فهرست مطالب

Oral Health and Oral Epidemiology - Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/03/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Parsa Firoozi, Robab Noormohammadi, Sona Rafieyan * Pages 1-6
    BACKGROUND AND AIM

    Oral pigmentation is a condition in which the color of oral mucosa such as gingival mucosa changes. Some exogenous and endogenous factors may lead to oral pigmentation. Secondhand smoke (SHS) or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is indirect smoking of an active smoker’s exhalation that can lead to cardiovascular, respiratory system, and some oral diseases. The aim of this review study is to assess the effect of SHS on oral pigmentation.

    METHODS

    Data in this study were collected from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases with the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords (Passive Smoking, Secondhand Smoke, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Smoke Pollution, Involuntary Smoking, and Pigmentation) in the English language among the studies conducted in the period of 1990 to 2019. All records were imported into the EndNote software and duplicate articles were removed. The titles and abstracts of all records were pre-screened and among the articles remained, the relevant ones were selected for review based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. To assess the quality of the studies, the Strengthening the Reporting Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used.

    RESULTS

    Based on the STROBE checklist, the quality of the studies was assessed and finally, seven studies were included in the review, with six of them conducted about children and young adults and one about women. 6 (85.7%) articles showed a strong correlation between ETS and oral pigmentation and 1 (14.2%) showed no correlation.

    CONCLUSION

    ETS probably was correlated to the oral pigmentation.

    Keywords: passive smoking, Mouth Pigmentation, Tobacco Smoking, Environmental Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Nader Navabi, Fatemeh Najminouri *, Morteza Tavallaie Pages 7-15
    BACKGROUND AND AIM

    In today’s world, oral health literacy (OHL) plays a considerable role in the improvement of quality of life and decrease of health inequalities as one of the most important components of public health. Special attention to the measurement tools of this index is crucial to increase OHL level in the society. This study aimed to systematically review the existing validated tools used to measure OHL level in the world.

    METHODS

    To meet the study objectives, we searched five important electronic databases [PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar] using the keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which was completed by manual search. Afterwards, studies were screened based on the systematic review protocol and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) diagram. Following that, the selected suitable articles were assessed to extract related information.

    RESULTS

    7 main tools and 19 secondary measures as subgroups have been validated to assess OHL. Some of these tools have been translated into different languages and validated based on the nationality and culture of each region. Currently, there are different tools for measuring OHL worldwide in 13 languages, classified into three categories based on their structure. In addition, we realized that just two OHL measurement tools have been validated in Persian, so far.

    CONCLUSION

    The present study clearly demonstrates the need for a comprehensive and effective tool for measuring OHL. In addition, more studies must be carried out in this field. Given the gap between valid English and Persian tools, it is recommended that a standard tool be established in Persian. Efforts to address these gaps can be a prelude to further research.

    Keywords: Oral Health, Health literacy, Questionnaire Design, Systematic review
  • Molouk Torabi Parizi, Marzieh Karimi Afshar *, Fatemeh Mashayekhi, Mehrnaz Karimi Afshar, Ali Aminian Pages 16-23
    BACKGROUND AND AIM

    Orthodontic treatment aims mainly to improve orodental healthcare and function, but its aesthetic and psychological effects are increasing as well. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and orthodontics-related quality of life (QOL) among first course high school students in Kerman, Iran.

    METHODS

    The present cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 400 first course high school students selected through two-stage cluster sampling method during 2017 to 2018. Data were collected using 22-item orthodontics-related QOL and DAI questionnaires, and then analyzed by SPSS software using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression tests. P-value was considered at significance level of 0.05.

    RESULTS

    According to DAI score, 15.7% of students needed mandatory orthodontic treatment and 39.4% had no orthodontic or minor treatment. Mean orthodontics-related QOL score was 15.60 ± 11.16 out of 88. No significant correlation was found between total score of questionnaire, items of DAI, DAI score, and different domains of questionnaire with DAI. Moreover, there was no significant difference between gender, DAI, and the mean score of orthodontics-related QOL questionnaire.

