فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2023
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/03/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
  • Rasoul Rahimzadeh *, Shobeir Jahangiri Pages 1-7
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the comparative study of contrast media for gastrography of the mynah bird. This study was conducted on 12 adult male mynah birds. Using different contrast agents, all the birds were studied five times, with a minimum of two days of the time interval between each study. Radiographic tests were performed 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingesting the contrast agent via using a gavage tract; imaging was performed at a time interval of 30 minutes and continued until the time when the contrast agent reached the cloaca and was excreted. There was a statistically significant difference between the results of digestive system studies using Iodixanol, Iohexol, and barium sulfate in terms of mean scores of the contrast agent’s ability to fill different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, clarity of observations, and observing details of the gastrointestinal tract at all times of radiography (p < 0.05). Iodixanol is less nephrotoxic and is a better contrast agent, however, we do not recommend using Iodixanol and Iohexol diluted by water at a ratio of 1:1.
    Keywords: barium sulfate, Gastrography, Iodixanol, Iohexol, Mynah bird
  • Mahzad Moradi, Soroush Sabiza *, Annahita Rezaie, Masoumeh Ezzati-Givi Pages 8-17
    This paper aims to investigate the effect of topical application of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide combination on experimental full-thickness wound healing in rats. Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomly divided into four groups of 12: Control (C), Zinc oxide (Z), Pentoxifylline (P), and Zinc-Pentoxifylline (ZP). For topical use of pentoxifylline, the ointment was formulated as 5%. All rat were anesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of a combination of xylazine 2% and ketamine 10% and after transfer to the operating table, under aseptic conditions, using a sterile ruler and surgical razor, a 2×2 cm2 skin defect in the back was created. In order to manage the wound, each group received appropriate treatment. In the ZP group, the combination of pentoxifylline and zinc oxide was treated in a ratio of 1:1. On days 7, 14, and 21 after facilitation, a subgroup of each main group was sampled, then the samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. At the end of this period, the highest percentage of the healing, wound closure, and keratinocyte migration and the lowest inflammation belonged to the PZ group. The rate of inflammation and the number of inflammatory cells at the end of the period were lower in the ZP group than Z group and there was a statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, this study showed that wound healing is performed with better speed and quality following topical application of a combination of zinc oxide and pentoxifylline. However, more studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.
    Keywords: Zinc oxide, pentoxifylline, wound healing, Rat
  • Vahid Ganjiani, Nasrollah Ahmadi *, Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Abdolhamid Meimandi-Parizi, Amir Mootabi-Alavi, Mahmoud Hassanpour, Leili Mavalizadeh Pages 18-27
    The present study was conducted to determine the protective influences of Ferulago angulata aqueous extract against testicular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned randomly into four groups: (I) sham group, (II) torsion/detorsion (T/D) group, (III) T/D followed by treatment with F. angulata (200 mg/kg, IP), (IV) intact group with only 200 mg/kg F. angulata. T/D damage was induced by 2 hours of testis rotation 720° followed by 24 hours of reperfusion injury. After reperfusion period, biochemical and hormonal parameters were measured in the serum, epididymal sperms were collected for evaluation of sperm characteristics (count, motility, viability, and abnormal morphology rate), and testes were studied histopathologically. I/R injury was associated with significant reduction in count, viability, and all sperm kinematic parameters (p < 0.05), which could be reversed significantly by F. angulata (p < 0.05) (except for some kinematic parameters). Although the abnormal morphology rate of sperms was numerically higher in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups; the