فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 43 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • محسن نظری* صفحات 1-2

    همه ‎گیری پدیده کرونا بر جنبه ‎های متفاوت زندگی فردی و کسب ‎وکارهای ملی و بین‎ المللی تاثیر گذاشته و باعث شده است که سبک زندگی افراد و خانواده‎ها، روابط بین کشورها و البته کسب ‎وکارها تغییر کند. تعطیلی سنت‎هایی مثل سیزده‎ بدر و مراسم مذهبی، تغییر رفتارهای سیاسی دولت‎ها و پیش‌بینی این پدیده به‎عنوان نقطه عطف تاریخ سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی بشر، نشان از گستردگی این پدیده دارد و باید آماده خلق مفاهیم نوین در ادبیات سیاسی، اجتماعی و بازرگانی دنیا باشیم.

  • علی شجاع، فراز صادق وزیری، الهام ابراهیمی* صفحات 3-23
    هدف

    تنفر از برند مفهومی است که از سویی جدید و کمتر آشنا بوده و از سوی دیگر بسیار بااهمیت و ضروری است. در ادبیات برندینگ به احساس های مثبت همچون عشق به برند بسیار پرداخته شده و احساس های منفی مصرف کننده به برند کمتر بررسی شده است. هدف از این پژوهش، ارایه الگویی از علل و پیامدهای تنفر از برند کالاهای ایرانی است.

    روش

    این پژوهش کیفی، از لحاظ هدف بنیادین است و بر حسب روش گردآوری داده ها میدانی محسوب می شود. جامعه هدف پژوهش مصرف کنندگان کالاهای ایرانی در شهر تهران هستند. روش نمونه گیری غیراحتمالی، قضاوتی و گلوله برفی و تعداد حجم نمونه با توجه به اشباع نظری داده ها 17 نفر بوده است. برای جمع آوری داده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته استفاده شد و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل تم در نرم افزار NVivo10 انجام گرفت.

    یافته ها

    مطابق با نتایج پژوهش، دو دسته از تم های اصلی کشف شدند که شامل عوامل تاثیرگذار بر تنفر از برند (فریب کاری آمیخته بازاریابی، قصور آمیخته بازاریابی و مسیولیت ناپذیری اجتماعی) و پیامدهای حاصل از تنفر از برند (تبلیغ های دهان به دهان منفی، حمایت از رقیب و قطع رابطه با برند) بودند.

    نتیجه گیری

    یافته های پژوهش می تواند برای تولیدکنندگان کالاهای ایرانی نتایج حایز اهمیتی داشته باشد. رعایت اصول اخلاقی کسب وکار در زمینه آمیخته بازاریابی و مسیولیت پذیری اجتماعی، از بروز پیامدهایی نظیر تبلیغ های منفی علیه برند و قطع رابطه با برند ممانعت می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: تنفر از برند، فریب کاری آمیخته بازاریابی، تبلیغ های دهان به دهان منفی، تحلیل تم
  • فریبا اسماعیل پور، میترا شعبانی نشتایی* صفحات 24-43
    هدف

    شهر رشت در کنار جاذبه های فرهنگی، تاریخی و طبیعی، یکی از ده شهر خلاق گسترونومی در شبکه شهرهای خلاق یونسکو انتخاب شده است. از این رو، برای بالا بردن تصویر ذهنی برند شهر و کسب منافع اقتصادی و اجتماعی نشیت گرفته از آن موقعیت مطلوبی دارد. طراحی داستان برند رشت بر اساس واقعیت های نمادین منتشرشده از جذابیت های رشت در رسانه ها هدف این پژوهش است.

    روش

    بر اساس روش تجزیه و تحلیل مضمون فانتزی (تخیلی)، ابعاد نمادین انتشاریافته از شهر رشت در رسانه های شخصی، اکتسابی و اشتراک گذاری استخراج شدند.

    یافته ها

    در نتیجه بررسی هم گرایی محتوای متن های منتشرشده در رسانه ها، هفت مضمون فانتزی به عنوان واقعیت های نمادین شهر رشت شناسایی شدند که عبارت اند از رقص طبیعت در سفره بهشتی رشت، موزه فرهنگی خوراک، شکم گردی ماجراجویانه به سبک رشت، طعم و رنگ فرهنگ عامه گیلان در بزرگ ترین بازار روز دنیا، سوغات و یادگاری ها، سفیران فرهنگی شهر رشت، معماری جهان و زمان و سرزمین بزرگان. با بهره گیری از واقعیت های نمادین، داستان پیشنهادی برند رشت طراحی شد.

    نتیجه گیری

    برندهای موفق شهر باید قادر به برانگیختن عموم بوده و احساس و تداعی خوب ایجاد کنند. برند شهر باید توصیف کننده تصویر شهر، محرک احساس ها و خیال پردازی انسان مبتنی بر ارزش ها و باورها باشد. در نتیجه محتواهای موجود در رسانه ها از واقعیت های نمادین شهر باید به گونه ای برنامه ریزی شوند که مخاطب را تحت تاثیر قرار دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: داستان برند، برند شهر، رسانه، تئوری هم گرایی نمادین
  • حمید رضا بیرانوند، محسن نظری* صفحات 44-63
    هدف

    قیمت کالا یکی از عوامل بسیار مهم در تصمیم گیری خریداران است و تخفیف قیمتی نیز از جمله عواملی به شمار می رود که بر انتخاب کالای مصرف کننده تاثیر می گذارد. آستانه تخفیف، حداقل ارزش هر تخفیف قیمتی است که باعث می شود مصرف کننده نیت خرید خود را تغییر دهد. به بیان دیگر، به درصد یا مقدار یا سطحی که مصرف کننده به تخفیف واکنش نشان می دهد، آستانه تخفیف می گویند. هدف این پژوهش شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر آستانه تخفیف قیمت فروشگاهی است.

    روش

    این پژوهش از طریق تحلیل فراترکیب اجرا شده است. بدین منظور، پس از تحلیل کسپ (CASP)، در نهایت، 24 پژوهش که به طور مستقیم به بررسی موضوع آستانه تخفیف پرداخته بودند، انتخاب و برای کدگذاری وارد نرم افزار مکس کیودا شدند. گفتنی است که تحلیل پژوهش ها با استفاده از نرم افزار مکس کیودا انجام گرفته است.

    یافته ها

    در تحلیل پژوهش های انتخاب شده، از بین کدهایی که شناسایی شدند، کدهای مربوط به برند با 16 ارجاع، درصد تخفیف با 12 ارجاع، نوع کالا با 9 ارجاع، تکرار تخفیف با 5 ارجاع و قیمت مرجع با 4 ارجاع، به ترتیب از نظر تعداد ارجاع در ابیات پژوهشی، اهمیت بیشتری دارند. در این پژوهش، کدها در قالب 23 مفهوم یا تم و مفاهیم در قالب 13مقوله دسته بندی شدند.

