فهرست مطالب

  • سال پنجاه و دوم شماره 2 (پیاپی 205، تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • علی نورصبحی، محمدجعفر یاحقی*، محمدرضا راشد محصل صفحات 1-27

    تنوع و ویژگی های منحصر به فرد دست نویس های شاهنامه، تصحیح آن را پیچیده و دشوار کرده است. از قرن هشتم تا به امروز تصحیح های فراوانی از این اثر به روش های مختلف به دست آمده است. جلال خالقی مطلق شاهنامه  را به‌شیوه علمی - انتقادی تصحیح کرد و طی سال‌ های 1366 تا 1386 در 8 مجلد به چاپ رساند. وی در این تصحیح از پانزده دست ‌نویس بهره گرفته و نسخه بدل ‌های متن را در پایین صفحات نشان داده است. این مقاله با توجه به اصول تصحیح علمی - انتقادی و دست ‌نویس های متن، بر آن است که کوشش خالقی مطلق، نمونه کاملی از یک تصحیح علمی - انتقادی که خواننده را از رجوع به دست نویس ها بی نیاز کند، نیست. به این منظور، ابیات آغازین شاهنامه که در تصحیح خالقی مطلق «دیباچه» نامیده شده، ذیل عنوان ‌های «نسخه بدل‌ ها و متن» و «کاستی ‌ها و افزودگی ‌ها» بررسی و پیشنهادهایی جهت ویراست هرچه بهتر متن ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه، دست نویس، ابیات آغازین شاهنامه، مصحح، تصحیح علمی انتقادی
  • قدرت الله طاهری* صفحات 29-55

    مثنوی معنوی مولانا، چنانکه از محتوای آن برمی آید و اطلاعات تاریخی مربوط به قصد و غرض گوینده آن نیز موید آن است، متنی «تعلیمی» است و هر متن تعلیمی در درجه نخست، محصول اطلاعات، دانش و تراوشات ذهنی فرد گوینده و نویسنده و در درجه دوم برآمده از «هوشیاری و آگاهی پیشینی» مولف است. با وجود این، در مثنوی، همچون غزلیات شمس که گوینده آن بیشتر در سیطره ناهوشیاری و قرار گرفتن در کشف و شهودهای ناب عرفانی است، جلوه هایی از «تجارب و کشف و شهودهای عرفانی» را می توان سراغ گرفت؛ به‌عبارت‌دیگر، مولانا در پاره ای از تمثیلات مثنوی، با خلق موقعیت هایی، شخصیت های داستانی خود را در معرض «تجربه های عرفانی و کشف و شهود» قرار می دهد. موقعیت هایی که این شخصیت ها وارد تجربه عرفانی می شوند، بی شباهت با «موقعیت های مرزی/حدی» (Boundary Situation) مد نظر فلاسفه اگزیستانسیالیست نیست. به نظر فلاسفه مذکور، آدمی در موقعیت های خاصی مستعد ایجاد تحول بنیادین در وجود خویش و استعلا یافتگی است. این موقعیت ها می توانند در اثر بحران های روحی و روانی، عجز و ناتوانی اساسی، مواجهه با پرسش های لاینحل، برخورد با افرادی شگفت، فربه شدگی بیش‌ازحد در یک وضعیت معرفتی و عوامل دیگر به وجود آیند. داستان طوطی و بازرگان مثنوی، یکی از تمثیلات پیچیده عرفانی است. در این داستان، یکی از قهرمانان اصلی آن، یعنی بازرگان، بعد از مواجهه با «مرگ تصنعی» طوطی خود و از دست دادن آن، به‌عنوان بزرگ‌ ترین تعلق ذهنی خود، در موقعیت مرزی قرار می گیرد و همین موقعیت او را برای ورود به عالم تجارب عرفانی مهیا می کند. بازرگان، ضمن از سر گذراندن تجربه عرفانی دچار استحاله شخصیتی (تولد مجدد) و استعلای شخصیتی می شود. در خوانشی دیگر، بازرگان این تمثیل، بازنمود بخشی از وجود مولانا و منعکس کننده تجارب عرفانی خود اوست که در مواجهه با شمس تبریزی، دچار تحول و استعلای شخصیتی شده است. به این دلیل، در قسمتی از داستان، مولانا (راوی) با شخصیت داستانی خود (بازرگان) چنان در هم ادغام می شوند که به نفس واحدی تبدیل می شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: مولانا جلال الدین، مثنوی معنوی، تجربه عرفانی، اگزیستانسیالیسم، موقعیت های مرزی، استعلای شخصیتی
  • مرضیه اسماعیل زاده مبارکه، محسن محمدی فشارکی* صفحات 57-77