difference was not statistically significant. Histopathological assessments showed that F. angulata could significantly increase the Johnsen’s score, mean seminiferous tubular diameter, and germinal epithelial cell thickness in the treatment group compared to the T/D group (p < 0.05). GPx, SOD, and testosterone were significantly reduced following torsion/detorsion compared to the sham group (p < 0.05); and the reductions were prevented significantly by F. angulata (p < 0.05) (except for SOD). MDA level was significantly increased in the T/D group in comparison to the sham and intact groups (p < 0.05), which F. angulata was not able to reverse peroxidation index. The overall results of the research suggest that F. angulata extract can be a good natural alternative to testicular I/R injury.
    Keywords: Ferulago angulata, Testis, Torsion, Ischemia, reperfusion injury
  • Boshra Elyasi, Mohammad Nasrollahzadeh-Masouleh *, Alireza Jahandideh Pages 28-33
    The aim of this study was conducted to identify the short-term effects of ovariohysterectomy on the heart of immature cats using echocardiography. This longitudinal study was conducted on a sample consisting of 6 immature female DSH cats. After the selection of test items, echocardiography was performed on the cats before the ovariohysterectomy (D0) and ten days (D10), twenty days (D20), and thirty days (D30) after the ovariohysterectomy. Cardiac parameters, including fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), left atrial-to-aortic root diameter ratio (LA/Ao), and left ventricular wall thickness to interventricular septum ratio (LVWD/IVS) was measured. Results indicated that the average EF at D10 (71.83%), D20 (71.00%), and D30 (69.83%) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (77.66%). The average CO at D10 (1.68 l/min), D20 (1.51 l/min), and D30 (1.5 l/min) was significantly reduced compared to D0 (2.05 l/min). However, the average FS at D10 (40.54%), D20 (40.50%), and D30 (39.33%) reduced compared to D0 (45.00%); the reduction was not statistically significant. The average Ao/LA and LVPW/IVS remained unchanged during the study (without noticeable changes). Ovariohysterectomy negatively impacts cardiac function; accordingly, special care and follow-up during sterility are essential for maintaining cardiac health.
    Keywords: Cardiac output, Cat, Ejection fraction, Fractional shortening
  • Foad Sadi * Pages 34-37
    The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices adult Kordi sheep. Twelve healthy adult Kordi sheep were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animals. In such a way that Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured. Images were stored and measured offline. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intraobserver inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Kordi sheep were established. As documented in other species, all sheep PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side and reference values are reported for healthy adult Kordi sheep. PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in sheep. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.
    Keywords: echocardiography, Doppler, Kordi sheep
  • Mehran Roon, Siamak Alizadeh * Pages 38-45
    The purpose of this study was to establish the normal renal artery parameters in German Shepherd dogs. Consequently, the acquired values can be applied to the subsequent clinical research and the interpretation of the findings. Doppler ultrasound was used in this study to assess 24 healthy German shepherd dogs, including 11 female dogs (45.8%) and 13 male dogs (54.2%). The mean age of the dogs was 2.7 years (minimum age of 9 months and maximum age of 15 years) with a standard deviation of 1.07. The Doppler parameters in the renal arteries were evaluated in each case together with their normal values. The mean PSV and EDV in the major renal arteries were 84.07 cm/s and 44.46 cm/s, respectively. Mean PSV, EDV, RI, and AT for intrarenal arteries were 64.81 cm/s, 33.03 cm/s, 0.54 cm/s, and 36.53 m/s, respectively. The findings of the current study represent the typical renal artery parameters in healthy German Shepherd dogs that can be applied to clinical examinations and the interpretation of test results.
    Keywords: Doppler ultrasound, German shepherd dogs, Renal arteries
  • HamidReza Siahkouhi *, MohammadMahdi Molaei, Ehsanollah Sakhaee, Reza Kheirandish, Pourya Mohammadi Pages 46-59