    نتیجه گیری

    در این پژوهش برای نخستین بار عوامل موثر بر آستانه تخفیف قیمت فروشگاهی به روش فراترکیب تحت بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس پژوهش های بررسی شده، برند کالا، درصد تخفیف، نوع کالا، تکرار تخفیف و قیمت مرجع، ابعادی بودند که در قیاس با عوامل دیگر، تاثیر (ارجاع) بیشتری داشتند. در پایان، هم راستا با نتایج به دست آمده، پیشنهادهایی برای طرح ریزی راهبردهای تخفیف قیمتی فروشگاهی ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: آستانه تخفیف قیمت فروشگاهی، فراترکیب، قیمت گذاری، تصمیم گیری خرید
  • محمد ‎هادی صادق، محمدعلی شاه حسینی*، علی حیدری صفحات 64-93
    هدف

    راهبرد تشکیل سرمایه گذاری مشترک بین المللی، یکی از انواع اتحادهای استراتژیک اصلی است که با وجود پیچیدگی های زیاد، به واسطه مزایای متعدد، بارها از آن استفاده شده است. حاکمیت ‎شرکتی نیز از جمله عواملی است که به موفقیت این استراتژی منجر می شود. با وجود این اهمیت، تاکنون در موضوع نحوه شکل گیری حاکمیت ‎شرکتی در سرمایه گذاری های مشترک بین‎المللی، پژوهش جامعی صورت نگرفته و معمولا فرض بر این بوده است که مولفه های حاکمیت ‏شرکتی در حالت عام را می توان به مفهوم سرمایه گذاری های مشترک بین المللی تسری داد؛ اما نظر به پیچیدگی این مفهوم، تعمیم ابعاد مختلف حاکمیت ‏شرکتی در حالت عام به سرمایه گذاری های ‏مشترک‏ بین‎المللی کار درستی نیست. به همین دلیل، این مقاله سعی دارد تا به شناسایی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری حاکمیت ‎شرکتی در تشکل های یاد شده بپردازد و مراحل متناظر آن را ارایه کند.

    روش

    برای دستیابی به این هدف، با استفاده از روش مرور نظام مند، در مجموع 400 پژوهش طی یک سال، استخراج و از میان آنها 60 مقاله و پژوهش به شکل عمیق بررسی شد.

    یافته ها

    شناسایی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری حاکمیت ‎شرکتی در سرمایه گذاری های مشترک بین المللی که متشکل از مشخصات والدین، ارتباطات میان شرکا، موضوع های کلان و انتظارها و برداشت های والدین است، همراه با 19 زیرمقوله و 75 کد (عامل) زیرمجموعه، از جمله یافته های اصلی این مقاله بودند.

    نتیجه گیری

    از آنجا که در پژوهش حاضر، تعداد زیادی از عوامل به شکل گیری الگوی حاکمیت شرکتی در سرمایه گذاری های مشترک بین المللی منجر شد، نگاه به این موضوع ژرف نگری خاصی را می طلبد و نمی توان آن را همانند پدیده ای ساده نگریست. به بیان دیگر، این موضوع از چندبعدی و پیچیده بودن مفهوم شکل گیری حاکمیت شرکتی در سرمایه گذاری های مشترک بین المللی حکایت دارد و می توان از ابعاد مختلفی به این مفهوم پیچیده نگریست.

    کلیدواژگان: حاکمیت شرکتی، اتحاد استراتژیک، سرمایه گذاری مشترک بین المللی، الگوی شکل گیری
  • مهدی یزدان شناس*، حمیده خورسندی صفحات 94-115
    هدف

    کار عاطفی به معنای توجه به نقش عواطف و احساس ها در انجام کار است. این پژوهش سعی دارد که نقش مدیریت عواطف، احساس ها و ادراک کارکنان را در عملکرد فروش بررسی کند. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر کار عاطفی بر عملکرد فروش نمایندگی های بیمه انجام شده که در این رابطه به نقش ادراک از حمایت سازمانی نیز توجه شده است.

    روش

    این پژوهش به لحاظ روش، پژوهشی توصیفی و به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی است که داده های آن به روش پیمایشی و با استفاده از پرسش نامه جمع آوری شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل نمایندگی های شرکت بیمه البرز در تهران است که نمونه ای تصادفی از آنها انتخاب شد. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها بر اساس روش مدل یابی معادل های ساختاری انجام شد و فرضیه ها و مدل پژوهش آزمایش شدند.

    یافته ها

    نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که کار عاطفی و ابعاد چهارگانه آن بر عملکرد فروش نمایندگی های بیمه تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارند. نقش تعدیل کنندگی حمایت سازمانی ادراک شده در رابطه بین کار عاطفی و عملکرد فروش تایید نشد.

    نتیجه گیری

    از میان ابعاد کار عاطفی، بعد نمایش خودکار عواطف بیشتر از سایر ابعاد بر عملکرد فروش تاثیرگذار است. انتظار می رود با بهبود ادراک کارکنان از حمایت سازمانی، استفاده از کار عاطفی بر افزایش عملکرد فروش کارکنان تاثیر بیشتری داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: کار عاطفی، عملکرد فروش، ادراک از حمایت سازمانی
  • غلامرضا جندقی*، محمد رحیم اسفیدانی، شهریار محسنین، حمیدرضا یزدانی، مسعود کیماسی صفحات 116-142
    هدف

    نقشه سفر مشتری، یکی از رویکردهای جدید در بررسی تجربه مشتریان از خدمات ارایه شده است که در دهه گذشته توجه بسیاری از پژوهشگران و مدیران اجرایی را به خود جلب کرده است. با توجه به اهمیت موضوعی نقشه برداری سفر مشتری، برای بررسی جامع تجربه مشتریان (قبل، حین و بعد از خرید) دو دیدگاه وجود دارد که در این پژوهش به منظور ایجاد بستر دانشی در حوزه تجربه مشتری در سازمان ارایه دهنده خدمت، الگویی با هدف شناسایی نقاط تماس و تجربه مشتریان و ترسیم آنها در قالب نقشه سفر برنامه ریزی شده مشتری، به عنوان نقشه هدفی که مشتری آن را طی خواهد کرد، ارایه شده است.

    روش

    در رویکرد کیفی این پژوهش که از نوع مطالعه چندموردی است، از روش خرید نامحسوس، مصاحبه با خبرگان و اسناد مرتبط برای جمع آوری اطلاعات استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    نتایج تحلیل در قالب نقشه سفر برنامه ریزی شده همراه بانک و همراه پلاس ملت، پس از شناسایی نقاط درد و تماس در مراحل مختلف سفر مشتری نظیر تجربه قبلی، آگاهی و اطلاع رسانی، جست وجو، ترغیب، اقدام، به کارگیری خدمت و بعد از خدمت (بارخورد و ارزیابی، تسهیم تجربه و حمایت)، در قالب سه نوع تجربه کلی شامل تجربه خدمات (تجربه تراکنشی مالی، تعاملی غیرمالی، کیف پول و سپان)، تجربه فنی و تجربه بصری دسته بندی و ترسیم شد.