    «خردگویه»، زیرگونه ای در ادبیات تعلیمی است که نخستین بار کنفسیوس آن را برای آموزش خردجویانی که نزد او می آمدند و پرسش هایی را مطرح می کردند، به کار برده است. این گونه سخنان وقتی در متون ادبی نقل و روایت می شود ذکاوت و ارجحیت گوینده را نسبت به دیگران نشان می دهد و وجود چنین افرادی در فرهنگ های مختلف نمایانگر حوزه ای از تفکر و عقلانیت است که برای سایر مردم، موهبتی آسمانی تلقی می شود. ترجمه عنوان چینی کتاب کنفسیوس، LunYu در زبان انگلیسی به Analects به‌درستی نمایانگر ساختار و محتوای کتاب کنفسیوس نبوده و برگردان آن در زبان فارسی به «مکالمات» نیز سبب شده که این گونه ادبی، با گفت وگو (دیالوگ) که مبتنی بر ارتباطی دوسویه است، یکی شمرده شود. خردگویه دارای مولفه ‌هایی است که آن را از پندنامه و زیرگونه های دیگری مانند خطابه و امالی متمایز می کند. در مقاله حاضر مبحث ترجمه واژه LunYu و ویژگی های ساختاری و محتوایی خردگویه همراه با نمونه هایی از منطق‌الطیر عطار و فیه ما فیه مولانا بررسی و همچنین وجوه تمایز خردگویه با پندنامه، خطابه و امالی شرح و تبیین شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: ادبیات تعلیمی، پندنامه، خردگویه، کنفوسیوس
  • وجیهه ربیع، سید علی اصغر میرباقری فرد*، سید مرتضی هاشمی باباحیدری صفحات 79-103

    انسان معاصر با مشکلات روانی مختلفی روبه ‌رو است. در سال‌های اخیر برخی از روانشناسان در شاخه روانشناسی مثبت‌ گرا برای حل این مشکلات به معنویت توجه و گرایش نشان داده‌ اند. عرفان ایرانی- اسلامی که سنت معنوی شناخته‌شده ‌ای است و بیشتر در قالب متون ادبی بروز و ظهور یافته است به معارف والایی اشاره دارد که می‌توان در پرتو آموزه ‌های روانشناسی جدید برداشت‌ ها و نتایج جدیدی از آن به دست آورد و بین این دو معرفت، تطبیق و مقایسه صورت داد. بررسی متون منثور ادبی که در آن تجربه ‌های عرفانی نمود یافته است و ابعاد معنوی بشر را بازتاب می‌دهد، می‌تواند دستاوردهای عینی و تجربی در اختیار روان‌ شناسان قرار دهد. یکی از موضوعاتی که می‌تواند در این دو حوزه، مقایسه و تطبیق شود، صبر است. بدین‌منظور در نوشته حاضر تعریف، اهمیت، انواع و درجات مقام عرفانی صبر در متون منثور عرفانی ادب فارسی استخراج شد، جایگاه صبر از منظر روانشناسی و نتایج و پیامدهای عملی آن در زندگی انسان امروز بررسی گردید و مفهوم صبر از دیدگاه این دو معرفت با یکدیگر تطبیق و مقایسه شد. نتایج نشان داد تعاریف صبر و مبانی عملی آن در متون عرفانی در مواردی با تعابیر مختلف صبر در روانشناسی مشابهت و نزدیکی می‌یابد.

    کلیدواژگان: صبر، عرفان اسلامی، روانشناسی مثبت گرا، مثنوی معنوی
  • علی اکبر احمدی دارانی* صفحات 105-137

    «چرخیات» نوع ادبی ناشناخته ای در تاریخ ادبیات فارسی است.با آنکه در تمام دوره های شعر فارسی(از آغاز تا پایان دوره قاجار)نمونه هایی از چرخیات می توان یافت؛اما به سبب آنکه تا قرن نهم، نام مشخصی بر آن ننهاده ‌اند ، ناشناخته مانده است. چرخیات شعری است، در قالب قصیده که شاعر،چرخ (=آسمان) و ستارگان و بروج فلکی را توصیف می کند و گاه با نیروی خیال، به معراج می رود (= معراج الخیال) تا مدح ممدوح را از زبان چرخ و آنچه در آن است، بیان کند. در این مقاله برای نخستین بار، چرخیاتی از معروف ترین شاعران زبان فارسی، از لابه لای دیوان ها و تذکره ها استخراج شده است تا به این پرسش ها پاسخ داده شود که نخستین نمونه چرخیات،از چه زمانی پدید آمده است و سابقه کاربرد این نام، برای این نوع شعر از کجاست؟ موضوع و محتوای چرخیات چیست و مخاطب آن کیست؟ چرخیات در سیر تاریخی خود، چه دگرگونی هایی را پذیرفته است و مناسبات متون در این نوع شعر، چگونه است؟ آیا چرخیات در ساختار سنتی قصیده های مدحی و صرفا در تشبیب قصیده ها، نمودار شده یا در دوره های بعد، کلیت شعر را فرا گرفته است و به صورت نوع ادبی مستقلی در شعر فارسی نمایان شده است؟

    کلیدواژگان: نوع ادبی، چرخیات، فلکیات، معراج الخیال، نظام استرآبادی
  • افسانه میری، محمدجواد مهدوی*، شهلا شریفی، بهروز محمودی بختیاری صفحات 139-161

