فهرست مطالب

Management Studies - Volume:17 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

Iranian Journal of Management Studies
Volume:17 Issue: 2, Spring 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/12/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
  • Habib Abdolhossein Maregani *, Seyed Mahdi Sharifi, Somayeh Labafi Pages 365-378
    User engagement as one of the main concerns of media organizations has already taken on more significance with social media networks including Facebook updating their visibility algorithms by the level of engagement. This challenges media corporations, especially Iranian media including PressTV, given the nature of the content they create. The present study aimed to identify content factors contributing to boosting user engagement on PressTV’s Facebook page and increasing its organic reach. The researchers analyzed 119 most viewed posts within 12 months (2019-2020) through a thematic analysis. The identified factors were later sent to experts to elicit their opinions about the impact on engaging the audience. Information, identity, novelty, practical use, curiosity, surprise, entertainment, and negative sentiment were the 8 factors boosting user engagement on PressTV’s Facebook page. Unlike similar studies which mainly focus on content format and components, this research highlights content characteristics contributing to user engagement on Facebook.
    Keywords: Social media, user engagement, Content Factors, Facebook, Press TV
  • Elham Ebrahimi, HamidReza Irani *, Mohammad Abbasi, Ali Abedini Pages 379-391

    The use of gamification as a means to engage and retain customers has garnered significant attention in marketing. Despite its widespread usage, little is known about its impact on consumer behavior within online contexts. This paper aims to investigate the influence of gamification on brand equity and desirable consumer behaviors by examining the mediating role of brand engagement. An analytical survey study was conducted, with the statistical population consisting of all customers of Digikala, the most prominent online retail store in Iran. The G-power software was employed to determine the sample size for the partial least square test. Standard questionnaires were employed for data collection, and structural equation modeling (SEM) using Smart PLS software was utilized for data analysis. The findings reveal that gamification significantly impacts brand equity, including brand awareness and loyalty, and desirable consumer behaviors such as word of mouth and resistance to negative information. Moreover, gamification enhanced brand engagement, which mediates its effects on brand equity and desirable consumer behaviors. The incorporation of gamification dimensions, including immersion, achievement, and social interaction, is identified as a promising marketing strategy, and online business managers and marketers should focus on enhancing these dimensions.