    نتیجه گیری

    نقشه سفر برنامه ریزی به مشتری کمک کرد تا شرکت ارایه دهنده خدمت بتواند با شناسایی نقاط درد خدمت طراحی شده، در قالب مسیرهای اصلی استخراج شده، با تمرکز بر نقاط تماس برای بهبود سیستم فعلی، چه در مراحل قبل از خدمت رسانی به مشتری، چه در مراحل حین خدمت (بهبود خدمات ارایه شده) و چه در بهبود فرایندهای درگیرسازی مشتری و برند در بعد از درگیرشدن مشتری با سیستم، برنامه ریزی واحدی داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت تجربه مشتری، نقشه سفر مشتری، سفر برنامه ریزی شده، همراه بانک، بانک ملت
  • مجید سدیدی، بهرام رنجبریان*، علی کاظمی، علی نصراصفهانی صفحات 143-160
    هدف

    شناسایی سبک زندگی سازمان می تواند در پیش بینی و تبیین علل رفتارها و انتخاب های سازمان موثر واقع شود. از این رو، هدف این پژوهش طراحی مدل و چارچوبی برای شناسایی گونه های مختلف سبک زندگی سازمان است.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر از دیدگاه هدف توسعه‏ای و از نظر روش توصیفی پیمایشی است که در سه مرحله انجام گرفته است. جامعه پژوهش در مرحله‏ نخست برای شناسایی متغیرهای سبک زندگی سازمان، خبرگان مدیریت در استان اصفهان بودند که یک نمونه 15نفره به روش مبتنی بر هدف از آنها انتخاب شدند، در مرحله دوم برای کشف ابعاد پنهان سبک زندگی سازمان یک نمونه‏ 300نفره از جامعه مدیران صنعتی و بازرگانی استان اصفهان به روش تصادفی و در مرحله سوم نیز برای تعیین سبک زندگی تولیدکنندگان لوله و اتصالات پلیمری استان اصفهان کل جامعه 47 واحدی این شرکت ها انتخاب شدند. از شاخص نسبت روایی محتوا، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تحلیل خوشه بندی کی مینز، برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها به ترتیب در سه مرحله استفاده شد. از پرسش نامه به عنوان ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در هر سه مرحله استفاده شد که روایی آن با استفاده از روش شاخص نسبت روایی محتوا و پایایی آن از طریق روش آلفای کرونباخ تایید شد.

    یافته‎ ها

    یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که شش عامل تعامل سازمان با انسان، محیط، تکنولوژی، روندهای آینده، پول و سرمایه، صنعت و بازار مولفه های تعیین سبک زندگی سازمان هستند.

    نتیجه‎ گیری

    تولیدکنندگان لوله و اتصالات پلیمری استان اصفهان دارای شش سبک زندگی بلاتکلیف،کارآفرینانه، خودنما، واسطه گری، پیش گامانه و رقابت جو هستند که هر یک ویژگی های متفاوتی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: سبک زندگی، سبک زندگی سازمان، صنعت پلیمری
  • پرویز معصومیان میاندوآب* صفحات 161-182
    هدف

    مصرف کنندگان تایر خودرو، هم از جنبه گروه محصول های مختلف تایر و هم از لحاظ ارزش های فرهنگی در سطح فردی، به دسته های متفاوتی بخش بندی می شوند. یکی از ابعاد فرهنگی تاثیرگذار در تصمیم گیری خرید، بعد فرهنگی جمع گرایی فردگرایی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و بررسی سبک های تصمیم گیری خرید بین مشتریان تایرهای رادیال سواری در شهر تهران با توجه به میزان گرایش مشتریان به ارزش های فرهنگی جمع گرایی فردگرایی در سطح فردی اجرا شده است.

    روش

    برای دستیابی به هدف پژوهش، از مدل سبک های تصمیم گیری خرید مصرف کننده اسپرولز و کندال (1986) و مقیاس ارزش های فرهنگی سطح فردی یوو، دونثو و لنارتویز (2011) استفاده شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، مشتریان تایرهای رادیال سواری شهر تهران بودند. با توجه به نامحدود بودن جامعه آماری، تعداد نمونه آماری بر اساس جدول مورگان 385 نفر محاسبه شد؛ اما برای اطمینان، 420 پرسش نامه با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده بین افراد توزیع و 388 پرسش نامه جمع آوری شد. 

    یافته ها

    نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که ارزش های فرهنگی بر رفتار مصرف کننده تاثیرگذار است و در بین ابعاد تاثیرگذار در تصمیم گیری برای خرید، بعد فرهنگ از جایگاه ویژه ای برخوردار است. پس از تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها، از بین هشت سبک تصمیم گیری اسپرولز و کندال، هفت سبک تصمیم گیری شناسایی و تایید شد.

    نتیجه گیری

    در بررسی سبک های تصمیم گیری خرید در بین افراد فردگرا و جمع گرا مشخص شد که در سبک های «سردرگمی مصرف کننده به واسطه انتخاب های فراوان»، «عادت گرایی و وفاداری به یک برند» و «حساسیت به برند کالا»، بین افراد فردگرا و جمع گرا تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین، برای هر دو گروه مشتری جمع گرا و فردگرا، سبک تصمیم گیری «حساس بودن به کیفیت» در اولویت بود.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزش های فرهنگی سطح فردی، جمع گرایی، فردگرایی، سبک های تصمیم گیری خرید
  • پریسا قهرمان پور، سیدجعفر زنوزی*، سید ابوالفضل ابوالفضلی صفحات 183-197
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارایه راهکارهایی برای افزایش عملکرد بازاریابی از طریق ایجاد نوآوری در محصول اجرا شده است. بدین منظور به بررسی تاثیر ظرفیت انعطاف پذیری و یادگیری سازمانی و نوآوری محصول بر عملکرد بازاریابی می پردازد.

    روش

    جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 236 شرکت تولیدی و صادراتی دارو و نمونه آماری شامل 146 شرکت است. برای آزمون فرضیه های آماری، از روش حداقل مربعات جزیی و از نرم افزار SMART-PLS استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    نتایج حاصل، حاکی از اثرهای مثبت و معنادار ظرفیت انعطاف پذیری سازمانی و یادگیری سازمانی با متغیر میانجی نوآوری محصول بر عملکرد بازاریابی این شرکت هاست. طبق بررسی های انجام شده، تاثیر تعدیلی آشفتگی محیطی بر اثر ظرفیت انعطاف پذیری سازمانی و یادگیری سازمانی بر نوآوری محصول تایید نشد.

    نتیجه گیری

    ایجاد انعطاف در فرایندها و تصمیم گیری های سازمانی در راستای پاسخ سریع به تغییرهای گسسته محیطی امری ضروری است. سازمان ها به منظور افزایش توانمندی برای رویارویی با محیط متلاطم و پیچیده، به استفاده از پارادایم های نوین و ایجاد ظرفیت یادگیری نیاز دارند. بر این اساس، شرکت ها قادر خواهند بود برای پاسخ به خواسته های دایم در حال تغییر مشتریان، به ایجاد نوآوری پیوسته در محصول بپردازند و از این طریق، افزایش عملکرد و جایگاه رقابتی سازمان را رقم بزنند.

    کلیدواژگان: ظرفیت انعطاف پذیری سازمانی، یادگیری سازمانی، نوآوری محصول، عملکرد بازاریابی، آشفتگی محیطی
  • مریم همتی، داود فیض*، عادل آذر، عظیم زارعی صفحات 198-226
    هدف

    علی رغم تاثیر شایان توجه مدل های ذهنی روی تصمیم گیری مدیران، فقط تعداد انگشت شماری از پژوهش های بازاریابی مدل ذهنی مدیران این حوزه را بررسی کرده و تعداد به مراتب کمتری به تایید اهمیت این پدیده پرداخته اند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی مدل های ذهنی مدیران شرکت های لبنی در رابطه با موانع شروع یا گسترش صادرات است.