    Due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Scrophularia striata, it is used to heal wounds. Today, hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer is mainly used due to its drug delivery properties and create of suitable conditions for wound healing. In this study, we tried to investigate the effect of hydrogel based on alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract nanoliposomes on wound healing in rat animal models. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine nanoliposome and hydrogel. 126 Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (18 rats/group). The rats were anesthetized and their dorsum shaved, a burn wound was created with a cylindrical copper at 100° C. Rats' wounds were treated with hydrogel Scrophularia striata extract and on the 5th, 10th, and 15th days, histopathological evaluation, macroscopic features and wound healing were evaluated and analyzed in different groups. The structure of nanoliposomes was uniform and the size was 80-110 nm. Also, the size of the hydrogel was 320 nm with nanometric size and spherical morphology. Histopathological evaluation, wound area and wound contraction confirmed that the treatment group had a significant difference from other groups and the effect was almost similar to that of zinc oxide. This study showed that alginate-polyethylene glycol polymer containing Scrophularia striata extract caused wound contraction, and reduced wound area, and can be used for wound healing.

    Keywords: Scrophularia Striata, wound healing, Hydrogel, Alginate, Polyethylene glycol
  • Roham Vali *, Pooya Zibaie Pages 60-65
    Tendons and ligaments in the palmar/plantar aspect of fetlock joints are always exposed to injuries resulting from traumas and diseases of limbs. Ultrasound has wide extensive use in the diagnosis and measurement of equine soft tissues and musculoskeletal injuries in horses. The purpose of the current research is to measure and comparison of the fetlock joint tendons and ligaments dimensions in the front and hind limbs of sound Darehshori horses. This study consisted of ten healthy Darehshori horses whose mean age and height of them were 11.2 ± 3.5 years and 151.6 ± 10.2 cm. After clipping and washing, the area between 4 cm above the proximal sesamoid bones and distal to the level of the proximal sesamoid bones was divided into 2 levels in sagittal and 3 levels in transverse view. Ultrasonography was performed with a linear transducer 12 MHz Frequency on both front and hind limbs in full weight bearing. Measurements of tendons and ligaments such as the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, and suspensory ligament were done in both sagittal and transverse view. Transverse ultrasonography was made to get the measurements such as thickness, width, and cross-sectional area of tendons and ligaments. Echogenicity and fibrillary pattern of tendons and ligaments were assessed in longitudinal images. In the front and hind limbs, the greatest width of digital flexor tendons and suspensory ligament was related to the front joints while the greatest thickness was related to the digital flexor tendons and suspensory ligament in the hind joints. As the results in the present study revealed, no significant differences were found between the amounts of the left and right front and hind limbs of sound Darehshori horses. In conclusion, this study provides thorough, in-depth knowledge of the normal ultrasound measurements of the tendon and ligaments in the fetlock joints.
    Keywords: dimensions, Darehshori horse, Fetlock joint, Tendons, Ligaments, Ultrasonography
  • Vahid Ganjiani, Amin Bigham-Sadegh * Pages 66-69

    A 3.5-year-old mixed breed pet female rabbit with a 2.3 kg weight was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Shiraz University. The main complaint of the owner was abdominal distension. The peculiarity of the present report is that the patient had no mating or parturition antecedent according to its history. Based on diagnostic methods and clinical examination, the presence of an enlarged organ containing fluid material and occupying most of the caudal abdomen led to the provisional diagnosis of pyometra. Exploratory laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. After the abdominal wall incision, the uterus was immediately evident and the uterine wall was over-distended and penetrated, with purulent material free in the abdominal cavity. Next, an ovariohysterectomy was performed and the abdominal incision was closed routinely. Based on a literature review, this is one of the rare reports regarding pyometra in pet rabbits.

    Keywords: Rabbit, pyometra, Ovariohysterectomy
  • Behzad Pourreza, Artin Alizadeh *, Negin Hallajzadeh, Negar Eidi Pages 70-73

    Atresia ani is a developmental defect within the cloacal region, resulting in anal canal closure and abnormal routing of feces. There are four types of atresia ani including congenital anal stenosis (Type I), imperforate anus alone (Type II), imperforate anus with more cranial termination of the rectum as a blind pouch (Type III), Lack of contact between the cranial rectum, and terminal rectum (Type IV). Type II atresia ani is mostly combined with a rectovaginal fistula between the dorsal wall of the vagina and the ventral portion of the rectum. A 6-week-old female Persian cat was presented with anorexia, depression, and voiding of feces through the vulva, diagnosed with Atresia ani type II associated with rectovaginal fistula which was confirmed by radiographic examination with contrast medium. Surgical correction was performed under general anesthesia. The cat was able to control defecation and start to gain weight and no long-term complications were observed.

