فهرست مطالب

Medical Reviews - Volume:6 Issue: 4, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue: 4, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Saksham Gupta * Pages 113-116

    Traumatic Extrapleural Haematoma (EH) is a rare clinical entity describing traumatic bleeding occurring within the thoracic cavity, but outside the parietal pleura. It needs to be differentiated from intrapleural bleeding, commonly known as a haemothorax, which is the more typical location for bleeding after chest wall trauma. The management principles are different and the trauma clinician needs to be vigilant in making an early accurate diagnosis. As intercostal catheters sit within the intrapleural space, suitably placed catheters will struggle to adequately evacuate EHs. Accordingly, early consideration needs to be made for surgical evacuation. The EHs do not occur commonly making it difficult for prospective studies and the current literature largely consists of case reports and series. This narrative review aims to look at this work to provide guidance on the best manner to diagnose and manage this rare injury pattern.

    Keywords: Trauma, Traumatic Extrapleural, haemothorax
  • Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Sadr, Mehdi Raei, Amir Vahedian Azimi, Jamileh Mohammadi, Mahmood Salesi * Pages 117-121

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) which are considered as the major public health problems, result in substantial increases in economic and health care costs, and are the first leading cause of death worldwide. Clinical research are the backbone of attempts to build and conduct evidence-based policies to perform the best caring of CVDs. International collaborations, increase the quality of research. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to assess the changes in the geographic pattern of Iran's international cardiovascular research collaborations.


    This study was a systematic review with scientometrics approaches. Numbers and rates of international research collaborations were extracted from the "Web of Science" database. Results are reported as figures by Graph Pad v6 and Arc GIS v7 software.


    The results showed that, 18.3% of all Iran's cardiovascular research have been conducted with international collaborations. The increasing rates were 14.4%, 16.5%, and 21.3% in the time periods of 2004-2009, 2010-2014, and 2015-2019, respectively. The obtained results indicated that, the United States was the first research partner of Iran in the field of cardiovascular and the other partners were England, Australia, Italy and Poland; respectively.


    This study provides a global description of a changing pattern of the international research collaboration behavior of Iran and also indicates that the international research collaboration follow a logical trend in the cardiovascular field. Building effective international research collaboration networks as well as encouraging researchers to work in these networks can be considered by policy makers in university levels in the future.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular, International Collaboration, geographic changes pattern, Scientometric, Iran
  • Bella Kurnia *, Richardo Rusli Pages 122-127

    Previous studies have shown that probiotics reduce the incidence of Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis; while other studies have not shown a significant difference of NEC and sepsis incidence.  To this date there is still no protocols or guidelines in regards to the use of routine probiotics in very low birth weight preterm infants.


    The present study was a meta-analysis research. Up to date RCTs were reviewed to see the effectiveness of probiotics in order to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. Studies were searched through PubMed, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library searching engines from 2009 to 2019. This meta-analysis was assessed according to PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of probiotics for very low birth weight preterm babies; full text English articles; and having been published from 2009 to 2019.


    The findings of this study reveal that the incidence of NEC in the probiotic group was significantly low (p= <0.00001, R=0.48). In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of NEC was lower in the multiple strain group and Lactobacillus group with a P value of p= 0.0004 and 0.006 respectively. The incidence of sepsis was lower in the probiotic group with a P value of p= 0.02. Also, the incidence of all-cause mortality was lower in the probiotic group with a P value of p= 0.02.


    According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that it is beneficial to use multiple strain probiotics and Lactobacillus strain probiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm babies.

    Keywords: probiotics, necrotizing enterocolitis, Preterm, Meta-analysis
  • Yodang Yodang *, Nuridah Nuridah Pages 128-134

    Hypertension has been a globally burden disease since the 1990s. It is known as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. For more than a decade, hypertension was the most prevalent cause of death around the world, and one of ten leading causes of death in lower-middle-income countries including coastal and estuarine regions. As a preventable illness condition, hypertension has been found to be associated with some modifiable factors. This review aims to identify the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in coastal and estuarine regions, in high, low and middle-income countries.