    در پژوهش حاضر، سعی کرده‌ ایم براساس نظریه «تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی» فرکلاف، از جانبداری ‌های ایدیولوژیک نادر ابراهیمی و موضع‌گیری سیاسی او در قبال تاریخ سیاسی معاصر رمزگشایی کنیم. نادر ابراهیمی با توجه به تحولات تاریخی بین چاپ سه جلد اول (1359) وچهار جلد بعدی (1371)، یعنی دستگیری و انحلال گروه‎های مخالف در ایران و رنگ باختن شعارهای کمونیستی در سطح جهان، دست به تاریخ‌سازی در چهار جلد آخر رمان آتش بدون دود می‌زند و با ایجاد فضای گفتمانی جدیدی در داستان، به هدایت و کنترل افکار و باورها و ایدیولوژی غالب در میان مردم دست می‌زند. او چریک‎ های چپ‎گرا و کمونیست تاریخ معاصر را شخصیت‎ های قدرت‌ مدار و قهرمان داستان قلمداد می‌کند و تمامی تحرکات سیاسی و جنگ ‏های پارتیزانی دهه ‏های چهل و پنجاه را با مرکزیت این گروه به نمایش می‌گذارد. او برای توجیه و القای این جانبداری، از ایجاد تضاد و تقابل معنایی و یا حذف عامدانه کنش‌ های گروه ‎های مخالف استفاده می ‎کند. هم‎چنین با غیریت ‎سازی گروه ‎های سیاسی اسلام‎گرا و ملی‎گرا، گروه سیاسی مورد نظر خود را برجسته می‌سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، نورمن فرکلاف، تاریخ سازی، آتش بدون دود، نادر ابراهیمی
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  • Ali Noorsobhi, Mohammad ja’far Yahaghi*, Mohammadreza Rashed-mohassel Pages 1-27
    Introduction 

    Khaleghi Motlagh is one of the last scholars of with the expertise of knowing texts and Shahnameh correction. He has edited and published Shahnameh in a critical scientific manner. The basis of his work is that the editor first reviews and evaluates all or a large part of the manuscripts and determines its independence or kinship and grouping, then chooses the most valid ones and puts one which is known as the oldest and the most correct ones as the basis of the text, and records the manuscript differences accurately and scientifically at the footnotes or in a separate volume, but unlike the method in which the editor have to be loyal and faithful to the original text in composing, he does not make himself to follow the main text. Rather, he evaluates the recordings in terms of their degree of authenticity (selection) and among them he chooses the right or more accurate recording on some more difficult recording criteria (Lectio difficilior) and takes it from any copy to the text; while in cases where all versions are corrupt, he makes a deductive correction. These three steps in the scientific-critical method of text correction are called Rezension, Examination, Konjektur. After reviewing forty-five manuscripts of Shahnameh, Khaleghi Motlagh, selected fifteen manuscripts for his correction among which he made Florence’s copy (1217 AD) as the oldest and the most correct volume and as the base of his work. Other copies including the London (1276 AD), Istanbul (1331 AD), Leningrad (1333 AD), Cairo (1340 AD), Cairo (1394 AD), Leiden (1436 AD), Paris (1440 AD), the Vatican (1444 AD), Oxford (1448 AD), Britain (1486 AD) and Berlin (1489 AD) copies were determined as the original manuscripts; while the London (1437 AD), Leningrad (1445 AD) and Istanbul (1498 AD) manuscripts have been introduced as non-original ones. Despite many corrections in which only the difference of recordings (negative way) are presented at the footnotes (negative method) Khaleghi Motlagh recorded the differences at the endnotes of his work (positive method) Accordingly, in addition to the discrepancies of the manuscripts, he has also presented the similarities and homologies of the recordings at the footnotes. This article attempts to critically study Khaleghi Motlagh’s critical-scientific correction method in order to find the level of his loyalty to the well-accepted principles of critical-scientific correction method and to offer some suggestions for improving the correction and refinement of the text.

    Method

    In this study, the beginning verses of Shahnameh, as corrected by Khaleghi Motlagh, are evaluated in two parts based on the principles of scientific-critical correction and the images of the recordings. The first section deals with the direct relationship between the text and the footnotes. Then, the second part discusses the shortcomings and extensions of the text. Finally, the article will end with some suggestions to improve the texts

    Results and Discussion

    Based on Khaleghi Motlagh’s correction, the number of verses at the beginning of the book (from the beginning to the start of the Kioomars story), which he named preface, are 209 verses. We contrasted the text with fifteen versions used in the correction and find a difference. That is, the recording different copies (footnotes) of this section from pages 3-18 of the first volume that cover the edited text. In this regard, 81 handwriting malfunctions or negligence in recording different versions (out of 479 footnotes) can be seen. Add to this list the 24 unreported items (based on original manuscripts) which have been left unanswered. This section discusses such cases that make a fundamental change in the context of Shahnameh, including controversial verses besides the editor’s method of correction. There are also cases being discussed in which the editor has intertwined some manuscripts and created new recordings. The editor has counted a number of verses adjuncts for reasons such as the existence of Arabic words or not being in the original version (Florence) and driven them as footnotes. Based on the textual evidence of different versions of Shahnameh, in this study, the authenticity or non- authenticity of these verses has been discussed, and it has been concluded that mere Arabic words or external references (relatively simultaneous works) cannot be conclusively related to the adjunct verse or verses. In his correction for various parts of Shahnameh the editor has chosen titles that cannot be found in any of the manuscripts .These titles are the result of a mix of recordings of various versions that have resulted in producing new copies and have led to more confusion. In this section, we have illustrated such things and noted its damage to textual work.