    CONCLUSION

    Based on the results of the present study, the orthodontics-related QOL was high in first course high school students. Additionally, no statistical correlation was reported between DAI and orthodontics-related QOL and corresponding domains.

    Keywords: Malocclusion, Quality of Life, Treatment Need, Students
  • Elham Maserat, Somayeh Davoodi, Zeinab Mohammadzadeh * Pages 24-31
    BACKGROUND AND AIM
    The high-quality data are essential for good patient care, optimal management of oral and dental diseases, and policy-making. Electronic dental and oral records have a key role in managing data in health care organizations. Aim of this article is analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of electronic dental and oral record implementation in clinics of School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from stakeholder perspectives.
    METHODS
    A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at clinics of School of Dentistry in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews involved asking questions and getting answers from 15 participants. They were informed about SWOT of electronic dental and oral records. Data were gathered by two researchers during two months. After fulfilling all interviews, all participants were asked to review the transcript and confirm its accuracy. All raw data and recorded interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed by two researchers.
    RESULTS
    The main features in SWOT analysis of electronic dental and oral records were respectively transparency of project implementation stages, absence of mandatory rules and standard business processes, expert and motivated specialists, and finally lack of cultural infrastructure.
    CONCLUSION
    Use of electronic dental and oral records can help to improve quality of information and ultimately leads to improvement in quality of care. SWOT analysis is an optimal technique for understanding SWOT of electronic dental and oral records.
    Keywords: Electronic Heath Records, Dental Records, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Analysis, qualitative research
  • Roghayeh Ershad Sarabi, Amin Rahmati, Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki * Pages 32-37
    BACKGROUND AND AIM

    Oro-dental health is one of the most important factors affecting children's health. Healthcare workers’ knowledge is one of the most important factors for oro-dental health services. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the effect of education on healthcare workers’ knowledge of oro-dental health.

    METHODS

    This experimental study was conducted in the rural regions located in south-eastern Iran in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. 120 healthcare workers were selected by a convenience sampling method based on Morgan's table and were randomly divided into experimental (n = 60) and control groups (n = 60). First, both groups completed the questionnaire; then, intervention was conducted for the experimental group in ten 2-hour sessions over 5 weeks. Finally, both groups completed the questionnaire one week after the education.

    RESULTS

    In the pre-test, the mean scores of the healthcare workers about overall knowledge in the intervention (12.50 ± 5.07) and control (12.46 ± 4.71) groups had no significant difference (P = 0.42); whereas, in the post-test, the mean scores of overall knowledge in the intervention (14.23 ± 2.77) and control (12.61 ± 4.84) groups showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Results of study showed significant differences between the two groups in dimensions of the dental knowledge, oro-dental health principles, and how to provide oro-dental care (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION

    Given the importance of preventive oro-dental care in children, it is recommended that health education programs in the field of oro-dental health be designed and implemented within the framework of the educational model.

    Keywords: Education, Training Program, Healthcare Workers, Knowledge, Oral Health, children
  • Ahmet Aras *, Sema Celenk, Osman Atas Pages 38-44
    BACKGROUND AND AIM
    The first clinical symptom of tooth decay is the appearance of a white spot lesion (WSL) on the tooth surface. This study is performed with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of six different remineralization agents in vitro with the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence method.
    METHODS
    In this study, 44 extracted, impacted human wisdom teeth (88 specimens) without caries were used to obtain standard demineralized enamel surfaces. The teeth were divided into eight groups consisting of two control (positive and negative) and six experimental groups [Fluoride (F) gel, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, CPPACP + F cream, NovaMin + F toothpaste, Xylitol-Hydroxyapatite + F cream, and Ozone + F]. De-/re-mineralization solutions were applied with a pH-cycle approach to areas of 3 × 3 mm on the buccal/lingual surfaces of the teeth for 9 days. The remineralization agents were applied to the demineralized areas and the samples were then kept in artificial saliva. The DIAGNOdent measurements were performed before and after the application of the remineralization agents. The Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for analysis of the data.
    RESULTS
    The mean scores obtained after the DIAGNOdent measurements were 3.82 and 6.91 in the negative-control and positive-control groups, respectively. There were significant differences in the scores before and after the remineralization procedure in all experimental groups (P < 0.050). When the mean differences before and after treatment were compared between the groups, CPP-ACP + F provided significantly more remineralization than other experimental groups (P < 0.050).
    CONCLUSION
    Remineralization of demineralized areas was achieved in all experimental groups. The highest degree of remineralization according to the DIAGNOdent scores before and after the procedure was observed in the CPP-ACP + F group.
    Keywords: Tooth Remineralization, Lasers, Fluorescence, Xylitol, Ozone
  • Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan, Seyed Peyman Shariatpanahi, Maryam Sadeghipour Roudsari *, Mahshid Namdari, Farnaz Niknejad, Mahsa Malek Mohammadi Pages 45-53
    BACKGROUND AND AIM

