فهرست مطالب

Traditional and Integrative Medicine
Volume:7 Issue: 1, Winter 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1401/01/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Kamyar Khoshnevisan, Hiva Alipanah, Hadi Baharifar, Negar Ranjbar, Mahmoud Osanloo * Pages 1-12

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, and due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic drugs in different cancers, developing new green drugs have become crucial. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles containing Cinnamomum verum J.Presl essential oil and cinnamaldehyde (major ingredient) were first prepared. The obtained nanoparticles were then characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform InfraRed (ATR-FTIR). After that, anticancer effects of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated. IC50 values of chitosan nanoparticles containing the essential oil were observed at 79 and 112 µg/mL against A-375 and MDA-MB-468 cells, respectively. These values for chitosan nanoparticles containing cinnamaldehyde were obtained at 135 and 166 µg/mL. The results of the current study indicated that chitosan nanoparticles containing C. verum essential oil can inhibit the growth of human melanoma (A-375) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-468) cells.

    Keywords: Chitosan, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Essential oils, Anticancer activity
  • Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi, Farzane Vaziri, Solmaz Ghanbarnezhad, Vahid Herandi * Pages 13-19

    Many therapeutic properties have been reported for saffron (Crocus sativus L.), including anti-inflammatory effects due to its strong antioxidant properties and the ability to accumulate oxygen free radicals by components such as crocin and crocetin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of saffron on the treatment of patients with periodontitis. 40 patients with moderate to severe generalized periodontitis were selected and divided randomly into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group was instructed to use a mouthwash containing aqueous saffron extract twice a day for 2 weeks; while the control group members were asked to apply chlorhexidine as the gold standard mouthwash. The participants’ gingival probing depth index, modified gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were measured before and one month after the intervention. The patients’ level of satisfaction on the taste of mouthwash was also measured. T-test and Mann-Whitney test were run for statistical analysis. A significant difference was observed in terms of the gingival indices before and four weeks after using both saffron and chlorhexidine mouthwashes (p value: 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference was found between two groups. Patients reported higher levels of taste satisfaction after using saffron aqueous extract mouthwash than the chlorhexidine mouthwash (p value: 0.021). Saffron mouthwash showed comparable therapeutic effect to the gold standard mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and may be helpful as an adjunct treatment for management of periodontitis.

    Keywords: Periodontitis, Periodontal index, Crocus sativus, Mouthwash
  • Hossein Kerdarian, Seyed Hassan ‎ Abedi, Seyyed Ali Mozaffarpur, Hoda Shirafkan, Zahra Memariani * Pages 20-39

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common gastroduodenal disorder that can be long-lasting. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of herbal medicine, Ghors-e-Vard (Vard), on clinical symptoms in FD patients. Seventy adult FD patients according to the Rome IV criteria and without Helicobacter pylori infection were included. Participants were randomly allocated to either Vard or placebo group for 4 weeks of intervention. Treatments were given orally in a double-blind fashion (500 mg, three times a day, and half an hour after each meal). Patients were evaluated prior to and following 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the intervention, in terms of changes in the total score of gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), scores of various components of the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), and any reported side effects. The differences of GSRS and DASS-21 total scores from baseline to the end of intervention were significantly larger in Vard group (P<0.001). Except for reflux, the other subtypes of FD symptoms were decreased with a significantly greater effect in Vard group (P < 0.05). Also, changes in the total score of SF-36 at 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention were significantly greater in Vard group (P<0.001). Except for the reflux, improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms, along with depression, stress, and anxiety, as well as the quality of life in Vard group, was significantly superior to the placebo group. These findings suggest that the Vard, as a complementary therapy, may have a promising effect on resolving the FD symptoms.

    Keywords: Functional dyspepsia, Gastroenterology, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Nardostachys jata-mansi, Rosa damascena, Traditional persian medicine
  • Abbas Joushan, Sadegh Rajabi, Khosrow Agin, Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Fatemeh Jafari, Babak Daneshfard, Sayyed Shamsadin Athari, Zeinab Ghahremani, Rasool Choopani * Pages 40-51

    As an inflammatory disease of the lung, asthma is characterized by bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, inflammatory mediator release, and eosinophil recruitment. Cupping therapy is an ancient method of treatment for a vast range of ailments. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of wet cupping therapy (WCT) in a mouse model. A total number of 35 Balb/c mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7): Negative and positive control groups were administered Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. The remaining three OVA-challenged groups were treated with budesonide, one session, and two sessions of WCT. Finally, eosinophil counts, the gene expressions, and the protein levels of interleukins IL-5, -13, and -33 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice. Lung tissues were removed and kept for histopathological evaluations. Both eosinophil counts and interleukin levels in BALFs were significantly diminished following WCT. Moreover, WCT prevented hyperplastic growth of goblet cells, overproduction of mucus, and inflammation of peribronchial and perivascular areas of lung tissue of mice compared to positive control group. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory effects of WCT against asthma were comparable to budesonide. Our data suggested that the anti-asthmatic effects of WCT were mediated by reducing eosinophil trafficking and modulating Th2 inflammatory cytokines, leading to the histological changes of the lung. This may propose WCT as an efficient therapeutic approach to mitigate inflammatory complications of asthma.