    Conclusion 

    Khaleghi Motlagh’s attempt to identify the Shahnameh manuscripts and his attempts to correct those manuscripts in a scientific-critical method is undoubtedly an important step towards the advancement of textual studies on Shahnameh, which has unique complexities qualitatively and/or quantitatively. Failure to adhere to the manuscripts of the work, failure to show the different versions of the text, using eclecticism, and referring to sources outside the text of Shahnameh necessitates a critical approach to Khaleghi Motlagh’s correction. Based on the presented textual evidences and analyses, this article argues that Khaleghi Motlagh’s correction cannot be a complete example of a scientific-critical correction that adheres to all definitions and methods. Moreover, it cannot be considered as a work that makes the readers needless to refer to the original manuscript. Finally, examining the beginning verses of Shahnameh with regard to our proposed suggestions for a better modification of the text, it seems that a new critical approach to the mere scientific-critical correction of Shahnameh is necessary and inevitable. It has been discussed and concluded that mere Arabic words or external references (works at the same time as Shahnameh) cannot be conclusively related to the adjunct verse or verses. In his correction for various parts of Shahnameh the editor has chosen titles that cannot be found in any of the manuscripts .These titles are the result of a mix of recordings of various versions that have resulted in producing new copies and have led to more confusion. In this section, we have illustrated such things and noted its damage to textual work. Khaleghi Motlagh’s attempt to identify the manuscripts of Shahnameh and begin to correct them with a scientific-critical method is an important step towards the advancement of textual studies on Shahnameh, which has in the terms of quality and quantity unique complexities. Failure to adhere to the manuscripts of the work, failure to show the different versions of the text, using eclecticism and referring to sources outside the text of Shahnameh necessitates a critical approach to Khaleghi Motlagh’s correction. This article, based on the textual evidence and analysis presented, argues that Khaleghi Motlagh’s correction cannot be a complete example of a scientific-critical correction that adheres to all definitions and methods and it cannot be consider that his audience has no need to refer to the original manuscript. Also by examining and analyzing the verses at the beginning of Shahnameh, while presenting our suggestions for a better modification of the text, it shows the necessity of a critical look at the only scientific-critical correction of Shahnameh.

    Keywords: Shahnameh, manuscript, initial verses of Shahnameh, correcting, critical- scientific correction
  • Ghodratollah Taheri* Pages 29-55
    Introduction

    Parrot and Merchant Tale (طوطی و بازرگان) is the famous narratives of the eastern nations (India, Iran, Arabic). Rum has taken it from its earlier sources and re-created it. Mathnawi commentators have generally interpreted the anecdote based on the theory of "voluntary death". Among them, only Froozanfar has briefly mentioned the semantic relationship of this story with Rumi's private experiences. It seems that Rumi's private experiences, such as being in the Boundary situation and gaining mystical experience by meeting Shams Tabrizi, appears indirectly in this story. If the main theme of the story is how to go through the "fame and fame backdrop" that leads to "double birth", the narrator himself (Rumi) has followed this path with Shams Tabrizi's guidance. In this study, we want to analyze the boundary position of the merchant, the main character of the story, and his entrance into the mystical world. Moreover, we will show that Rumi is so intertwined with the merchant in parts of the story that one cannot distinguish between them. Review of Literature The story of the parrot and the merchant is one of the allegorical stories that has get the attention of many scholars. Jozov (1989) has described this story based on a mystical mystery. In addition to this book, Zarynkubbin (2007) has analyzed parts of its mystical hidden meanings and Purnamdaran (2001) conducted a mystical analysis. Tavakoli (2010) addressed the narrative aspects of the story and Taheri (2013) narrated the story based on Rumi's personal and private experiences. Najafi (2016) studied the textual codes of the story. Khanmohammadi et al. (2014) examined the allegorical aspects of the story and analyzed the symbolic roles of the story's characters during the discussion. Mohammadi and Baharvand (2012) also discussed how the story ends. As can be seen, the mystical experiences and character of merchant have not been brought to the attention of scholars.

    Method

    Boundary situations and their importance in the fate of mankind have, more than any other philosophical view, been raised by existentialists. Man, with his freedom, will, choice, and responsible commitment to the results of his choices, is constantly forming into his being. Transcendentalism to existentialist philosophers, including its founder, Soren Kierkegaard, has another meaning as well, that is, the existence of a self-transcendent being leads to God. In this sense, the transcendent human becomes a divine human, and this is why existential philosophy bears similarities with Islamic mysticism, including the ideas of Rumi. But does every human being follow the path of transcendence in its first sense (superior humanity) and in its second sense (divine human)? The answer of the existentialists is that not everyone follows this path. Only those who can transcend in both meanings can be placed in boundary situations. Boundary situations arise when a person on the path of life reaches a level of growth that shows signs of disengagement rather than as a result of an accident, encounter with a strange thing or situation, a severe impediment to one's existential nature. Challenges him, causing him a radical change. In boundary situations, one has to decide whether to rescue his or not that situation succumbs. Existentialists say that if the will, choice, and acceptance of the results of selective action take place, a fundamental change in one's life will take place, as if his future is unlike his past. Only then can one regain his "original existence”.

    Results and Discussion

    In the Rumi's parable, the merchant prepares himself for the conditions of entry into the boundary situation from the moment he accepts to deliver the parrot’s bohemian message to Indian parrot. The messaging and death of one of the parrots is the beginning of merchant's entry into the boundary situation that will later transform his personality. Jailed Merchant’s Parrot Response to the death of an Indian parrot, brings Merchant into a new spiritual phase of life. The merchant must endure his "suffering from the despair of his beloved". A parrot for a merchant is everything. His companion is equal to his solitude; as if the merchant did not exist. Merchant has become an "insecure existence" with the parrot. It was as if he had lost his parrot. He must regain the infinite (God) through "leaving the finite", that is, the parrot. The fake death of the parrot creates an "anxiety" in the merchant, the result of which is to endure and overcome, to regain its original identity or its true existence. The merchant, while expressing anxious remarks, eventually recovers his "true self". After entering the boundary situation, the merchant enters into a mystical experience and exhibits one of the most sophisticated mystical experiences. The merchant's moods are so intertwined with narrator's moods that it becomes difficult even to identify parts of the narrator's story. The merchant has become another person when it comes to mystical experience. There are no more anxieties in him. He was at the frontier with the loss of the parrot. Anxiety brought him into a transformative experience. Merchant insists that he is no less than a parrot and must follow his path. The merchant lost the parrot, but by abandoning the finite, he gained the infinite God. The parrot had already become a veil and a distance between him and God.

