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Traditional and Integrative Medicine - Volume:8 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

Traditional and Integrative Medicine
Volume:8 Issue: 4, Autumn 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/11/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
  • Majid Dadmehr, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian, Elham Akhtari Pages 335-339

    Dysmenorrhea has a negative impact on women's daily activities and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied chamomile oil along with dry cupping on dysmenorrhea. A total of 12 patients with dysmenorrhea were included in this consecutive case series study and treated for three consecutive cycle periods. One ml of chamomile oil was gently massaged on the skin of the suprapubic area for 10 minutes once every night. After the massage, dry cupping was done. During the study, patients were visited on the third day of menstruation for three consecutive cycles, and mean pain was evaluated and recorded based on the visual analog scale (VAS). The mean ± SD of pain intensity in three cycles before the study was 7.5 ± 0.43 and in three cycles after the interventions was 1.44 ± 0.33 (P = 0.002). Indeed, the pain score was decreased as 86.72 ± 1.12% due to the interventions. All the patients discontinued using the analgesic during the study. Topical application of chamomile oil and dry cupping significantly reduced the severity of pain during menstruation and it could be considered as a low-cost modality without side effects for dysmenorrhea. Further studies with larger sample size and longer follow-up are recommended.

    Keywords: Dysmenorrhea, Chamomile oil, Cupping, Traditional, medicine
  • Seyed Sepehr Seyedi, Saeid Abbasi Maleki, Ghader Najafi Pages 340-346

    Oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of depression. Furthermore, antioxidants are also believed to have antidepressant properties. Previous studies have reported the antioxidant effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Jamzad. Therefore, this study examined the antidepressant potential of Satureja Khuzestanica essential oil (SKEO) in male mice based on a forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The GC-MS was used to evaluate the phytochemistry of SKEO. In behavioral studies, 72 male mice were allocated to twelve groups of six and intraperitoneally received the vehicle (10 mL/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), imipramine (30 mg/kg), or SKEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Immobility time in TST and immobility, swimming, and climbing times in FST were measured. In the open-field test (OFT), the number of crossings and rearings was recorded. According to GC-MS results, carvacrol, γ-terpinene, cymene, and 2-pinene were the most abundant compounds in SKEO. In FST and TST, all doses of SKEO (except for 25 mg/kg in FST), fluoxetine, and imipramine reduced the immobility time compared to the control group. Moreover, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses of SKEO and fluoxetine increased the swimming time without significantly changing the climbing time. However, imipramine increased the climbing time without significantly changing the swimming time. None of SKEO doses caused a significant change in the number of crossings or rearings in OFT. According to our findings, the antidepressant-like effects of SKEO are similar to those of fluoxetine. While the compounds in SKEO seem to induce their effects through the serotonergic mechanism, further studies are warranted to clarify their exact mechanism of action.

    Keywords: Phytochemical, Antidepressant, Satureja Khuzestanica, Mouse models
  • Seyede Nargess Sadati Lamardi, Mohammad Shams Ardekani, Katayoon Mireskandari, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Maryam Yakhchali, Sima Sadrai Pages 347-353

    In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) saffron is used as an accompaniment agent “Mobadreq” in poly herbal formulations. According to TPM texts, “Mobadreq” is a substance (or drug) which facilitates access of drugs or food to the whole body or specific organs. This study investigated the effect of oral co-administration of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on the absorption and some pharmacokinetic parameters of acetaminophen in rats. Two groups of Rats (n=6) were treated by 1: acetaminophen 10 mg/kg along with Crocus sativus 4 mg/kg (test group) and 2: 10 mg/kg acetaminophen (control). The plasma concentrations of acetaminophen after oral administration (at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 min) were monitored by an HPLC-UV method. Results indicated that the plasma concentration of acetaminophen in the test group was reached to the maximum concentration (Cmax) faster than control group. As a result, at 5 to 40 minutes after drug gavage, the concentration of acetaminophen in both groups was significantly different.  It was also found that co-administration of acetaminophen and saffron significantly increased acetaminophen’s area under concentration curve (AUC0-60) in compare to the acetaminophen alone (p<0.025). These results suggested that saffron could increase absorption rate of acetaminophen. Consequently, saffron can be considered and introduced as an enhancer of absorption rate and efficacy of acetaminophen and other drugs at least by oral route although the drug interactions with this herb should be considered.