    This study investigated whether mothers’ knowledge about oral health of children during early ages influences the oral health care behavior of their children during adolescence and beyond.

    METHODS

    This descriptive, cross-sectional, analytic study was carried out among 440 12-13-year-old students from 2 schools in Tehran, Iran, and their mothers in 2015. A self-report questionnaire consisting of 4 sections (demographic characteristics, socioeconomic information, oral health knowledge, and oral care behavior) was designed to assess the influence of mothers’ oral health care behavior in controlling early childhood caries (ECC) on their children’s oral health knowledge and behavior during their adulthood. Pearson’s correlation coefficient, chi-square test, and chi-square linear-by-linear association test were conducted to assess the effect of gender, father’s education, mother’s education, first dental care, first dental check-up, and teacher’s advice about oral health in school on oral health knowledge and behavior.

    RESULTS

    A positive relationship was observed between first dental check-up, oral health knowledge (P = 0.05; CI = 95%) and flossing (P < 0.001; CI = 95%). Surprisingly, no differences were found between first dental check-up and tooth brushing frequency (P = 0.26; CI = 95%).

    CONCLUSION

    The current study showed the importance of mothers’ knowledge and behavior toward their children’s oral health during early ages and its impact on the oral health care behavior of children in adulthood. This indicates that prevention behaviors starting as early as possible in childhood will cause better outcomes in adulthood.

    Keywords: Mothers, Oral Health, Adolescent, Health Behavior
  • Javad Faryabi, Naser Ilounkashkouli, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour * Pages 54-59
    BACKGROUND AND AIM
    The aim of this study is to investigate the views of teachers and students about the new educational curriculum to determine its strengths and weaknesses.
    METHODS
    This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 2015 and data collection was performed from dental students entering the university in the academic year 2010-2012 as well as 35 teachers through the use of a questionnaire in the field. The questionnaire items included various areas of the educational curriculum. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey test were used for analysis (P ≤ 0.050).
    RESULTS
    Based on the 98 questionnaires filled, the minimum and maximum age of the subjects were respectively 20 and 34 years old, with the mean age of 22.98 ± 2.02 years old. In addition, 53 (54%) and 45 (46%) of them were males and females, respectively. The mean attitude was respectively 64.30 ± 13.66 and 58.84 ± 11.12 in males and females. A significant relationship was observed between the attitudes toward educational curriculum and gender. Moreover, the results of correlation analysis showed more positive attitude towards educational curriculum with increasing age (P ≤ 0.034). Post-hoc test scores showed a significant difference between the viewpoints of students entering the university in 2010 and 2011 (P ≤ 0.001), as well as 2011 and 2012 (senior year students compared to junior ones, P ≤ 0.003), but no significant difference was observed between students’ viewpoint entering in 2010 and 2012 (P ≤ 0.145). The results indicated no significant relationship between the viewpoint of teachers and age. These results showed only a significant relationship regarding teaching experiences and viewpoint toward educational curriculum.
    CONCLUSION
    This study showed no positive views of the teachers and students about theoretical and practical training in the new curriculum, which may be mainly due to the lack of attention to the educational needs of students as well as their practical usage. Furthermore, by increasing teaching experiences of the teachers followed by increasing their clinical experiences, their satisfaction reduced.
    Keywords: Students, Curriculum, Dental education