    Conclusion

    The tale of the parrot and the merchant, unlike his simple plan, is one of the most complex allegorical stories in the East. In this story, Rumi puts one of the main characters (the merchant) in a boundary situation (the loss of a parrot) and this situation gives the merchant an important ontological possibility to go beyond his unmanageable existence. The merchant who had addicted to beautiful parrot had become an alien. Not only did he lose himself, but he had also neglected his God. In this tale, it is not just the parrot who has to die in order to escape merchant's prison, but the merchant himself must die of his own predecessor and restore his original existence by discovering his possessions. The new born merchant is aware of his own potential. The merchant of this story is Rumi himself. Rumi has strayed from his original self before meeting Shams Tabrizi, because of attention to fame. In this story, Rumi also seems to express his "life" in the language of allegory and in the labyrinth of a complex narrative.

    Keywords: Mowlana Jalaleddin, Mathnawi Manavi, Mystical Experience, Existentialism, Boundary Situations, Personal Transcendence
  • Marziye Esmailzade Mobarakeh, Mohsen Mohammadi Fesharaki* Pages 57-77
    Introduction

    In literary texts, there is a kind of communication in which a wise man, urged by an interlocutor, begins to teach but the latter remains a just listener and does not impress either what the former communicates or the conclusion of his teachings. On characteristics of this kind of communication, labeled kheradguye by the authors, there is no survey in the field of literary studies as well as other scientific ones; therefore its difference with other kinds of communication, including dialogue, address (Khetabeh), Pandnameh and Amaali remains obscure yet. The term kheradguye is taken from Confucius to communicate the wisdom-seeker. Attempts will be made to deal with the structure as well as the content of this literary genre in some Persian literary texts and to make clear its difference with other types of didactic literary works. Review of Literature This research focuses on a critical and subject-oriented approach to the translation of the term Lunyu (Confucius's Kherad-Guye), known in English as “Analects”, and in Persian as “Mokalemat” (conversations), because these terms do not properly represent the structure and content of the book of Confucius. Therefore, based on Aristotle's philosophical-ethical theory in Nicomachean's treatise on ethics and Miskawayh's view on Tahzib Al-Akhlagh and the analysis of literary evidence, the authors have chosen a suitable equivalent for this literary subgenre in Persian. Using the Kherad Guye makes it impossible for dialogue, speech (Khetabeh), Pandnameh and Amaali and, therefore, adds a new subgenre to didactic literature.

    Method 

    This is a descriptive-analytic study based on content analysis. Based on data collected from Persian literature and Confucius' works, the authors investigated the Kherad-Guye elements and their differences with other similar subgenres.

    Results and Discussion 

    The Kherad-Guye are for a particular type of communication that Confucius first used to train rationalists. Confucius (479-551 BC) was the first philosopher to present systematic views on the values, goals, and methods of education. The Analects is Confucius's collection of speeches that have been known as the main source of direct quotations for the past thousand years. Following his death in 479 BC, Confucius's followers compiled a text describing Confucius's thoughts (Rainey, 2010). In his Analects, Confucius teaches political and ethical virtues to wisdom-seekers and tells them what the good government and the ethically good are. Thus, in terms of content, his remarks are in the didactic literature and are the first example of the “Kherad-Guye”, but in translating the Chinese title of his remarks into “Lunyu”, it has not been meticulously accurate and has confused it with dialogue. In fact, in the translation of Confucius's work into English, the Analects does not properly represent the concept of Lunyu in Chinese, but merely represent the selection and compilation of his words. In other words, because Confucius's words have been chosen by his followers over the years, they are called analects in English. Also, translating analects in Persian into “literary anthology” or “Mokalemat” (conversations), in Farsi does not indicate the meaning and structure of this kind of speech. The literary anthology has the general meaning of Confucius's words and can be applied to any literary work,and the conversation or dialogue are structurally incompatible with this kind as the dialogue is always between a speaker and an interlocutor while there is no interlocutor in Confucius' as well as in many works by other teachers of wisdom. In Persian, the word “Kherad-Guye” is a compound word. “If two or more independent words that each have a specific meaning are mixed to form a new word which has a new and independent meaning, it will be called a compound word” (Khanlari, 1987). Guye means to say (Sokhan Dictionary, 2008), along with the word “Kherad”, which can also be understood as wisdom, represents wise speech and the teaching of wisdom and shows the unilateral structure of this kind of communication and its rational scope.

    Conclusion

    Some of the words in the didactic literature are quoted from unorthodox master. This kind of speech has certain components that a text, if any, does not fall into this category: 1. Being a wise speaker; 2. To quote wise words for moral education; 3. Non-promotion of a particular religion; 4. To go to the wise listener to know something; 5. Unorthodox education; 6. Communication lacking any rational dialogue. Kherad-Guye is the author's suggested term for this kind of speech that can correctly represent the unilateral structure of this literary subgenre and its rational scope and is a good equivalent of the word “Lunyu”, the title of the book of Confucius and it is the first type of Kherad-Guye. Kherad-Guye differs from conversation and rhetoric in terms of the type of relationship, the position of the speaker and the listener, and the terms and conditions of the relationship that were examined in the article.

