estimated at 20,605,057 rials (412$) per patient.

    Conclusions

    Direct and indirect costs associated with diagnosis and treatment of CL disease may have a great impact on patients and health care system. So, it seems more cost effective to take preventive measures.

    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Economic burden, Health care services, Qom, Iran
  • Mahnoosh Fatemi, Fereshte Ghandehari*, Marzieh Limoochi Pages 44-51
    Background and objective

    Shigella infections lead to secretion of pre-inflammatory cytokines which lead to release of Reactive oxygen species. These radicals induce oxidative stress by peroxidation of lipids and DNA. Antioxidant compounds can reduce injuries resulting from bacterial infections. Camel milk play an important role in reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, protective effects of camel milk against Shigella dysenteriae were evaluated in rats.

    Materials and methods

    Rats (120± 20g) were divided into 5 groups. Group infected with Shigella dysenteriae (1.5×108 CFU/ML), Group infected with Shigella dysenteriae and treated by 33ml/kg of camel milk, Group infected with Shigella dysenteriae and treated by 5mg/kg of Sefixim antibiotic, group treated by of camel milk, group infusive control. After finishing treatment period, the animals were anaesthetized and their tissues from intestine, liver and spleen were separated and the activity level of enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, was evaluated in these tissues.

    Results

    In this text, the activity level of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased in the tissues infected with Shigella dysenteriae. This decrease was raised up to a normal level following. Treatment by camel milk or antibiotic and camel milk

    Conclusion

    These results indicate that camel milk capable reduce of dysfunction in the liver, spleen, intestine and the synergistic effect with antibiotics and can be used to treat shigellosis, strengthen the immune system and antioxidant.

    Keywords: Camel milk, Shigellosis, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, Rat
  • Hamid Kassiri*, Iman Khodkar, Niusha Kasiri, Ali Safari Asl, Masoud Lotfi Pages 52-59
    Background and objective

    About, 1230000 scorpion envenomation happen in the world each year, while the number of deaths is approximately 3250. Nearly named 2000 species of scorpions are found in the globe. Of these, 30 species have medical significance. Yearly, about 50000 people are stung by various species of scorpions in Iran. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological features of stings by scorpions in Aghajri County during 2016 and 2017 years, southwestern Iran.

    Materials and methods

    In this cross- sectional study, only definite scorpion stings where the scorpion was collected were included. We obtained demographic-epidemiologic data by interview and filling a questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20, using descriptive - analytical statistics such as frequency, percentage, Chi-square and t tests.

    Results

    In total, 280 cases were recorded during 2016 and 2017. The majority cases were men (52.8%). The most stung limbs were feet and hands, with 46.1% and 34.6%, respectively. The most frequent patients were in the age groups 10-24 (25%) and 25-34 (24.3%) years old. Nearly 52.5% stung cases were from rural areas. All patients (100%), had been admitted to emergency department less than 1.5 hour after scorpion sting. Most cases of scorpion stings occurred during summer (40.7%) and spring (29.3%), while August (16.4%) and June (15%) were the months with highest rates.All patients during the study were treated with anti-venom serum.

    Conclusion

    The highest rate of cases were reported in rural areas and 10-24 years old age group, therefore, training programs should be considered for preventing scorpion sting in the above mentioned areas and age group.

    Keywords: Scorpion sting, Epidemiology, Demography, Scorpion, Iran