    روش

    این پژوهش بر مبنای هدف، از نوع کاربردی و بر اساس گردآوری اطلاعات توصیفی است. مدیران ارشد در حوزه بازرگانی، فروش و صادرات شرکت های فعال در صنعت لبنی، جامعه آماری پژوهش را تشکیل داده اند و برای جمع آوری داده ها از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته مبتنی بر رویکرد پدیدارشناسی و فنون فرافکنی استفاده شده است.با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری نظری، مصاحبه با مدیران ارشد دوازده شرکت لبنی تا حد اشباع ادامه پیدا کرد. برای اطمینان از روایی و پایایی داده ها از روش بازنگری توسط شرکت کنندگان و روش چندجانبه نگری از طریق مصاحبه با گروه های متفاوت مشارکت کنندگان استفاده شد و برای تحلیل داده ها از تحلیل تم و نرم افزار10Maxqdaاستفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    شش مدل ذهنی شناسایی شده در این پژوهش عبارت اند از: مدل ذهنی بازارگرا، حاکمیت گرا، منبع گرا، سودگرا، زیرساخت گرا و نهادگرا. بر اساس نتایج، مدل های ذهنی بازارگرا، حاکمیت گرا و منبع گرا برجسته ترین مدل های ذهنی در این پژوهش هستند.

    نتیجه گیری

    نداشتن مزیت رقابتی و جایگاه ضعیف بازاریابی در شرکت های ایرانی، از موانع مهم توسعه صادرات محصول های لبنی در بازارهای فرامنطقه ای است. از دیدگاه مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش، دولت از طریق وضع قوانین روشن و ثابت، تامین منابع مالی مستقیم و غیرمستقیم، وضع معافیت های گمرکی و مالیاتی و اعطای جایزه صادراتی، می تواند بستر مناسبی برای توسعه صادرات شرکت های ایرانی فراهم آورد و بسیاری از موانع مطرح شده در مدل های ذهنی شش گانه را رفع کند.

    کلیدواژگان: مدل ذهنی، موانع صادرات، توسعه صادرات، تحلیل تم، بازاریابی بین المللی
  • معصومه حنیفی، کامبیز کامبیز حیدرزاده هنزائی* صفحات 227-242
    هدف

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش، توسعه مقیاس و شناسایی مولفه های سنجش «تجربه راحتی خرید» در مراکز خرید و مال های تهران با بررسی کیفی و کمی است.

    روش

    این پژوهش از نوع اکتشافی کاربردی ‎است که در آن از روش توسعه مقیاس استفاده شده است. برای بررسی اعتبار روایی و پایایی از ضرایب آلفای کرونباخ و ضریب دلون گلدیستین و همچنین ارزش ‎ویژه استفاده شده است.

    یافته ها

    در این پژوهش بر اساس تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی تعداد پنج مولفه شناسایی شد که بالاترین ضریب به جذابیت محیط داخلی اختصاص داده شده است.

    نتیجه گیری

    با در نظر گرفتن تمرکز بر جذابیت‎های محیط داخلی، تمرکز بر امکان های رفاهی و تفریحی مطابق با گروه های سنی مختلف، توجه به نیازهای لذت جویانه اقشار مختلف مشتریان، تامین نیازها و خواسته های روز مشتریان از نظر امکان های محیطی، محصول ها و خدمات و تمرکز بر تطابق محیط و محصول ها و خدمات با نیازهای خانواده، به مدیران بازاریابی مراکز خرید در تهران در رابطه با پیاده سازی مولفه ها پیشنهادهایی می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: امکان های رفاهی، تطابق نیاز خانواده، جذابیت محیط داخلی، مدگرایی، نیازهای لذت جویانه، راحتی
  • شهریار عزیزی، آرمین قاسمی نقیب‎ دهی* صفحات 243-259
    هدف

    تعریف و مدیریت طبقه محصول جدید، مسیله ای جدید برای برندها و استراتژیست های بازاریابی است. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی عواملی است که در طبقه بندی محصول جدید در کانون توجه مشتری قرار دارند.

    روش

    پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف، کاربردی است و از نظر روش گردآوری اطلاعات در زمره پژوهش های کیفی قرار می گیرد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل کلیه شهروندان دو شهر ساری و تهران بودند که در معرض تبلیغات ماست نوشیدنی لاکتیویا قرار داشته یا آن را مصرف کرده اند. از بین این افراد 39 نمونه به روش غیراحتمالی هدفمند، انتخاب شد و با استفاده از الگوی تحلیل تم برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، نشانه ها و منبع آنها که مصرف کنندگان برای انتساب طبقه محصول استفاده کردند، شناسایی شدند.

    یافته ها

    در مجموع 13 طبقه محصول و 9 نشانه به دست آمد. یافته ها نشان می دهد که در فرایند طبقه بندی محصول جدید، تجربه مشتریان از مصرف محصولات مشابه، پیام تبلیغاتی و اظهار نظر نزدیکان درباره محصول، در کانون توجه قرار می گیرند و همچنین منحصربه فرد بودن آمیخته محصول، از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است.

    نتیجه گیری

    اهمیت بالای خواص و ویژگی های محصول جدید، رابطه مستقیم انتساب محصول در طبقه مرتبط با نام خود و تناسب ادراک شده میان شکل نام محصول جدید، جدید بودن شکل محصول، ابتکار در نحوه مصرف محصول جدید، نام جدید، شکل و رنگ بسته بندی جدید و درج نکردن برند والد روی بسته بندی برای کمک به مشتری به منظور انتساب محصول به طبقه جدید از مهم ترین نتایجی هستند که پژوهش حاضر به آنها دست یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: مرتبط بودن برند، طبقه ‎بندی، طبقه بندی محصول جدید، ماست نوشیدنی
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  • Ali Shoja, Faraz Sadegh Vaziri, Elham Ebrahimi * Pages 3-23
    Objective

    It is important to understand why consumers do not like some brands or even cultivate a sense of hatred for them, because consumers usually tend to evaluate negative information about brands than positive information. The phenomenon of hatred of the brand is still in its infancy, and this research, given its exploratory nature, will help conceptualize this phenomenon and will take a step forward in promoting the theory of brand hatred. This research develops a model of brand hatred including its causes and consequences in the context of Iran. In general, this study seeks two main goals: 1) discovering the causes of brand hatred among Iranian consumers and 2) discovering the consequences of brand hatred in them. This issue significantly helps Iranian producers to pave the way for branding by being aware of these causes and consequences.  

    Methodology

    The present study is a qualitative research and is grounded in terms of purpose. It is also exploratory-inductive in terms of data collection. The target population of this study includes consumers of Iranian products in Tehran and the data were collected through face-to-face interviews or interactions with the researchers and through self-expression in response to a general question about whether or not to have strong negative feelings about a particular brand or brands. Sampling is carried out through non-probabilistic judgmental and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data in this study. Qualitative data analysis was performed using theme analysis. After observing the interviews and entering them into the software and reviewing the notes, the key points were codified. It should be noted that all the steps of qualitative data analysis were performed using NVivo10 software.

    Findings

    Eventually, two main themes were discovered. The first category includes the main themes that affect brand hatred i.e. the negative factors that cause brand hatred among the consumer or the lack of positive factors that lead to the development of brand hatred. The main themes discovered in this category were "mixed marketing deception", "mixed marketing failure" and "social irresponsibility". The second category was the main themes affected by brand hatred; that is, actions or intentions to negative actions after creating sense of brand hatred among the consumers. The answer to the question that what would the consumers who hate the brand do about their hatred. The main themes discovered in this category were "negative word of mouth advertising", "supporting the competitors" and "breaking the relationship with the brand".