    Keywords: gamification, brand equity, Desirable consumer behaviors, Brand Engagement
  • Zahra Aminiroshan, Javad Gholamian, Ahmad Mahmoudi *, Sahar Pirjamadi Pages 393-408
    This study aims to investigate the attention cognitive process while watching sports advertisements in interested and non-interested people using electroencephalogram technology. The research method was semi-experimental and the population included 30 students of Birjand University who were selected randomly as a sample. To collect data, the General Health and Sanchez-Torres Questionnaire (2021) was used. Then to record the brain signal, the 21-channel Electroencephalography Instrument was used. The results revealed a significant difference in attention index (AI) between sports advertising and non-sport advertising. Also, the attention index in people who were interested in sports showed a significant difference compared to those who were not. It can be concluded that sports are a suitable platform for advertising products so that it can create a positive effect through increasing the customers’ attention. The level of interest also in sports may be a persuasive calculation of consideration for publicizing.
    Keywords: Advertising, Attention Index (AI), Brain Waves, Interest in Sport, Sport
  • Ata Harandi *, Payvand Mirzaeian Khamseh Pages 409-424
    The paper explains the role of perceived overqualification in cyberloafing. This research is based on the dates that collected from Iranian oil companies. The aim is to explore the association between perceived overqualification and increased cyberloafing in the organization. This research is descriptive and positivist with an applied design. The data were collected using cross-sectional surveys and questionnaires. The statistical population consisted of Iranian oil industry employees with a minimum of one computer system. The respondents were selected using randomized cluster sampling, and the sample size was calculated using the Cochran formula. Inferential statistic methods and structural equation modeling (SEM) were employed to test the hypothesis and analyze the data. Our results indicate that employees with perceived overqualification show behaviors such as compensation to balance their effort and payments, energy loss, and emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, emotionally exhausted employees have higher cyberloafing. However, organizational commitment could be a partial moderator between perceived overqualification and cyberloafing.
    Keywords: Overqualification, Cyberloafing, emotional exhaustion, Organizational Commitment
  • Morteza Maddah, Majid Mohammad Shafiee * Pages 425-440
    Acculturation is a multidimensional concept and often means paying attention to different cultures. Since in acculturation, one seeks alternative attributes and values, this can affect the consumption of goods by the consumer. Considering the role of consumption of domestic goods on the economic growth and development of the country, it is important to identify the dimensions and components of consumer acculturation and research in this field. Therefore, this study seeks to identify the dimensions and components of consumer acculturation in the consumption of domestic goods and to develop a scale in this regard. The present study has been done by the mixed method. The statistical population of the research in the qualitative stage included experts in the Iranian clothing industry, which due to theoretical saturation, a sample of 20 people was selected by judgment. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population consisted of clothing consumers in Iran, of which 310 were selected by cluster sampling. After interviewing the experts, the thematic analysis method was used to identify the main components. Then, using quantitative methods such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the identified components were classified in the form of dimensions and were verified. In the end, the scale of consumer acculturation in the consumption of domestic goods, including the main dimensions and components was proposed. The main contribution of this paper is developing and validating a multidimensional scale for consumer acculturation in the clothing sector, which has been overlooked in previous research.
    Keywords: Domestic Production, Consumer acculturation, Consumption, mixed method, the clothing industry
  • Hasan Mukhibad *, Ahmad Nurkhin, Santi Susanti, Arim Nasim, Elis Mediawati Pages 441-453
    Equity-based financing (EBF) is a contract that promotes justice, and spirituality, and is aligned with Shariah values. However, EBF in Islamic banks (IB) is lower than in debt-based financing (DBF). This study aims to demonstrate the importance of the characteristics of the board of directors (BOD) and the Shariah Supervisory Board (SSB) in the distribution of EBF. This study examines 14 IBs from 2009 to 2020, yielding 153 bank-years. This study found that the education level of the members of the SSB increased EBF. Independent BOD and the size of the SSB reduced EBF. However, when the sample is divided based on ownership, IB that are owned by state/regional government-owned conventional banks (hereafter SOCB) or private-owned conventional banks (hereafter POCB) produce different research outcomes. In SOCB, the SSB plays a larger role in increasing EBF than it does in POCB.
    Keywords: equity-based financing, shariah supervisory board, Islamic bank risk, debt-based financing
  • Shokooh Mirfakhraei, Neda Abdolvand *, Saeedeh Rajaei Harandi Pages 455-473
    The development of social networks provides numerous venues for customers to share their views, preferences, or experiences with others. Thus, the Referral programs have become the most valuable forms of marketing. Additionally, studies have emphasized the positive impact of referral programs on consumers’ intentions to purchase products or services, which increases the need for considering referral value as part of customer value. Hence, this study analyzed customers’ behavior in social media by extending the RFM model and proposing a new RFMRv model in which Rv is the referral value of customers. First, the customer graph of invitations was used to calculate customers’ referral value. Then, the K-Mean algorithm was used to cluster customers based on the CRISP-DM methodology. Finally, the CLV for each cluster was calculated. The results indicated that the referral-acquired customers are more valuable than other customers and proved that the RFMRv model provides better clustering and valuation.
    Keywords: Customer Behavior Analysis, Referral Value, Clustering, RFMRv Model, Social network
  • Elahe Hosseini *, Zohre Sadat Doaei, Ali Jamadi, Maryam Yazdani Pages 475-490
    The workplace is a dynamic, yet stressful environment. The concept of resilience should be highlighted because work-related challenges might affect people’s persistence. Overall, employees’ resilience can lead to change management, higher motivation, and reduced burnout. The present study aims to investigate the association between resilience and job engagement with regard to burnout and psychological empowerment. For this purpose, the researchers employed a quantitative design in digital start-ups. The study population entails 1300 employees; then based on Morgan’s table, 297 sample employees were selected for this study. The target Iranian start-ups were evaluated during the spring of 2022. The data were collected using a 25-item questionnaire, which was scored based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eventually, the data were analyzed using PLS2 software. The findings showed that psychological empowerment and resilience have a significantly positive impact on job engagement. Moreover, psychological empowerment and job burnout mediate the relationship between resilience and job engagement. The results also demonstrated that digital start-ups increased their employees’ resilience through empowerment and training. In addition, creating and strengthening unique characteristics in employees can improve job engagement. Given that the factors of burnout are identified, it is possible to reduce the stress in the work environment and improve the level and quality of services to employees. Besides, promoting resilience will lead to better life management, enhanced interactions, and self-esteem, as well as a purposeful life. Consequently, organizations and employers will also benefit from such a personal improvement among their workforce.