    Keywords: Didactic literary, Pand Naame (advice text), Kherad Guye, Confucius
  • Vajihe Rabie, Seyyed Ali Asghar Mirbagheri fard*, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi Babaheidari Pages 79-103
    Introduction

    Contemporary man has various psychological problems. In recent years, some psychologists in the field of positive psychology have shown an interest in spirituality to solve these problems. Iranian-Islamic mysticism, a well-known spiritual tradition emerged in the form of literary texts, refers to the sublime knowledge that can be gained in the light of new psychological instructions and the new conclusions and comparisons made between them. The study of literary prose texts in which mystical experiences and spiritual dimensions of humanity are reflected can provide psychologists with some objectives and empirical achievements. One of the topics that can be compared between these two areas is "patience". The study aims to study the characteristics of mystical status of patience in the mystical texts of Persian literature as well as the status of patience from the perspective of psychology and its practical consequences in today's human life. The study also compares these results in terms of meaning and application. This study follows a new approach to mystical literary texts based on the practical foundations of mystical instructions and shows some of its similarities with psychiatric therapeutic approaches in the field of mental health, which can differentiate it from previous studies.

    Theoretical Framework 

    In recent decades, a branch of psychology has focused on spirituality and positivism to identify better ways to achieve mental health (Mirmahdi et al., 2017). New research has shown that there is a very strong relationship between spirituality and inner peace or mental health (West, 2015). One of the most important mental problems of the human being, especially in the present age, is anxiety, depression, lack of peace of mind and cardiac reassurance. Psychologists have explored the positive and practical effects of patience, one of the best ways to achieve the inner peace in human life. On the other hand, Islamic-Iranian mysticism is a well-known ancient tradition in the field of spirituality. Mystical spiritual instructions in mystical literary texts reveal the spiritual abilities of man. One of the most important mystical themes is "patience", with the realization of many other human-like traits in one's being. This article attempts to compare the definitions and characteristics of "patience" in the mystical view of its practical application in life with the function of "patience" in today's positive psychology and its impact on the treatment of mental illness. In mysticism, with the realization of "patience," many other human-like traits emerge in individuals. "Patience" is the mystic's acceptance of God's judgment and acceptance of adversity, without the objection that comes only through human attention to God and emerges in difficult and happy times and also in personal situations and social relationships. In positive psychology, "patience" is also associated with various themes that show the practical functions of "patience" in coping with stress and improving psychological conditions. In this area, increased spiritual tendencies give people the skills, abilities, and "patience" to realize that they are less affected by adverse conditions. The similarity of the subject of "patience" in mysticism with its various meanings in psychology in mystical texts can be explored and retrieved.

    Method

    The research method is bibliographic and searching for sources related to the subject of this research. All sources in which the mystical and divine theories about the status of "patience" are taken are taken. The information provided is analyzed and categorized in a theoretical and systematic way, thus formulating and adjusting the theoretical foundations of patience. On the other hand, psychology research and research in the field of patience are studied and analyzed. Its data are analyzed and cohesively categorized. Finally, the results are compared and compared in the mystical literary texts and psychology and their similarities and differences are identified and explained.

    Results and Discussion

    Mental health professionals began the year with the development of spiritual mental interventions. This incorporates spiritual resources into clinical "practice" and raises the issue of positive mental health with important implications for the benefits of spirituality in people's lives to achieve mental peace, happiness and life satisfaction. This branch of psychology called "positive and spiritual psychology" relies on the influence of inner purity for the treatment of external diseases. In this field, spirituality is a process that paves the way for practical efforts to help individuals improve their well-being. Mystical instructions have attracted the attention of positive psychologists and psychiatrists due to the introspection and healing of psychological suffering in the shadow of spiritual affairs. By using the mystical practice, the techniques and methods of practicing spirituality appear in the presence of individuals to lead a happy and desirable life. In this position, the human loses the state of suffering and if he has a complaint, he will only return the complaint to God. The subject of "patience" in positive psychology has also many practical functions that emerge in a variety of situations, including coping with stress, having success in life, and maintaining balance. Spiritual tendencies help to make "patience" in these situations. Mystical studies of "patience" show the link between the mystical practice and empirical practice of attaining this position through the spirit of spirituality with the theories of psychologists in the field of spirituality and happiness. These parallels can be found in the topics of "beautification and resilience" in psychology and the Gospels of spiritual Mathnawi.

    Conclusion

    One of the most important authorities in mystical literary texts is "patience", with the realization that many other human-like traits emerge in the individual. In research on psychology, one of the ways to achieve inner peace is "patience", which has an effective role in providing mental health, enhancing the sense of satisfaction and acceptance in people and preventing mental disorders. Coping with stress and having success in life are the applications of "patience" in human life. In comparing the concept of "patience" in mystical and psychological texts, it is concluded that some mystical definitions and interpretations of "patience" are closely related to the concepts of this subject in the field of positive psychology. Common concepts of "patience" in the two fields of mystical literature and psychology, for example, are found in some passages containing the concept of "patience" in Rumi's Masnavi. Rumi's spiritual instructions on the subject of "patience" are in harmony with the debates in positivist psychology, including "beauty and resilience". Thus, it seems that the knowledge of psychology in our country can be used as a tool for sampling and reaching useful results by referring to literary and mystical texts on spiritual issues.