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the present study, costumers who hate Iranian product brands do not develop cases such as "brand revenge", "complaint", "threat" and "damage" - which have been discovered in western researches and are considered as the consequences of brand hatred. The present study discovered some behaviors including negative word of mouth advertising, supporting a competitor, and breaking relationships with a brand.

    Keywords: Brand hatred, Mixed marketing deception, Negative word of mouth, Thematic analysis
  • Fariba Esmaeilpour, Mitra Shabani Nashtaee * Pages 24-43
    Objective 

    Beside cultural, historical and natural attractions, the city of Rasht has been selected as one of the ten most creative gastronomy cities in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Therefore, there is a desirable position to raise the mental image of the city brand and gain economic and social benefits accordingly. This study, hence, is an initial attempt to create a new approach to the study of branding in the city of Rasht through identifying a set of symbolic resources to visualize the city. This study examines the descriptions and perceptions of the city of Rasht from the symbolic perspective and specifically attempts to design the story of the Rasht brand through identifying the symbolic themes of the city in various media. The present study, as a preliminary and exploratory study, seeks to answer these questions: “what are Rasht’s fantasy themes (as symbolic realities) reported in the media?” and “how is the story of Rasht brand defined based on symbolic facts?”  

    Methodology

    In this study, using the fantasy theme analysis method (FTA), it is examined how the city of Rasht is portrayed in the studied media from the perspective of centrality of food and other attractions. This method examines convergence in texts to discover a deeper system of meaning through new experiences that are imagined and interpreted. In fact, FTA is a grounded theory that contradicts the hypothetico-deductive model of research and inductively examines textual, auditory, and visual data. The statistical population of this study includes all the contents published in personal, acquired and shared media regarding Rasht brand.  

    Findings 

    Seven fantasy themes were identified as symbolic realities of Rasht city as a result of reviewing the convergence of the content of the texts published in the media including: nature dance on Rasht heavenly table; cultural museum of food; adventurous eating habits of Rasht; the nature of Gilan's public culture in the world's largest bazaar; souvenirs and gifts, cultural ambassadors of Rasht; the architecture of the world and time; and the land of the Great. Therefore, applying the symbolic realities, the proposed story of Rasht brand was designed.  

    Conclusion

    Successful city brands must inspire the public and create good feelings and associations. The brand of the city must describe the image of the city and stimulate human emotions and imagination based on the values and beliefs of the city. As a result, the contents in the media regarding the city's symbolic realities must be developed in a way to impress the audience.

    Keywords: Brand story, City brand, Media, Symbolic Convergence Theory
  • Hamidreza Biranvand, Mohsen Nazari * Pages 44-63
    Objective

    Competitiveness of business environment in the country, growth of ever-discount stores, and the prevalence of foreign brands in the form of stores and shopping centers in Tehran and other cities have caused Iranian stores and companies to widely develop their price discounts so as to increase their sales and expand their market share. In this new space, if the strategy and methods of discounting are not used effectively, that is, the percentage of discount is too high or too low, the time and repetition of the discount is high or low, and etc., Iranian stores and companies will face several risks including reduced sales, weakening of the brand’s position, and so on. Hence, the present study aims to explore for the factors influencing these levels, which are referred to as the "price discount threshold" in this study. The main purpose is, then, to identify which factors affect the high and low discount threshold to use those effective strategies. This research helps stores and companies design a "discount window".

    Methodology

    This research is developmental in terms of purpose, qualitative in terms of the data analysis research and documentary in terms of data collection method. The present study is analytical-descriptive in terms of research method. This study was conducted through meta-synthesis. For this purpose, after CASP analysis, 24 studies that have directly addressed the issue of discount threshold entered the analysis phase. The selected researches were entered into Max Kioda software for codification and were using Max Kioda software.  

    Findings

    In this study, 24 studies directly dealt with the discount threshold entered the analysis phase. Finally, after the integrations phase, 56 distinct codes were identified. In the next step, the codes were identified in the form of 23 concepts or themes and finally the concepts were identified in the form of 13 categories as affecting factors on the price image based on the results of the identification analysis and their quality test. Based on the findings, the “brand” with 16 citations, the “discount percentage” with 12 citations, the “type of products” with 9 citations, the “repetition of discount” with 5 citations, and the “reference price” with 4 citations were among the most important codes in terms of citation. As mentioned earlier, the identification of the themes and categories of this model has been finalized in the fifth stage of the analysis.

    Conclusion

    In this study, for the first time, the affective factors on the discount threshold for the prices were examined using meta-combination method in shopping centers. According to the evaluated studies, the dimensions such as product brand, discount percentage, type of product, repetition of discount and reference price were identified as having the most impact (referrals).

    Keywords: Price discount threshold, pricing, Meta Synthesis, Buying decision
  • Mohammad Hadi Sadegh, Mohammad Ali Shah Hosseini *, Ali Heidari Pages 64-93
    Objective

    Despite its high complexity, the strategy of forming international joint venture (as one of the main types of strategic alliances) is one of the strategies to be frequently used because of its numerous benefits. Corporate governance is also considered as one of the factors that leads to the successful implementation of this strategy. In spite of the importance of this issue, there has been no comprehensive research on how corporate governance is formed in international joint ventures, and it has often been assumed that the components of corporate governance in general can be generalized to the concept of international joint ventures as well. However, given the complexity of this concept, it is generally unwise to generalize the various dimensions of corporate governance in general to international joint ventures. As a result, this study attempts to identify the factors affecting the formation of corporate governance in these kinds of organizations.

    Methodology

    The present research is conducted based on the systematic literature review method. For this purpose, the related literature was systematically reviewed over a period of one year (from September 2018 to September 2019). In the first step, while determining and specifying the subject of study, the research questions were developed in accordance with the research design. In the next step, the research protocol was designed and an appropriate mental model was designed accordingly. Subsequently, inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined. Accordingly, the comprehensive and systematic search began within the literature and 400 studies were considered. After classification, screening, and measurement of their quality (methodological assessment based on Caldwell's proposed method), 60 studies were finally examined in depth (through a detailed review of their abstracts, introduction, methodology, and results) and the required data were collected. Then, in the last step, the obtained data were classified, codified (using open coding method through Excel software) synthesized and finally summarized.

     Findings

    In general, all the factors that affect the corporate governance formation in international joint ventures can be classified into four main categories of parents’ characteristics, partnership interactions, macro issues, and parents’ expectations and perceptions. Each category also includes a number of subcategories and codes. A total of 4 categories, 19 sub-categories and 75 codes make up the factors that play a role in the formation of corporate governance in international joint ventures.

     Conclusion

    According to the diversity of detected factors, it can be concluded that formation of corporate governance in international joint ventures is a complex process and multi-dimensional concept which cannot be undermined and treated like other types of organizations.

