فهرست مطالب

Medical Reviews - Volume:10 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

International Journal of Medical Reviews
Volume:10 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Omid Yousefianzadeh, Arezoo Dehghani, Saeed Kargar, Maryam Nikfard, HamidReza Dehghan * Pages 580-588

    Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lower rectum and anus, rarely dangerous, and typically treated within a few weeks. However, urgent medical care is required to avoid exacerbation of the condition. This study aimed to compare minimally invasive laser surgery with other common hemorrhoid surgical techniques and investigate the main outcome of these techniques.

    Data sources: 

    Four databases of PubMed (185), Scopus (59), ISI (143), CRD (10), and other resources (12) were explored.Study selection: All studies on laser surgery for patients with Grade 2 or 3 hemorrhoids examining pain outcome, reduction of hemorrhoids grade, and patient's quality of life after laser surgery were enrolled in this review.


    Finally, 25 eligible articles were enrolled in the study. The results indicated that hemorrhoid was improved in the laser surgery group within the follow-up period with a higher average of quality-of-life self-assessment compared to other techniques. Overall satisfaction was higher in the laser group.


    The evidence favored laser treatment in all studies, either clinical trials or studies without control groups. Ingeneral, laser surgery is considered an immune treatment for hemorrhoids with fewer postoperative complications such as bleeding, discomfort, and pain. Therefore, other than the cost, the rest of the evidence was in favor of laser surgery, and the laser technique is an appropriate alternative to conventional methods.

    Keywords: Hemorrhoid, Laser Surgery, treatment
  • Zahra Zirak, Fatemeh Ansarian, Sara Khoshamouz, Parivash Nazarpour, Mostafa Soodmand, Mahdi Bagheri, Milad Asghardoust Rezaei *, Hossein Hasan Pour, Mohammad Taghi Moghadamnia Pages 589-612

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of various studies on the effect of COVID-19 on thepsychological problems of medical department students worldwide.


    Our statistical population includes all English articles on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students from January 1, 2019, to the end of December 2020. The articles were searched in Google Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases using the keywords medical students, PTSD, depression, and anxiety, followed by a secondary search similar to the primary search.


    This study was conducted based on the PRISMA - statement. All included studies were performed using the crosssectional analytical method. Out of 24 studies with a sample size of 12042 people, ten articles dealt with the anxiety topic, one article addressed the depression issue, and 13 articles discussed both the anxiety and depression topic in medical, dental and nursing students. Most studies have shown that women experienced more anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic than men. The level of anxiety of medical students was much lower than that of non-medical students.


    A large number of students considered virtual education as an unusual and unfamiliar method and expressed their anxiety symptoms. There was a significant relationship between anxiety as well as depression levels and COVID-19. COVID-19-related anxiety and depression caused sleep, appetite and diet disorders, lack of energy and concentration, decreased selfconfidence, and loss of the ability to overcome life problems in students.

    Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety, depression, Medical Department Students
  • Iman Dianat, Seyed Ali Hossein Zahraei * Pages 613-615

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a common mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. This review article aims to explore the causes of GAD, including genetic and environmental factors, as well as neurobiological and psychological mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of these causes for the diagnosis and treatment of GAD. Overall, this review provides an overview of the multifactorial nature of GAD and highlights the need for a comprehensive and personalized approach to its management.

    Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, mental health, Neurobiological, Psychological
  • Osward Bwanga *, Ncheebe Sindaza, Ernest Chanda, Nkole Bwalya, Ethel Chilambe Jere, Joseph Mulenga Pages 616-624

    Mobile radiography is requested and performed using a mobile X-ray machine when a patient’s condition makes the transfer to the radiology department unsafe. In the Zambian healthcare system, these patients are admitted to special care units, such as intensive care units (ICU), resuscitation units of the accident and emergency (A& E) departments, COVID-19 isolation wards, and special care baby units (SCBU). These are critically ill patients who require constant monitoring and nursing care. Moving these patients to radiology departments for medical imaging due to non-availability of or non-functional mobile X-ray machines can negatively affect their condition, treatment, and nursing care. Chest X-rays are the most performed radiological examinations during mobile radiography. However, radiographers face challenges in providing mobile radiography services to critically ill patients due to limited space, life-support equipment attached to patients, infection control measures, limitations of mobile Xray machines, and radiation protection. The biggest opportunity identified during this review is the increased demand of patients requiring mobile radiography services. However, an insufficient number of mobile X-ray machines, lack of equipment and maintenance, inadequate radiation protection devices, and a critical shortage of radiologists to report on portable X-rays were the main challenges identified affecting mobile radiography services. Recommendations are made to improve the delivery of mobile radiography services in Zambia.

    Keywords: Challenges, Mobile Radiography, opportunities, Radiographer, Zambia
  • Sirvan Abbasbeigi * Pages 625-636

    COVID-19 is a respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can also have neurological manifestations and complications. There is growing evidence that COVID-19 may be associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood but may involve direct viral invasion of the brain, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and amyloid formation. These factors may trigger or accelerate the neuronal damage and debilitation that characterize neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, this study aims to review the highlighted connections between SARS-COV-2 and NDDs, considering new technologies in treating challenging diseases. To put it better, CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing tool that targets and modifies specific DNA sequences in living cells. It has been used to create animal models, study gene function, and develop gene therapies for various diseases. CRISPR-Cas9 may also be a promising tool to combat COVID-19 and prevent or treat its neurological complications by targeting either the viral genome or the host factors essential for viral infection. It has been concluded that there are still some questions and limitations to the clinical application of CRISPR-Cas9, such as delivery efficiency, specificity, safety, and immunogenicity, which require further investigation and biological and medical observation to be accepted as a stable alternative treatment in this field.

    Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Viral infection, Neurodegenerative disorders, CRISPR-Cas9, Genome editing
  • Farahnaz Dayani, Valeh Jalali *, Nead Fatehi Rad, Masoud Tajadini Pages 637-642
    Communication skills can be improved in a variety of ways. Watching movies is thought to contribute to the acquisition of permanent knowledge. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of watching English movies on nursing students’ pragmatic improvement and communication skills.
    This experimental study included 36 volunteer nursing students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences who conformed to the criteria for inclusion. The participants were classified into two groups experimental (EG = 18) and control (CG = 18). Three instruments were used to collect the data of this study: Quick Oxford Placement Test, pre and post-test of Pragmatic Analysis, and WTC questionnaire. The results were analyzed using EXCELL and SPSS Software.
    The mean for the pretest of CG and EG was 12.95 ± 1.08 and 13.45 ± 1.02, respectively changed to 13.65 ± 0.1.4 and 16.7 ± 0.651 in the posttest. A significant difference was observed between pre and post-test of the experimental group (P = 0.000). The mean for the pre-administration of the WTC questionnaire for CG and EG was 103.87 ± 1.23 and 99.77 ± 1.88, respectively changed to 125.66 ± 0.96 and 175.06 ± 2.43 for the post-administration of the groups. As the data reveals, a positive relationship was observed between WTC and pragmatic knowledge: Beta = 0.668, t = 8.889, P<0.05) among nursing students.
    Study aids along with theoretical lessons help nursing students to enhance their English language communication skills permanently. Accordingly, watching movies is beneficial for students' communication and learning professional skills that are peculiar to the occupation of nursing. Further studies about the impact of movies should be done on much larger samples of students.
    Keywords: Pragmatic competence, Movie-watching, willingness to communicate, Nursing students