    Keywords: Patience, Islamic Mysticism, Positive psychology, Mathnawi Manavi
  • Ali Akbar Ahmadi Darani* Pages 105-137
    Introduction 

    One of the most significant tokens for distinguishing the literary genres is the ancestors’ attempt for nomenclature of their own opuses or others. Some of these terms have been explicitly applied in chronicles, memoirs, and Divans, implying the author’s awareness of this literary genre that functions as a continuous or discrete criterion for the modern scholars’ discernment. Although “Charkhiyt” or “Falakiyt” is not well-known literary genre, it can be defined as a genre used in composition of the literary Persian works by some poets whose names are cited in the chronicles and memoirs synchronically and diachronically. Hence, the purpose of this article is to introduce “Charkhiyt” as an independent literary genre in the history of Persian poetry.

    Discussion

    The poet’s ultimate goal in creating Charkhiyt is encomium and description. The Charkhiyt has not only composed when the sunset and stars rise concurrently, but also this genre is created by an opening stanza on rising of the sun although the stars have no manifestation as the sun rise. The poets have usually described the stars, the signs of the zodiac, and the constellations. Typically, the target addressee is the “praised” individuals, often authorities and politicians of that time. From the 8th century onwards, concerning the popularity of religious poetry, Ali ibn abi Talib (P.B.U.H) along with some Shi’ite Imams are the “praised” ones. Concisely speaking, all the Charkhiyt can be subsumed under three structures: 1) The poet commences his poem by describing the night (sometimes morning), the moon, the stars, the signs of the zodiac, and the constellations, then he proceeds to eulogy. In this structure, the poet is sometimes detached by a couplet of lyricism, which indicates that he has consciously passed through the antecedent in describing the heavens and the stars (to epitomize) and paid homage to the “praised”. 2) In this structure, the poet’s description of the heaven, the moon, the stars, the signs of the zodiac, and constellations are not led to lyricism, like panegyric odes. Therefore, no distinction is made between lyricism, epitome, the main body of the ode, and the prayer of confirmation and conditional proposition as it was usual; however, the poet ascends the heaven with his imagination. The poet’s description of the constellations, firmament and what he quotes from the parlance of the stars in the eulogy of the “praised” is extended throughout the ode, and the independent literary type manifests better its Charkhiyt in this structure, namely, the totality of the opus entails the description of the firmament and the poet’s imaginary ascension. 3) The poet, with the power of fancy, solely ascends the heaven within confines of the lyricism of the ode, and traverses the signs of the zodiac one by one. At times, there is no explicit mention of ascension to the heavens, but it describes the signs of the zodiac, the stars. Likewise, its purpose, like the previous structure, is to describe the heaven, the spheres, the stars and the signs of the zodiac, expressing the encomium of the “praised” usual in common parlance till reaching the culmination in the heavens, then rendering the stanza of epitome and getting access to the eulogy which constitutes the main body of the ode. Since the 8th century, poets have employed the constellations to describe the status of Ali (P.B.U.H) and the Shi’ite Imams. What leads to the creation of such content in Charkhiyt is the dual connection that the poets found between Ali bin Abi Talib (P.B.U.H) and his ascension generalized to all Shi’iteImams: 1) Mentioning Ali ibn Abi Talib’s ascension has paved the ground for creation of such content; 2) Ali’s mounting the Holy Prophet’s shoulders (P.B.U.H) to demolish the idols along with the conquest of Mecca were interpreted as Ali’s ascension by the poets who have heard or read such narrations.

    Results

    Chronologically, Charkhiyt is just a description of firmament, the signs of the zodiac, and stars depicted in the lyricism of odes. Then, from the 5th century in another structure, the poet with the power of thought and fancy ascends the heaven in the lyricism of ode, sometimes the ascension encompasses the entire ode, representing Charkhiyt as an independent literary genre. Accuracy in the texts that clearly favored the name of Charkhiyt between the 9th and the 11th century indicates that the predecessors made no distinction in nomenclature between the structures developed in parallel mode, especially since the 7th century onwards, because they were all called by the name of Charkhiyt. From the 8th century, the poets of eulogy have had an opportunity to express their views in Shi’ite circles in various cities, leading to the selection of Charkhiyt to publicize their ideas and beliefs so that the greatest number of Charkhiyt composed are about Ali bin Abi Talib (P.B.U.H) and the Shi’ite Imams. Let it remain unsaid that Nizam Astrabadi has composed the most of Charkhiyt among all Persian poets. The particular attention to the poetry of Abu al-Mafakhr Razi in the eulogy of Ali bin Musa al-Reza (P.B.U.H) is also one of the manifestations of the extension of religious poetry welcomed by the poets during eight centuries.