    Keywords: Saffron, Acetaminophen, Pharmacokinetics, Traditional persian, medicine
  • Maryam Amirshekari, Mohammad Javad Tarahi, Ahmad Ghadami Pages 354-361

    Among cosmetic surgeries, nose surgery is more anxiety-provoking than other surgeries. By causing mental stress, surgery leads to the disruption of vital signs. By releasing endorphins in the brain, aromatherapy leads to a feeling of well-being. This study was conducted to determine "the effect of lemon scent on patients' anxiety before rhinoplasty surgery in Ayatollah Kashani Hospital, Isfahan". This clinical trial was conducted on 30 candidates for rhinoplasty surgery at Kashani Hospital of Isfahan in 2011. Patients were divided into two intervention and control groups (15 people in each group) by random allocation method. The research tool was Spielberger's standard questionnaire, completed immediately before and 20 to 30 minutes after the intervention by two groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software, descriptive statistics and independent t, paired t and MANCOVA tests at a significance level of less than 0.05. Two groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic variables. The mean latent anxiety score in the intervention group before the intervention (10.06) was 42.26, and after the intervention (8.86) was 35.8, which difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). The mean overt anxiety score in the intervention group before the intervention (8.66) was 42.60. After the intervention (5.81) was 31.86, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The results showed a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the mean of hidden (p = 0.029) and overt anxiety (p = 0.001). Using lemon scent as an effective, non-invasive and cost-effective non-medicinal intervention reduces the preoperative anxiety of rhinoplasty candidates, so it is possible to benefit from the scent of lemon to reduce patients' anxiety.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Aromatherapy, Rhinoplasty, Lemon essential, oil
  • Babatunde Ajayi, Yetunde Odueke, Favour Ibrahim, Macdonald Ighodaro, Janet Bamgbose Pages 362-369

    Globally, herbal contraceptives remain a viable option for women in rural settlements with unmet contraceptive needs. Pharmacological reports of the male contraceptive potential of Xylopia aethiopica fruit exist in literature, but there is a paucity of information on its female contraceptive potential. This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous extract of X. aethiopica fruit (AEXAF) as a reversible contraceptive remedy in female Sprague Dawley rats against a combined oral contraceptive drug containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (COC-EEL). AEXAF was obtained by boiling air-dried pulverized fruit samples in water for 15 minutes. Phytochemical screening of AEXAF was carried out.  Mature female rats (30) were assigned into six groups, five per group, with ±20 g weight difference within each group. Group A received water; Groups B, C, D and E received 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/B.W. doses of AEXAF, respectively; Group F received 3.6 µg/kg/B.W. dose of COC-EEL. COC-EEL and AEXAF were administered orally, once daily, for 21 days. After 14 days of treatment, mature male rats were introduced to the females, two males per group, for 7 days. Litter size was recorded after delivery. Rats that did not produce pups were immediately re-introduced to male rats for 7 days and sacrificed after another 7 days; the number of fetuses in their uteri was determined. The data obtained was analyzed using Unpaired-t test. Phytochemical screening of AEXAF revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. High contraceptive efficacy (80%) with 100% reversibility was observed at 50 and 300 mg/kg/B.W. doses of AEXAF, whereas COC-EEL showed 60% efficacy and 100% reversibility. The 100 and 200 mg/kg/B.W. doses of AEXAF did not protect against conception. X. aethiopica possesses contraceptive potential worthy of further scientific consideration.

    Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica, Herbal contraceptives, Ethinyl estradiol, Levonorgestrel
  • Mona Zohourparvaz, Hamidreza Bahrami Taghanaki, Mohammadreza Ghasemian Moghadam, Seyyed Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin Pages 370-378

    Shoulder pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery is one of the important complications that can increase patients’ discomfort and their length of stay at the hospital. This study aimed to compare the effects of body acupressure and ear acupressure on shoulder pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 101 patients participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial in 2022. They completed the demographic information form and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Then, they were assigned into ear acupressure, body acupressure, and control groups through block randomization. The control group did not receive any intervention. The amount of shoulder pain in patients was recorded in all three groups by using the VAS one (T1), four (T2), and eight (T3) hours after the intervention. Data analysis was done with the SPSS software (v. 25). The mean shoulder pain score in the ear acupressure group was lower than that in the body acupressure group and the control group in T1 (P<0.001). The median shoulder pain score in the body acupressure group was lower than that in the control group at T2 (P<0.001); the median pain score in the ear acupressure group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups at T2 (P<0.001). The median pain score in the control group was higher than that in the body acupressure and ear acupressure groups at T3 (P<0.001). We observed no statistically significant difference between the body acupressure and ear acupressure groups at T3 (P= 0.12). Statistical analysis showed no difference between the mean anxiety scores of patients in the control, body acupressure, and ear acupressure groups (Z=1.41, P=0.49). Body acupressure and ear acupressure were effective in reducing shoulder pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but ear acupressure was more effective and it showed its analgesic effect faster than body acupressure.