    Keywords: Job engagement, Job Burnout, Psychological Empowerment, Knowledge-based Companies, resilience
  • Zeinab Mondalizadeh * Pages 491-506
    The present study aims to identify startup opportunities in the sports industry by developing a conceptual framework for the sports ecosystem in Iran. Despite increased interest by researchers in sports startup opportunities, few studies have examined these opportunities based on the sports ecosystem framework. The research approach was qualitative, with participants consisting of professors, experts in sports sciences, and entrepreneurs active in sports startups. Data was collected using review articles and Delphi techniques. The findings indicated that stakeholders, infrastructure, and processes such as support processes, policies, planning, and institutional factors, including the development of the public, championships, and professional and educational sports, could effectively achieve developmental goals. Hence, the challenges of each of these sectors can provide opportunities for developing sports startups. Therefore, recognizing sports startup opportunities can pave the way for investing and creating entrepreneurial potential in sports and make the sports economy more dynamic.
    Keywords: Sports ecosystem, Startup, Stakeholders, Institutional Infrastructure, Processes
  • Mina Zarinpour, Gholamreza Mansourfar *, Alireza Zarei Pages 507-520
    This research investigates how corporate social responsibility (CSR) affects the connection between accounting conservatism and investment efficiency. The study focuses on a sample of 530 firms that are listed in the United States and covers the period from 2015 to 2019. We contribute to the literature by incorporating ESG performance scores to measure CSR, and by investigating the moderating effect of CSR on the conservatism-investment efficiency relationship. Our results show that environmental and governance metrics positively influence investment efficiency, while social performance indicators have a negative association. Moreover, the environmental performance indicator strengthens the relationship between conservative accounting and investment efficiency, while the governance indicator weakens this association. Overall, our study provides new insights into the interplay between conservative accounting, investment efficiency, and CSR and sheds light on the importance of considering CSR in investment decision-making.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, ESG, Accounting Conservatism, Investment Efficiency
  • Mohammad Sadegh Sharifirad * Pages 521-538
    Although previous research has shown that supervisor incivility reduces commitment, this study endeavors to address some research gaps regarding 1) the boundary condition of age in the relationship between supervisor incivility and affective commitment and 2) the mediation of two age-related coping strategies (i.e., distraction and reappraisal) by which age can moderate incivility-commitment relationship 3) the relationship between age and the coping strategies. Drawing on socio-emotional selectivity theory, it is argued that, the association between supervisor incivility and commitment is weaker when employees are older. Additionally, it was proposed that the moderating impact of age is mediated by two coping strategies of reappraisal and distraction in a way that older employees, relative to younger employees, would demonstrate an increased tendency for distraction over reappraisal after experiencing incivility. The final sample comprised 287 employees in diverse businesses. The results revealed that higher supervisor incivility was significantly associated with less commitment. Confirming the moderating role of age, this research also showed that the older the employees are, the more distraction (not reappraisal) is used. These results have implications for managers and future researchers.
    Keywords: workplace incivility, Organizational Commitment, reappraisal, distraction, age
  • Stella Mbah * Pages 539-551
    A sub-sectoral comparative analysis of the manufacturing sector provides more valuable insights into individual firm peculiarities regarding what determines their performance. This has informed the need to embark on this study to investigate if the effect of the determinants of athletic performance varies across manufacturing sub-sectors in Nigeria. Five sub-sectors out of the ten manufacturing sub-sectors quoted in the Nigeria Stock Exchange market from 1999 to 2020 were analyzed using the panel autoregressive distributed lag (P-ARDL) estimating technique. It was found that the determinants that accounted for firms' performance varied among the five manufacturing sub-sectors. The study, therefore, recommends that the government should consider the peculiarity of the different sub-sectors when formulating industrial policies because it will impact them differently. The follow-up and support should be specific to each sub-sector for the overall achievement of improved performance.
    Keywords: Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Food, Beverages, Tobacco, Paper Product, Cement, Non-Metallic
  • Mohsen Dibaei Saber *, Davoud Tahmasebzadeh Sheikhlar Pages 553-565
    The present study aimed to develop and validate a curriculum framework based on crisis management. Research method was mixed and in qualitative part was used Grinded theory and in the quantitative part, descriptive survey. Sampling was done in a purposeful way until the theoretical saturation of the data with 15 experts. The data collection tool in the qualitative section was semi-structured in-depth interview and in the quantitative section, researcher-made questionnaire. For the validity of the instruments, the reliability and content validity technique was used, and for the reliability, the reliability test and Cronbach's alpha were used. To analyze the data in the qualitative part, content analysis was used using open and axial coding, and in the quantitative part, Friedman's test and one-sample t-test and SPSS software. The results showed that the developed curriculum framework is favorable in terms of usefulness and implementation capability.
    Keywords: Framework, Curriculum, Crisis Management
  • Hemaloshinee Vasudevan *, Diego Rafael Cabrera Moya, Cheok Mui Yee, Cheryl Withaneac, Ravi Nagarathanam, Hamza Muhammad Ammer Pages 567-583
    The objective is to enhance an understanding of how the KASH model can be used as a training tool to help managers achieve their goals of increasing individual commitment and organizational effectiveness. This study employed a qualitative method using a semi-structured interview to examine the application of the KASH model in Malaysia’s automotive industry. Thus, the population of this study consists of employees, trainers, and training managers from various departments in Malaysia's automotive industry, with a population of approximately 709,000 predicted in 2023. The KASH model is a strategy and degree of innovation that assesses a person's competence to do an individual activity with various elements or characteristics that can be categorized might make a little more sense as their level of professional commitment by constructing an efficient training program. The KASH model should be recommended and implemented in all industries to foster employee commitment to their professions.
    Keywords: KASH Model, Training Strategy, qualitative approach, Organizational effectiveness
  • Vajihe Hoshyar * Pages 585-601