    Keywords: incontinence, anus, Megacolon, Cat, Congenital
  • Reza Azargoun *, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Asl, Siamak Asri-Rezaei Pages 74-77

    Anophthalmia refers to the most severe ocular congenital malformation that results from inadequate development of the primitive forebrain and is always associated with blindness. The exact etiology of anophthalmia is not well understood; however, heritable and environmental factors may be involved. A 2-month-old Asian Shepherd puppy was presented with the absence of one eye. The puppy was alert, responsive, and had a good body score. The eyelids with eyelashes and palpebral conjunctiva were bilaterally present. However, in the right eye, the palpebral fissure was narrow, and the orbit was shallow without a distinct globe. Further inspection revealed no ocular structures, although the left eye was ophthalmoscopically quite normal. Also, there were no cytologic characteristics of conjunctivitis in either eye. Using the transpalpebral ultrasonography technique, a semi-oval anechoic area without any obvious ocular chambers or structures was observed in the right eye, and finally, unilateral clinical anophthalmia was diagnosed. General physical examination revealed no other malformation. The long-term prognosis is favorable for this pup. However, surgical strategies (e.g., implants and expanders) can be used to improve cosmetic appearance.

    Keywords: Anophthalmos, Dog, Transpalpebral, Ultrasonography
  • Seyed Mehdi Ghamsari, Fereidoon Saberi-Afshar, Alireza Bashiri, Peyman Azizi, Omid Azari * Pages 78-83

    Diaphragmatic hernias are an uncommon cause of abdominal pain in horses. The following case report describes a diaphragmatic hernia in 2 adult horses with signs of acute colic. A six-year-old stallion and a seven-year-old mare were referred to the emergency duty for severe abdominal pain; for a six-month period from late 2021 to early 2022. The horses were subjected to explorative laparotomy, which revealed a migration of the large colon associated with volvulus (in stallion); and small intestine protrusion (in mare) in thoracic space. Necropsy revealed a diaphragmatic chronic rupture (approximately 13 centimeters in diameter) in the left mid-region with the protrusion of the large colon in the thoracic cavity in the male horse; and a diaphragmatic acute rupture (approximately 3 centimeters in diameter) in the left dorsolateral region with the incarceration of jejunum in thoracic cavity in the mare. This case report demonstrated that a diaphragmatic hernia should be considered as a differential diagnosis in equine colic.

    Keywords: horse, Diaphragm, Hernia, Colic
  • Farid Yadollahi, Saeed Azizi *, Ali-Asghar Tehrani Pages 84-92
    The purposes of the present study were to report the relative frequency, to compare skin neoplastic diseases diagnosed in horses, donkeys, and mules in a referral hospital population, and to evaluate the outcome of surgical intervention in the treatment of the skin neoplastic diseases in the domestic equids. Seventy-two domestic equids including 32 horses, 30 mules, and 10 donkeys were included in this retrospective study. Data were obtained from medical sheets. The relative frequency of skin tumors was determined. The abnormal skin neoplastic/hyperplastic masses were removed with a radical surgical excision. The diagnosis was based on signalment, history, gross clinical examination, and confirmed by histopathological examination. The outcomes of surgical intervention were evaluated. The occurrence of skin tumors was higher in males than females and higher in intact males than geldings. Sarcoids were the most common skin tumor of horses and mules. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the second most common skin tumor in horses, whereas, papilloma/fibropapiloma was the second most common skin tumor in mules. Both sarcoids and SCCs were the most common skin tumors in donkeys. The inguinal region was the main anatomic location for the occurrence of skin tumors in males especially in intact, equids. Sarcoids were mainly diagnosed on the skin of the male external genital system in intact horses. In male mules, all diagnosed sarcoids were located on the skin of the external genital system. Histopathological examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis of the skin neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in the equids. The skin of the male external genital system is the main predilection site for the occurrence of skin tumors in domestic equids. It seems that conventional surgery as a practical technique offers a higher rate of success in the treatment of skin tumors in domestic equids.
    Keywords: skin tumors, Surgery, horse, Mule, Donkey