    Keywords: Acupressure, Ear acupressure, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Shoulder pain
  • Armin Kheirypour, Arezoo Moini Jazani, MohammadHashem Hashempur, Hassan Ghobadi-Marallu, Ramin Nasimi Doost Azgomi Pages 379-388

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most common chronic diseases with a high global burden of disease. Today, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more popular. In general, in developing countries, easy access and low cost of traditional medicine, and in developed countries, more access to health information, the prevalence of old age and the increase in chronic diseases are the reasons for this increasing use of traditional medicine. This study aimed to determine the rate and pattern of CAM used and their relationships with demographic characteristics among asthmatic and COPD patients. This research was a cross-sectional study performed on asthma and COPD patients (n=357) referring to the Pulmonary Diseases affiliated with Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran from 2019 to 2020. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaires including open and closed questions and face-to-face interviews. Three hundred and thirty-nine patients (95%) used at least one type of CAM in the last year of study. About half of the patients (49.9%) used more than two types of CAM during the last 12 months. Three hundred and four patients (85.2%) used medicinal plants. Few patients reported with the use of CAM to their physician or health care providers (16.1%, 12.5%, and 16.7% of the users of medicinal plants, bloodletting, and dry cupping respectively). Relatives and friends (77.9%) were with the most common sources of recommendation of CAM to the patients. The present study showed the high prevalence of using different types of CAM, especially herbal medicines in Iranian asthmatic and COPD patients. The main incentive for using CAM was for friends and family members, not health care providers. The use of CAM is associated with age patients age, family size, habitat, education, and occupation.

    Keywords: Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Complementary, therapy, plant, Persian medicine
  • Ketmanee Jongjiamdee, Thanaphak Chaowpeerapong, Pichitpol Kerdsomnuek, Suksalin Booranasubkajorn, Bavornrat Vanadurongwan, Weerawat Limroongreungrat, Pravit Akarasereenont, Apichat Asavamongkolkul Pages 389-396

    This study was conducted to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) joint angles and muscle activities of the lower extremities when performing the Ruesi Dat Ton: a form of traditional Thai medicine involving stretching and strengthening postures. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited in order to let them perform five Ruesi Dat Ton postures, namely Tha Kae Khao Kae Kha, Tha Kae Lom Nai Ook Nai Eo, Tha Kae Klon Pattakhat, Tha Kae Siat Ook, and Tha Kae Lom Pat-Khat Kae Lom Nai Eo, by a random sequence of postures. The 3D joint angles and muscle activities during the performance of the Ruesi Dat Ton were analyzed at the 3D-motion analysis laboratory. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. All the Ruesi Dat Ton postures were in the normal range of motion of the back, hips, knees, and ankles. However, when compared to the joint angle values from the 3D motion analysis, a higher joint angle was found in the hip rotation of Tha Kae Khao Kae Kha (27.99±16.72 degrees), Tha Kae Lom Nai Ook Nai Eo (25.99±14.76 degrees), and Tha Kae Klon Pattakhat (20.99±12.59 degrees), knee flexion of Tha Kae Siat Ook (140.05±8.98 degrees), and trunk flexion of Tha Kae Lom Pat-Khat Kae Lom Nai Eo (52.10±14.83 degrees). All the postures produced more than 1% maximum voluntary isometric contraction of the muscle (MVIC). The muscle activities of Tha Kae Siat Ook were the most contracted, whereas Tha Kae Lom Pat-Khat Kae Lom Nai Eo were the least. Moreover, the study found that the rectus femoris muscle was the most active muscle in all postures. In conclusion, this research can help to select the most appropriate Ruesi Dat Ton posture to maximize the benefits for practitioners and to ensure safety while performing the postures.