    Keywords: Persian medicine, Wet cupping therapy, Asthma, Inflammatory response, Interleu-kins
  • Ardeshir Moayeri, Kholoud Ramz, Elahe Karimi, Monireh Azizi, Naser Abbasi*, Ali Aidy, Mahmoud Bahmani Pages 52-63

    Finding more efficient agents with fewer side effects for the treatment of burns has been a concern for researchers. The current study aims to assess Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. and Vitis vinifera L. extract combination (AVEC) effects on wound healing in rats compared with silver sulfadiazine (SSD). Identification of individual polyphenols of the plant extracts was performed by HPLC. The animals were randomly divided into twelve groups. Standard second-degree burn wounds were induced on the back. Groups were treated with Aloe vera (A.V) and Vitis vinifera (V.V) creams at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% with ED50 values of 1.5 ± 0.02 and 1.4 ± 0.08 %, respectively. The other group was treated with an AVEC cream (1.5%). The samples of burned skin tissue were collected from the rats for histopathological examination. To evaluate the expression of VEGF and TGFβ1, the real time-PCR method was used. Kaempferol was only detected in Aloe. This study revealed that AVEC cream exhibits significant wound healing activity. VEGF and TGFβ1 had a significant increase in the AVEC. Based on our findings, AVEC cream can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries.

    Keywords: Aloe vera, Vitis vinifera, Second-degree burns, High performance liquid chroma-tography (HPLC), Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)
  • Masoud Sadeghi Dinani, Javad Rezapour, Simindokht Soleimanifard * Pages 64-72

    Leishmaniasis is one of the infectious diseases in tropical countries that is seen as cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral forms. Due to the side effects, costs and effectiveness of anti-leishmaniasis drugs, many clinical trials have been conducted on the importance of plant-based substances against leishmaniasis. Therefore, the following study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Perovskia abrotanoides Kar. terpenoid fraction on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice. The ethanol: water (80:20) extract of the plant flowers was fractionated by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography using RP-18 column. The terpenoid-rich fraction was detected by TLC and HNMR analyses and evaluated for healing effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice with concentrations of 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2 µg/mL. The effect of that was evaluated using ANOVA statistical tests. The results indicate that terpenoid of P. abrotanoides in 3.2% concentration is effective in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice and also increases the lifespan and decreases the parasite burden of infected mice. According to this result, it is suggested that the effectiveness of this extract on the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis to be evaluated as a clinical trial in humans.

    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Perovskia abrotanoides Kar., Treatment, Parasite load
  • Hanieh Nasrollahi, Mehrnaz Karimi, Farhad Raofie * Pages 73-86

    Corchorus olitorius L. is a medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory, laxative, and tonic properties, which is effective on the treatment of cancer and tumors. In this study, the extraction efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of C. olitorius as well as their antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. For this purpose, central composite block cube star and central composite design were employed to determine the optimal conditions. Thereafter, the qualification analysis of the effective ingredients of C. olitorius was done by LC-ESI-MS in negative mode. The results of LC-MS showed that C. olitorius includes phenolic and flavonoid compounds such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, quercetin, naringenin, cirsiliol, cirsilineol, quercetrin, and naringin. Moreover, the SFE efficiency of extraction and IC50 value was obtained 4.25% and 1208.99 µg/mL, respectively. Also, the UAE efficiency of extraction and IC50 of antioxidant activity was obtained as 15.29% and 994.284 µg/mL, respectively. These results confirmed that the efficiencies of extraction and antioxidant activity of UAE were higher than that of SFE; however, the SFE is an environmentally friendly method and consumed less organic solvent.

    Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Supercritical fluid, Ultrasound-assisted extraction, Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), Antioxidant, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Optimization, Central composite design
  • Syed Zubair Ali, Khaleequr Rahman *, Arshiya Sultana Pages 87-103

    Jushanda (decoction), often used in traditional medicine, has many drawbacks like disagreeable taste, bulky dose, cumbersome preparation, and short stability. Therefore, in the present study, jushanda nazla (JN) was modified and optimized into a sugar-based (SBS) and sugar-free (SFS) syrup dosage form and evaluated for various physicochemical parameters, microbial contaminations and antimicrobial activities. JN was concentrated and reduced to minimum quantity by heating and twelve batches of SBS and five batches of SFS were prepared for optimization. Out of these, the best batch of SBS and SFS were selected based on consistency and minimum bulk. The best batches were further evaluated for the physicochemical parameter, microbial and heavy metal contamination. The finished products were also evaluated for antimicrobial activity against selected microbes. SBS was optimized with 170 mL JN reduced to 50 mL, sugar 40% (w/v) and consistency of one wire. SFS was optimized with 170 mL JN reduced to 30 mL, and 96 mg of aspartame. Organoleptic characters, ash value, viscosity, specific gravity and pH of finished products were satisfactory. The concentration of total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid and glycyrrhizin and chlorogenic acid were comparative in JN, SBS and SFS. SBS and SFS passed the WHO guideline for microbial and heavy metal contamination. Finished products showed significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Salmonella. Analytical data of SBS and SFS showed significant optimistic results hence, generated data can be used for future reference. However, developed formulations should be further evaluated for their stability, safety and clinical efficacy.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, Chlorogenic acid, Glycyrrhizin, Jushanda, Unani medicine
  • Quadri Nurudeen *, Saoban Salimon, Mansurat Falana, Musa Yakubu, Musbau Akanji Pages 104-123