    To carry out this review, four journal databases including Proquest, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and DOAJ were used to address the prevalence and determinants of hypertension in coastal and estuarine regions both in high, low and middle-income countries.


    The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.445% to 85.1%. In coastal regions, the prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.45% to 51.1%, while the prevalence of prehypertension ranged from 26.5% to 39.75%. In estuarine regions, the prevalence of hypertension was about 25.29%. The highest prevalence both in prehypertension and hypertension was observed in Kerala, India. This is while the lowest prevalence was observed in China. High sodium intake is strongly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. Other risk factors including older age, lower education, gender, and lower economic status; body weight status (overweight or obese), health behavior (physical inactivity, daily smoker, heavy alcohol drinking), and psychosocial stress (depression), were all linked to hypertension.


    According to the findings of this study, it can be stated that strategies are needed to improve the prevention of hypertension in coastal and estuarine regions, particularly managing and modifying some modifiable factors.

    Keywords: risk factors, Cause of Death, Prevalence, Hypertension, Sodium
  • Jeannett Alejandra Izquierdo Vega, Eduardo Osiris Madrigal Santillán, Jorge Teodoro Chavez Pagola, Maria Del Carmen Valadez, Manuel Sánchez Gutiérrez * Pages 135-139

    Ellagic Acid (EA), is a naturally occurring phenolic found in some fruits and nuts. It has a great variety of biological activities, including properties antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-atherogenic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-mutagenic, and anti-carcinogenic agent recently. This review aims to summarize experimental research carried out in vivo and in vitro that evaluated the EA treatment in male reproduction and discussed the mechanisms of action. For this purpose, PubMed and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify publications in this regard.

    Keywords: ellagic acid, polyphenols, Urolithins, Male Reproduction
  • Roaa Noori Ali, Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL Janabi * Pages 140-145

    The respiratory system of the human body is always exposed to a great number of fungal spores. Asexual spores of Aspergillus are the most frequent type of spores that can be found in various environments. The inhalation of these spores can lead to various undesirable effects in the human body. Aspergillosis is a common type of these harmful effects of inhaled spores, while sensitization, which is resulted from a long-term exposure to Aspergillus spores, is a second type. In some cases, sensitization can develop into various types of allergic diseases such as asthma, which may play a role as a predisposing factor for aspergillosis in other cases. In conclusions, Asthma and Aspergillosis have shared responsibility to form each other in a reversible relationship.

    Keywords: Aspergillosis, Asthma, Aspergillus, Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)
  • Amir Vahedian Azimi, Malihe Sadat Moayed * Pages 146-153

    During the last few decades, substantial research have been carried out identifying factors that contribute to the etiology and progression of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). This systematic review and meta-analysis has been conducted to update and summarize the results of the published articles that examine the effect of perceived stress and its association with the incidence of CHD.


    In order to carry out this study, five electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and ProQuest were used to search for potentially relevant articles. Articles published from 1948 to November 2018 were investigated in this research. All cross- sectional, prospective observational cohort, and case – control studies were selected which had measured self-reported perceived stress and had assessed the incidence of CHD. From among all the potentially identified relevant articles, 10 articles met the criteria (n=165819). The incidence of CHD was defined as a new diagnosis of, Ischemic Heart Diseases (IHD) for, or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and mortality secondary to CHD.


    Meta-analysis yielded a risk ratio of 1.382% [CI 95% (1.056-1.808), and P=0.019] for CHD, and an aggregate IHD risk of 1.206% [CI 95% (1.112-1.308), and P<0.0001]. Pooled estimate were 1.455% [CI 95% (1.088-1.944), and P<0.011] for mortality, which showed that perceived stress had a significant increasing effect on mortality.


    This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that high levels of stress increases the risk of CHD, IHD and mortality. Lifestyle changes play an essential role in the clinical prevention of CVD.

    Keywords: Coronary heart disease, meta- analysis, Perceived stress, Stress