    Keywords: Literary genre, Charkhiyt, Falakiyt, Imaginary ascension of the Heaven, Nizam Astarabadi
  • Afsaneh Miri, Mohammad Javad Mahdavi*, Shahla Sharifi, Behrouz Mahmoudi Bakhtiari Pages 139-161
    Introduction

    In the present study, attempts have been made to decode Nader Ebrahimi's ideological and political stance on contemporary political history In Smokeless Fire based on the theory of Critical Discourse Analysis. Nader Ebrahimi, as a result of historical developments between the publication of the first three volumes (1980) and the other four volumes (1992) of his work, i.e. the arrest and eradication of opposition groups in Iran and the attenuation of communist slogans worldwide, embarks on fabricating history in the last four volumes of the novel Smokeless Fire, and by creating a new discourse in the story, he seeks to direct and control harmonized ideologies and beliefs among the people. He demonstrates contemporary left-wing guerrillas and communists as protagonists and heroes in the story, while portraying all the political movements and partisan wars of the 60s and 70s with emphasis on the role of these groups. To justify and inculcate this bias, he resorts to the generation of semantic contradictions and deliberate eradication of actions undertaken by opposition groups. He also underscores his advocacy for political groups by making the Islamist and nationalist political groups, “the others”. Theoretical Framework and Review of Literature In this paper, the text of The Smokeless Fire novel was analyzed based on three levels of critical discourse analysis theory of Fairclough. At the first level (description), we examined the vocabulary level, the grammatical level (syntactic structure) and finally the textual structure level. At the next level (interpretation level), we examined the contextual context, the contextual and historical context, the assumptions and the types of discourses involved. At the last level (the level of explanation), we answered questions about the social factors and social power relations in which the author lives and the novel is formed. We also examined the ideologies, types of struggles, the impact of author and his impressionability. Articles that have examined contemporary Persian fictional literature according to the theory of critical discourse of Fairclough – except this novel- are very poor in the commentary and explanation levels as: Ghobadi & others (2009), Ghasemzadeh & Gorji (2011); Ghobadi & Aghagolzadeh (2011); Haddadi & others (2012); Gorji (2012); Behbahani & others. (2013); Javadi Yeganeh & Sohofi (2013); Ahmadi & others (2014); Ghorbani (2015). The researches about this novel hitherto have not directly used the model and theory of critical discourse analysis of Fairclough. These articles focus more on the first three volumes of the novel and have not paid attention to the politics and historicalization of the next four volumes. These researches are: Rezvanian & Nouri (2009); Alavi Moghadam & pourshahram (2011).

    Method

    The method of this research is descriptive and analytical and we categorized the data gathered from the text reading of the novel, along with the historical information of the 1350s and 60s, according to the three-level model of Fairclough and linguistic cues in the action and speech of the novel's characters, to interpret and explain the kind of ideology behind the layers of text. The present study seeks to demonstrate by using critical discourse analysis that Ebrahimi has made history in this novel to justify his ideological outlook. The main purpose of this historicization was primarily to influence the thoughts and beliefs of the next generation, to acknowledge the central role of leftist guerrilla discourse in public awareness and to guide them in confronting Pahlavi's Westward government.

    Discussion

    In this paper, the text of The Smokeless Fire novel was analyzed based on the three levels of critical discourse analysis theory to examine the way in which the author has been making history. In the description section, it may be said that the author, with his political affiliations and partisan beliefs, chooses the names, attributes, and alignment to induce his political thinking and character. Also, by attribution of anti-human and immoral acts to the opposing discourse – which is religious or have religious names and titles - highlights the anti-religious characters of the story. In the novel all acts of this non-religious group are meant to soothe and promote the lower social classes and women. Confrontation of names, attributes, and actions of characters in the first three volumes Leads to the confrontation of three political groups in contemporary Iranian history in the next four volumes. In these four volumes, the left guerrilla movements are at the forefront of all political currents of this period and all fictional actions are dedicated to these groups. At the level of interpretation, it can be concluded that Ebrahimi attributes all the forest uprisings in the decade thirties and fifties to the main character of his story, who is an anti-religious and a trained guerrilla in the partisan Latin America wars, with the aim of popularizing the guerrilla group of the story. By introducing famous uprisings and bringing historical names alongside fictional characters, Ebrahimi divides these uprisings into religious and leftist groups. Islamist characters operate subtly in the story, with the support of leftist groups. Alain's career as a vanguard of leftist groups is near to historical figures of leftism such as Golsorkhi, Jazani, Ahmadzadeh and Ashraf. The type of author's relationship with the state and the preservation of personal beliefs and the type of transmission in the story are the main issues at the level of explanation. The events of the story are tied to the author's mental beliefs. In the first three volumes, all the events are in favor of hard-line communist and party slogans, and from the fourth volume, the author seeks to prove the left's prominent role in bringing society and popular opinion closer to the great popular movement of fifty-seven. Writing the last four volumes, he wants to have a portion of contemporary Iranian history. Ebrahimi-supported discourse is not just the struggling Tudeh Party and leftists of the twenties and fifties, but an influential revolutionary anti-Western and anti-religious belief which is more manifested in the ideals of the Fadaiyan-e khalq. Aleni is not a fictional character; he is a popular force and power that, at the author's request, in the last four volumes is a symbol of “The process of the warfare of leftist groups" who guides all the political and social events near the revolution.

    Conclusion

    The analysis of Nader Ebrahimi’s novel, Smokeless Fire, according to Fairclough’s model shows that Nader Ebrahimi is making history in his work. In the description level, it may be said that the author, with his political affiliations and partisan beliefs, chooses the names, attributes, etc. to induce his political thinking and character. At the level of interpretation, it can be concluded that Ebrahimi attributes all the forest uprisings in the decade thirties and fifties to the main character of his story with the aim of popularizing the guerrilla group of the story. The type of author's relationship with the state and the preservation of personal beliefs and the type of transmission in the story are the main issues at the level of explanation. In the first three volumes, all the events are in favor of hard-line communist and party slogans, and from the fourth volume, the author seeks to prove the left's prominent role in bringing society and popular opinion closer to the great popular movement of fifty-seven.

    Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Norman Fairclough, history-fabrication, The Smokeless Fire, Nader Ebrahimi