    Over generations, several indigenous knowledge on the use of medicinal plants have been lost due to a lack of interest of the upcoming generation and reluctancy of the older generations to pass on their knowledge. This survey was set about to preserve and share the knowledge of the Ilorin Emirate Clan in the management of female sexual dysfunction and infertility (FSDI). The survey was conducted across three major markets (Shao, Jimba-Oja and Oke-Oyi) and ethnobotanical data on medicinal plants, mode of preparation, route of administration and demographic information were collected from volunteers using a semi-structured questionnaire, oral or virtual interviews. A total of 47 plant species belonging to 28 families were identified from 85 willing respondents. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. was the most frequently cited plant with a citation frequency of 31.76% and a fidelity level of 57.75% whereas Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. was the least cited plant with a citation frequency of 1.18% and a fidelity level of 1.12%. The highest informant consensus factor computed for Shao market, Jimba-Oja and Oke-Oyi were 0.93, 0.57 and 0.84 for P. amarus, Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce and Cassia fistula L., respectively. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the medicinal plants in our society that are of importance in the management of female sexual dysfunction and infertility. The data collected would promote the conservation of invaluable indigenous knowledge and highlight a broad selection of medicinal plants that could be subjected to further pharmacological and clinical investigation for their potential role in the treatment of FSDI.

    Keywords: Ethnopharmacology, Female sexual dysfunction, Infertility, Traditional medicine, Medicinal plants
  • Mustehasan Mustehasan, Misbahuddin Azhar, Sofia Naushin, Mohd Urooj, Gulam Mohammed Husain Pages 124-134

    The ultra-fine powder of Sang-e-Surma (Surma Stone), also known as Kohl, is used for various eye ailments either alone or in combination with other herbal or mineral ingredients. The earliest use of Surma is reported in Egypt about 3100 BC. Data from a number of studies conducted on Sang-e-Surma using modern analytical techniques have cleared the uncertainty that Surma stone is mainly composed of lead sulphide. Surma is reported to be used for impaired eye-sight, ophthalmia, cataract, itching, redness, irritation, watering of eyes, shedding of eyelashes and in the initial stage of cataract. The use of lead based Surma is discouraged owing to reports of lead toxicity though the sun glare protection and antimicrobial effects of Surma have been established. Reports on lead toxicity by the application of Surma in eyes are conflicting. Appropriately planned studies are warranted to elaborate the toxic effects of lead based Surma/kohl in terms of detoxification of Sang-e-Surma, preclinical toxicity and clinical trial.

    Keywords: Unani medicine, Sang-e-Surma, Ithmed, Kohl, Lead toxicity
  • Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari, Gholamreza Kordafshari, Maryam Moghimi Pages 135-149

    Cupping has a long history in Iran which is one of the most widely used methods in prevention and treatment of diseases in Persian medicine. However, it still has many opponents in the Iranian conventional medical community. So, this systematic review study was conducted to survey the scientific and authoritative articles related to wet and dry cupping that have been done in Iran and the diseases for which Iranian researchers have suggested cupping. In general, the effect of wet and dry cupping on various kinds of pain (e.g. headache, musculoskeletal pain, postpartum pain, etc.), as well as the effect of wet cupping on hematological and biochemical factors of blood were among the most common studies. Also, persistence of therapeutic effects of wet and dry cupping on various diseases was satisfactory. The results of this study showed that wet and dry cupping, even alone, are effective in the treatment of many diseases, and if the objections to the use of these two treatments are reduced, more extensive and high-quality researches in this regard will be done.

    Keywords: Wet cupping, Dry cupping, Persian medicine, Systematic review, Clinical trial
  • Ali Abdolahinia *, Mohsen Naseri, Soodeh Tahmasbi, Parisa Adimi, Makan Sadr, Ali Akbar Velayati Pages 150-158

    Persian medicine introduces six essential principles to maintain health and improve the breathing of the patients with pulmonary diseases. Adherence to each of these principles plays an important role in having healthy lungs. The purpose of this study was to review the scientific evidence of the mentioned recommendations while discussing the Persian medicine recommendations. Accordingly, suggestions related to maintaining lung health were extracted from the main sources of Persian medicine. In addition, similar topics were searched in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and SID databases. Then, results were expressed separately in each aspect of the six essential principles. These recommendations which are the result of hundreds-of-years-experience of Iranian physicians could be useful; however, future experimental investigations are needed to approve their safety and efficacy along with the possible mechanisms of action.

    Keywords: Lifestyle, Pulmonary diseases, Persian medicine, Respiratory system, Lung