    Keywords: Corporate governance, Strategic Alliances, International joint ventures, Formation pattern
  • Mehdi Yazdanshenas *, Hamideh Khorsandi Pages 94-115
    Objective

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional labor on the sales performance of insurance agencies. The researchers seek to observe if employees have the ability to control and moderate their emotions and feelings in accordance with the requirements of the organization and their role, then how their work performance will be affected. In addition, the present study examines whether the perception of organizational support moderates this relationship. This study attempts to observe the insurance industry and among insurance agencies, and since the sales performance of insurance agencies is the main element of their work performance, it is addressed whether they have the characteristics of emotional labor in their agency sales performance and which of the dimensions and characteristics of emotional labor will have a greater impact on the sales performance of insurance agencies. In addition, the role of perception of organizational support will be studied as a moderator variable.

     Methodology

    The present study is descriptive in terms of method and is applied in terms of purpose and a survey. It is a quantitative research in terms of the nature of data collection. The statistical population of the present study includes the insurance representatives of Alborz Insurance Company in Tehran provided that they have been active at least during the time of conducting the research. In order to establish a correlation between the sales performance data of each insurance agency and the data related to emotional labor and perceived organizational support, the research questionnaires were identified separately for each agency. An online method has been used to distribute the questionnaire.

     Findings

    Demographic information showed that the same number of men and women participated in the research. In terms of age, about half of the participants were between 31 and 40 years old and one third of the participants were between 25 and 30 years old. Moreover, more than 90% of them hold a bachelor's degree or higher degrees. Based on the five Likert Scale used in the present study, it is found that emotional labor has a mean above average and the perception of organizational support has a mean lower than average. Accordingly, emotional labor and its four dimensions including tangible action, deep action, automatic display of emotions, and variety of display of emotions have a significantly positive effect on the sales performance of insurance agencies. The moderating role of perceived organizational support was not confirmed in the relationship between emotional labor and sales performance.

     Conclusion

    Superficial action as one of the dimensions of emotional labor has a significant effect on the sales performance of insurance agencies. This means that if they can encourage employees to cooperate with customers, even superficially, it may lead to an increase in sales. According to the test results of the sub-hypotheses of this research, it is clear that other dimensions of emotional labor including deep action, automatic display of emotions and variety of display of emotions have a significantly positive effect on the sales performance of insurance agents as well. Examining the coefficients related to the effect of each dimension of emotional labor on sales performance does not show much difference among different dimensions. The automatic display of emotions in this study, which was examined in the third hypothesis, had the highest impact on sales performance among the dimensions of emotional labor. In the present study, perceived organizational support does not moderate the relationship between emotional workforce and sales performance of Alborz insurance agents, and this could be due to poor employee’s perception of organizational support in this company. This means that the calculated rate for perceived organizational support could not show a significant moderating role in the present study. In other words, according to the research findings, it can be said that the employees under study do not have a good perception of the fact that the organization applies the necessary support and attention to them. Another explanation is that emotional labor and its four dimensions, regardless of the impact of the perceived organizational support variable, can affect sales performance.

    Keywords: Emotional labor, Sales Performance, Perceived organizational support
  • Gholamreza Jandaghi *, Mohammad Rahim Esfidani, Shahryar Mohsenin, Hamid Reza Yazdani, Masoud Keimasi Pages 116-142
    Objective

    Given that the customers’ experience in each industry, service and communication channel is unique and special, this study aims at identifying and examining the strengths and weaknesses of the existing models in the developing customers’ experimental map based on develment of journey map model planned on mobile service users. In this study, in order to create knowledge background in the field of customer experience in the service provider organization, a model is proposd which aims to identify customer contact and experience points and drawing them in the form of customer-planned journey map, as a goal map for the customer.

     Methodology

    The paradigm of the present research is interpretive. From the audience’s point of view, this grounded study is considered applied in nature. This research is qualitative based on analogy. The data collection in this field study is done using qualitative case study. The qualitative part of this study is descriptive-exploratory in terms of purpose. The present study is among cross-sectional studies. The case study is semi-structured and the context of the phenomenon under study is assumed to be fixed in Iran. Based on the the purpose of the preent study (planned journey map), mystery shopping method is used for data analysis; after collecting the data, the researcher's experimental observation technique, content analysis o and interviews were analyzed using Maxqda software after codification.

     Findings

    After identifying pain and contact points in different stages of the customer’s journey including previous experience, awareness and information, search, persuasion, taking action, use of service and after service (feedback and evaluation, sharing experience and support), the results of the analysis of the planned journey map on Mellat Bank and Mellat Plus applications were classified and drawn in the form of 3 general experiences including service experience (transaction-financial experience, non-financial interaction, e-wallet, deposit), technical experience and visual experience.

     Conclusion

    This study developed a framework for customer’s journey map in the form of a planned journey map to draw customer’s experience from the perspective of service provider. This framework uses product usability test and mystery shopping technique in order to achieve the designed experience by the organization. The most important differences between the planned journey map and the common methods are: 1) the systematic nature of the approach, taking into account all phases and stages of the customer’s experience, especially the past experiences from the previous version of the application; 2) focusing on pain points as well as good and bad experiences of working with the designed product; 3) focusing on the out-of-service contact points through different phases and steps; 4) focusing on the customer’s feelings of the service provided from the perspective of the organization; 5 ) identifying systematic deviations in the service providing process from the customer’s experience perspective; and 6) helping the qualitative development of the services provided considering the dynamics of the customers’ experience. The customer’s journey plan can help the organization increase its knowledge of how to provide services. Prior to providing any unplanned service, all customers’ journey maps must be completed to minimize deviations. In the proposed model, the start and end points are presented in each phase and path are provided in order to reach the map during the service as well as before and after the service. The organizations can visualize their planned journey map considering the type of product or service and the process defined according to the customer. At the same time, given the unique experience of each organization, the steps and contact points must be extracted qualitatively.

    Keywords: Customer experience management, Customer journey mapping, Planned journey, Mobile Bank, Mellat Bank
  • Majid Sadidi, Bahram Ranjbarian *, Ali Kazemi, Ali Nasr Isfahani Pages 143-160
    Objective

    Identifying organizational lifestyle is very important for all organizational stakeholders because it enables them to plan their interactions with the organization accordingly. Organizational strategists, on the other hand, are looking for models beyond marketing and competition, especially in markets where companies’ products and services do not have a significant advantage over each other and the components of integrated marketing are very similar. This is to understand the difference between the competitive advantage of brands and their competitive position in the market. Therefore, the present study seeks to design a comprehensive model and framework in the form of lifestyle for the organizations to use to strengthen their ability to determine the decisions and organizational behaviors for the stakeholders. The first question of the research is: "What are the indicators of determining the lifestyle of the organization?". After determining the indicators, in the second stage, the research seeks to evaluate the identified indicators in the pipe and polymer fittings industry in Isfahan province so that the lifestyle of the active companies in this industry can be identified. Therefore, the second question of the study is "What is the diversity of the lifestyle of companies active in the polymer pipe and fittings industry?"