    Keywords: Ruesi Dat Ton, Hermit doing body contortion exercise, Biomechanics, Lower extremity, Human health
  • Tayyeba Rehman, Huma Rao Pages 397-407

    Weeds are considered a great threat to crops. So weed eradication is an important task to increase crop yield. Chemical weed control in various crops decreases their nutritive potential. To overcome this problem to some degree, it is suggested to use these weeds instead of destroying them. Keeping this in view, such losses can be compensated by exploring their medicinal utility and identifying their future medicinal prospects. Chenopodium murale L. (Amaranthaceae) is an annual weed growing throughout the world. This review aims to summarize the reported pharmacology and phytochemistry of C. murale to explore its medicinal utility and identifying their future medicinal prospects. The review was done by literature collection from textbooks and online databases without a time limit. The weed name was confirmed by ‘The Plant List’.  C. murale extracts, their isolated active constituents, and nanoparticles have been reported for various pharmacological actions like hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, anticancer, antimicrobial, nematicidal, antioxidant, and cytotoxic. The pharmacological effects of C. murale may be due to the presence of secondary active metabolites such as phenolic acids, flavonols, terpenes and terpenoids, flavonoids and a steroidal glycoside. Reported phytochemistry and pharmacology suggest that C. murale could be an important medicinal agent for leishmaniasis, hypertension, infections and liver diseases. However, further studies are warranted.

    Keywords: Chenopodium murale L, Weed, Ethnopharmacology, Phyto-constituents
  • Mohsen Hajihoseini, Hanieh Tahermohammadi, Babak Daneshfard, Mohammad Saleh Safari, Arian Karimi Rouzbahani Pages 408-418

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition resulting from injury to the developing brain. Treatment modalities vary based on symptomatology and may range from physiotherapy to pharmacologic intervention and surgical intervention. Despite the current therapeutic strategies, outcomes remain suboptimal. In light of limited data regarding the therapeutic effects of oil-based massages on neonates with CP, this study aimed to investigate the potential neurological benefits of incorporating herbal oils into massage treatments for these infants. In this investigation, we conducted a thorough exploration of the medicinal herbs described in the paralysis section of medical and pharmaceutical sources in Persian medicine. Subsequently, we conducted an extensive literature review on the neurological effects of oils or essential oils derived from these herbs. Our search was conducted up to 2023 using pertinent keywords such as Pimpenella anisum L., anise, aniseed, Foeniculum vulgare Miller, fennel, Carum carvi L., caraway, Piper nigrum L., pepper, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, cinnamon, Nigella sativa L., black seed, Vitis vinifera L., grape seed, Olea europaea, olive, Rosa damascene, and rose flower. We specifically focused on studies related to neuroprotection, neurology, massage, and cerebral palsy, and obtained relevant information from data sources such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Our investigation revealed that massage therapy has an impact on CP and that herbal oils possess neurological properties, such as anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects, as well as enhancements in behavior, memory, learning, and cerebral function. Based on the advantageous mechanisms of action of herbal oils, we postulate that massage therapy utilizing herbal oils may offer a promising complementary approach in the management of newborns with CP. We recommend further experimental and clinical studies to establish their effectiveness.

    Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Massage, Herbal oil, Persian medicine, Complementary medicine, Vitis vinifera L, Rosa x damascena Herrm, Pimpinella anisum L
  • Premalatha BR, Suman Basavaraju, Usha Hegde, Jagadeeswari Sudhir, Vidyadevi Chandavarkar, Swetha Pasupuleti Pages 419-425

    Energy medicine (EM), is a type of complementary and alternative medicine, which encompasses a range of practices aimed at promoting holistic well-being through the manipulation of energy fields within the body.  EM has immense potential in delivering valuable support in a wide range of health conditions. It is imperative for healthcare professionals to be aware of EM, its safety and efficacy in the management of various conditions. Despite its growing popularity, EM remains controversial and encounters several barriers to its recognition and acceptance by the medical fraternity. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the concept and practice of EM including its history, various types, mechanism of action, applications, driving factors for its practice, current status and future prospects. Putative types of EM modalities are the focus of this paper. Additionally, we examine the challenges to its widespread recognition and acceptance and discuss the importance of further rigorous scientific research to establish its efficacy and safety and bridge the gap between conventional and energy medicine.

    Keywords: Complementary therapies, Therapeutic touch, Reiki