    Methodology

    The present study is developmental in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of method that has been done within three stages. In the first stage, the research population includes a sample of 15 management experts in Isfahan province who were selected based on their target method so as to identify the lifestyle variables of the organization; in the second stage, to discover the hidden dimensions of the organizational lifestyle, a sample of 300 industrial and commercial managers in Isfahan was randomly selected; and in the third stage, all the 47 units of companies were selected to determine the lifestyle of polymer pipe and polymer fittings producers in Isfahan province. The content validity index, exploratory factor analysis, and Key-Mines clustering analysis were used in the three stages, respectively, to analyze the data. The questionnaire was used to collect data in all three stages, the validity of which was confirmed using the content validity ratio index and its reliability was confirmed through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

    Findings

    Regarding the organizational lifestyle indicators, six factors or indicators determining the organizational lifestyle were identified which include the organizations’ interaction with humans, the organization’s interaction with technology, the organization’s interaction with money and capital, the organization’s interaction with the market and industry, the organization’s interaction with the environment, and the organization’s interaction with the future trends. Regarding the diversity of lifestyles in Isfahan polymer pipes and fittings companies, six different lifestyles were identified using the diamond pattern of the organizations’ lifestyle indicators including: undecided, entrepreneurial, self-evident, mediating, pioneering and competitive.

    Conclusion

    The undecided group includes companies that do not pay any attention to any of the six indicators of the organizational diamond lifestyle model. These companies do not have any specific program in the six areas of the diamond pattern and there is a kind of uncertainty in all of their interactive areas. The Entrepreneurial group includes companies that show a relatively high level of attention to four factors of the organizational interaction with human, market and industry, future and money and capital among the six indicators of the lifestyle diamond patterns; and pay little attention to other indicators. Entrepreneurial companies are very systematic and humanistic in terms of social structure, innovative and transformational in terms of competitiveness, and risk-taking and forward-looking in terms of finance. Based on the calculated average behavior, the self-reported group has the highest behavioral attention among the indicators of lifestyle diamond pattern to the three factors of market and industry, environment and future trends. From the personality perspective, the behavior of these organizations is very similar to self-reported characters or dramatic characters due to their great attention to the external interactions of the organization and their interest in creating an appropriate image of the organization in a professional and public environment. The largest number of intermediaries belongs to companies that pay special attention to the two indicators of interaction with money and capital and interaction with the market and industry among the six indicators of the diamond model. The pioneering group pays special attention to all the indicators of the organization’s diamond lifestyle. Behavioral characteristics of these companies include comprehensive attention to all internal and external stakeholders of the organization. Competitive group includes companies that pay attention to the three indicators of interaction with humans, interaction with technology and interaction with the market and show only relative attention to other three indicators. Focusing on pioneering behavior, those who challenge market seek to imitate their competitive behaviors by reinforcing human expertise and intra-organizational processes.

    Keywords: Lifestyle, Organization lifestyle, Polymer industry
  • Parviz Masoumian Miandoab * Pages 161-182
    Objective

    Awareness of consumers’ decision-making styles is crucial for the effectiveness and development of a business marketing strategy in the tire industry. It helps to meet the needs of the consumers and transmit the desired value to them. Purchasing tire is a very rare purchase, and it takes a long time to repurchase. It is an essential resource for the car and it plays a strategic role in the safety and security of the passengers. Therefore, it is important for the consumers to be aware of the features and crucial role in the car. Besides, identifying the desirable style requires extensive research regarding the decision to purchase a tire. Thus, this study aimed to identify similarities and differences in consumers’ decision-making styles considering the cultural tendency of collectivism / individualism in regards with the purchase of car tires.  

    Methodology

    The present study is considered applied in nature and is considered as a descriptive-survey research in terms of purpose and strategy. The statistical population includes all those who have purchased automobile radial tires from tire stores in Tehran between July and September in 2016. The required data were collected by means of a 35-item questionnaire based on a quantitative scale (Likert) from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”.  

    Findings

    Analysis of variance showed there is no significant difference in terms of cultural issues among the following decision-making styles: "sensitivity to quality", "hedonism and the desire to purchase for entertainment", “sensitivity to the new and up-to-date products”, and "willingness to purchase spontaneously". However, there was a significant difference among the following styles (at 95% level): “consumers’ confusion due to abundant choices", "sensitivity to popular brand" and "habitual purchasing and loyalty to a brand”. Regarding ranking of decision-making styles among individualistic and collectivist consumers, "sensitivity to product quality", "sensitivity to up-to-date and new products" and "habitual purchasing and loyalty to a brand" were the most frequent styles among collectivist customers. In addition, "consumers’ confusion due to abundant choices", "sensitivity to popular brand", "tendency to purchase spontaneously" were the other frequent styles, respectively. Similarly, the ranking of decision-making styles among individualistic customers is completely consistent with the ranking among collectivist individuals.  

    Conclusion

    The quality is more important than any other dimensions, and the quality of a product and the perception of the high quality of a particular brand are among the priorities of consumers of tire. "Consumers’ willingness to purchase new products" is the second high priority item in the decision-making of collectivist as well as individualistic people while purchasing tires. Although the "habitual purchasing and loyalty to a brand" is common among all the customers, it is of higher importance among those who are more inclined to collectivism because “loyalty and integration” are crucial parts of collectivists’ culture. People who are more prone to individualism are less confused because they are the ones who make the final decision in selecting a product. Brand sensitivity is greater among collectivists because of their attention to individual identity. The "willingness to purchase spontaneously" is common because of the lack of importance regarding purchasing a tire for the consumers. In this case, tire sellers can have a big impact on choosing the type and the brand of tire. Therefore, building purposeful communication between sellers and buyers is important.

    Keywords: Individual level cultural values, Individualist, collectivist, decision making styles
  • Parisa Ghahremanpour, Seyyed Jafar Zonoozi *, Seyyed Abolfazl Abolfazli Pages 183-197
    Objective 

    Companies need to apply innovations in their products in order to achieve organizational goals, achieve competitive advantage, and improve organizational performance. Organizational learning, developing a flexible organization, supportive managers and specialized teams is essential to achieve product innovation and organizational survival. The main question of this research is: what are the strategies to increase the performance of the Iranian pharmaceutical industry market? This research seeks to provide solutions to improve the innovation power and marketing performance of pharmaceutical companies. To this end, this study examines the effect of flexibility capacity, organizational learning and product innovation on marketing performance. In this case, companies can strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets and gain a stable competitive advantage over other competitors.  

    Methodology

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is survey in terms of method. The statistical population of this study includes 236 pharmaceutical companies on Darooyab website, where the data have been collected from senior managers of these companies. Applying simple random sampling and according to Cochran’s formula, 146 companies were selected as the sample. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The research data were analyzed in form of structural equation modeling based on partial least squares method using Smart PLS2 software.  

    Findings

    The results indicated significantly positive effects of organizational resilience capacity and organizational learning considering the mediating role of product innovation on the marketing performance of these companies. According to the investigations, the moderating effect of environmental disturbance has not been confirmed due to organizational flexibility capacity and organizational learning on product innovation.  

    Conclusion

    It is necessary to create flexibility in organizational processes and decisions in order to respond quickly to discrete environmental changes. In addition, organizations need to use new paradigms and create learning capacity to empower to deal with turbulent and complex environments. Accordingly, companies will be able to create continuous innovation in their products in order to meet the ever-changing demands of customers. Thereby, it can lead to an increase in the performance and competitive position of the organization.

    Keywords: Organizational resilience capacity, organizational learning, Product innovativeness, marketing performance, Environmental turbulence
  • Maryam Hemmati, Davood Feiz *, Adel Azar, Azim Zarei Pages 198-226
    Objective

    This study aims to integrate the two areas of study, namely mental models and perceived barriers to export. Based on the theory of mental models, the present study seeks to increase the richness of the perception of the experiences and perceived meanings of managers of Iranian dairy product companies on the barriers to export development. On the other hand, identifying managers’ mental model and determining the most important barriers to export in each mental model can be considered a guideline for export policymakers to plan according to the existing mental models and provide solutions for export development.

     Methodology

    This research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of data collection. The statistical population of this research includes chief executives in business, sales and export departments of dairy product companies. Semi-structured interviews based on phenomenological approaches and projective techniques have been used to collect data. Using the theoretical sampling method, chief managers of twelve dairy product companies were the interviewed in order to reach saturation. To ensure data validity and reliability, revie participants’ reviews and multidisciplinary approaches were used through interviews with different groups of participants. Theme analysis and Maxqda 10 software were used to analyze the data.

     Findings

    The ultimate model of the study included the following six mental models of barriers to export: 1) market-oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "not being brand-centered", "poor marketing status" and "lack of competitive advantage". This mental model has been the most prevalent mental model among the managers; 2) government-oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "poor governmental support", "poor governmental policymaking " and "poor governmental interaction "; 3) resource-oriented model: this mental model consists of four sub-themes of "poor company updating", "production capability", "financing problem" and "lack of government lobbies"; 4) profit-oriented model: this mental model consists of three sub-themes of "profit-oriented attitude", "lack of global export prospects", and "undesirable image of the country"; 5) infrastructure oriented model: this mental model is made up of the sub-themes of "economic instability", "poor transport infrastructure" and "country backwardness"; and 6) institutional-oriented model: this mental model focuses on companies’ conflict with Iranian organizations in the process of export and includes two sub-themes of "administrative complexities of the export process", and "tax burden and customs tariffs".

     Conclusion

    Given the importance of the role of mental models and managerial perceptions in decision making, including decisions about the company’s export activities, one must first identify the managers’ mental model of export in order to have a proper understanding and analysis of export behaviors. In terms of frequency, market-oriented, government-oriented, and resource-oriented mental models were identified as the three leading mental models in dairy product companies, respectively. According to the managers participating in this study, Iranian dairy products do not have a competitive advantage in inter-regional markets in terms of quality, price, product variety, and packaging. Although changing the attitudes of managers and investors is necessary to expand the company’s export activities, it is not enough to help grow and develop the export of dairy products in international markets. The government-oriented mental model, identified as the second dominant mindset in dairy product companies, highlights the important role of government policy making and support in creating or removing export barriers. In this mental model, the government must provide an appropriate platform for export development.

    Keywords: : Mental model, Export Barriers, Export Development, Thematic analysis, International Marketing
  • Masoumeh Hanifi, Kambiz Heidarzadeh * Pages 227-242
    Objective

    This research aims to devel a scale to measure comfort and convenience of consumers’ shopping experience in shopping centers and malls so that the consumer can experience the same feeling of comfort in the malls as they have at home. The main purpose of this research is to answer the question of how can factors including weather conditions such as temperature, noise, air quality, music, amenities, product variety, structure, color, social cues, and familiarity of customers affect the feeling comfort while shopping. Therefore, the main question of this research is: What is the scale to measure "comfortable shopping experience" in shopping centers and malls?

     Methodology

    This study is applied in nature and implements descriptive-survey and correlational methods. Therefore, the research design is correlational and the evidence has been collected through survey. The research model has been investigated based on the collected data using descriptive and inferential analysis. The statistical population of the study includes all the buyers of the three shopping centers: Kourosh, Arg and Paladium located in Tehran, Iran during the fall of 2017.

     Findings

    The results of exploratory factor analysis have been reduced to five components and twenty-two indicators. These components were named according to the concepts of the items as: adaptation to family needs in shopping centers, fashion needs, amenities and facilities in shopping centers, pleasure-based needs in shopping centers and attractions of the interior environment of shopping centers. The first factor includes the following items: 1) compliance of the product with family needs, 2) variety of products, 3) products suitable for customer needs, 4) access to products all over the city and 5) appropriateness of the price of products. The second factor includes the following items: 1) new ideas and styles, 2) awareness of new products, and 3) new clothing styles. The third factor includes the following items: 1) large and ample parking lots, 2) very comfortable chairs and benches, 3) working hours of the shopping center, 4) ease of access, 5) playground for children, and 6) sufficient ATM devices. The fourth factor includes the following items: 1) the proper use of leisure time, 2) concert halls and sports halls, 3) variety of restaurants and fast food, 4) the cleanliness of the shopping center, and 5) the interior architecture of the shopping center. The fifth factor includes the following items: 1) mild music, 2) store size, and 3) pleasant and special perfume.

     Conclusion

    Based on the results of the research and the coefficients which were calculated for each component, the following are recommended to be taken into account by the marketing managers of the shoping malls in Tehran: focusing on the attractions of the interior environment of the shopping centers, focusing on amenities and recreational facilities in accordance with different age groups from children to the elderly, focusing on the pleasure-based needs of the wide range of the customers, providing the needs and immediate requests of the customers in terms of environmental facilities, products and services, finally focusing on adaptation of the environment, products and services to the needs of the families.

    Keywords: Amenities, facilities, Adapting to family needs, Attraction of the interior environment, modeling, hedonic needs, Comfort
  • Shahryar Azizi, Armin Ghasemi Naghibdehi * Pages 243-259
    Objective 

    While introducing new products, the producers disregard the consumers’ point of view and only focus on their own ideas. Being new to the consumer occurs when they do not consider the product similar to any of the products they have ever seen and they give it a distinct identity. Drinking yogurt is a new product class that has recently been produced by Kaleh Company with a specific brand of Lactivia in the Iranian market. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the factors that cause consumer to consider Lactovia drinking yogurt as a new product class in a distinct product class and also to identify the importance of these factors in product classification.  

    Methodology 

    The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is qualitative in terms of data collection method. The statistical population of the study included all citizens of the two cities of Sari and Tehran who were exposed to Lactivia drinking yogurt advertisement or who have consumed it. Finally, 39 individuals were selected based on non-probabilistic purposeful sampling method and using theme analysis the signs and the source that consumers used to assign the product class were identified.  

    Findings

    A total of 13 product classes and 9 signs were obtained. The findings showed that in the process of classification of a new product, customers’ experience of using similar products, advertising messages and their relatives’ comments about the product as well as the mixed uniqueness of the product are the leading factors. Sixty two percent of those who have only consumed lactivia, consider it in the "diluted yogurt" class and "the shape of the product" was the most common sign they used to classify the product.    

    Conclusion

    Product classification differs among consumers based on the product benefits and characteristics and according to the importance of the brand sign. If the product is highly important, “the benefits and characteristics” of the product is the main factor in the classification; otherwise, the similarity with the existing products determines the product class. Increasing the perceived fit between the shape and the name of the product makes the consumers to assign the product into the category which is associated with its name. The incompatibility of the shape of the product with the existing classes can lead to the classification of that product as a new product. The creativity on how to consume a new product increases the likelihood that it will be considered as a new class. If product benefits are of high importance, the determining factor of the product class is the dominant characteristics of that product; otherwise, the shape of the product is decisive. The new product name is one of the most fundamental signs to classify that product as a new product. The difference in shape and color of the product packaging from similar existing products is one of the requirements for classifying that product as a new one. The inclusion of the parent brand on the product makes the consumer resist considering it as a new product.

    Keywords: Brand relevance, Categorization, New product categorization, Drinking Yogurt