    Purpose of study:

     The present study explored the mediating role of ethical and service delivery climate in the effect of customer-oriented constructive deviation on organizational outcomes. The research population was the employees of Iran insurance companies (the agencies in Mashhad). As the findings showed, valuable solutions can be offered. The data were non-randomly collected from 153 pairs of employee-customers of Iran insurance companies in Mashhad, Iran.


    The data collection instrument was a standard questionnaire developed by Gong et al. (2020). Cronbach's alpha was used to substantiate the reliability of the questionnaire, and a confirmatory factor analysis was run for validation. For data analysis, structural equation modeling was used in smart please.


    The statistical findings showed that customer-oriented constructive deviation directly and indirectly affected employee and customer loyalty. The moderating role of service delivery climate in the relationship between customer-oriented productive deviation and customer gratitude was confirmed. Moreover, the moderating role of ethical climate in the relationship between customer-oriented productive deviation and customer gratitude was confirmed. However, the service delivery and ethical climate did not moderate the relationship between customer-oriented constructive deviation and employee guilt.


    Although some employees’ behaviors are against the rules, they can serve good intentions and benefit the organization. Probably, the measures taken by organizations today are in the customers’ benefit and lead to customer satisfaction and loyalty, contributing to the organization's effective performance.

    Keywords: Customer-oriented constructive deviation, service climate, Ethical Climate, organizational outcomes
  • Swati Watts *, Nitin Watts Pages 603-624
    Indian Commercial banks have been operating in a fluid and dynamic environment for the past decade. The research explores in examining the lacking areas of Indian banks, from customer's perceptions, contributing to adopting the innovative strategic model in the banking sector. The model poses changes in product innovation, process innovations of bank operations, and technological innovations, using a three-phase suggestive strategic model. This could be accomplished as a future strategy for all Indian banks, to achieve overall performance goals, since it enhances profitability, competition, efficiency, and productivity. The inferences, delineate the necessity of the Indian banking sector, to go for a global innovative strategic model for all Banks, to promote growth and benefits to customers. The Innovation Strategy that has been recommended in the study would be a support to Indian banks in creating global brands.
    Keywords: Innovation, Strategy, Banking, Goals, technology, Profitability, global strategy
  • Tayebeh Abdoli Mohamadabadi *, Mahmood Ahmadpour Daryani, Asef Karimi, Zohreh Amiri Sardari Pages 625-638

    Resource limitation has always been an issue discussed in different fields of science. By using dynamic capabilities, companies can respond to environmental fluctuations despite their limited resources. This study aims to understand the development of dynamic capabilities in new ventures. The methodology is a qualitative multiple-case study analysis. It draws on in-depth interviews with 15 new ventures in the field of IT selected using purposive sampling. The results identified four critical factors for the development of dynamic capabilities in new ventures, which are the antecedents of dynamic capability development: characteristics of the management team, resources, and capabilities of the firm, strategic orientations, and the environment. These improve the performance of the firm through radicalness. The results provide valuable insights for managers and researchers on creating and developing dynamic capabilities in new ventures.

    Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, Dynamic Capability Development, IT Businesses, new ventures
  • Maryam Rahmaty * Pages 639-651
    In this paper, a model of a two-level manufacturer-retailer supply chain (TLMRSC) under uncertainty in information sharing (IS)/not sharing information (NIS) was developed. The manufacturer serves as the leader and determines the wholesale price and quality standards, while the retailer serves as the follower and decides the retail price and service level. In this case, there will be a difference between the profit from IS and NIS. According to the results based on PSSCA, the retailer first establishes the retail price before deciding on the service level in line with that price in the NIS. Depending on the selections provided by the retailer, the manufacturer sets the wholesale price and quality standard. The manufacturer obtains market information from the retailer, and the retailer receives manufacturer information on the quality standard. This makes it clear that the leader and retailer have raised the selling price while reducing the service level.
    Keywords: information sharing, Two-Level Manufacturer-Retailer, PSSCA, Uncertainty
  • Sina Rashvand Falari, Kimars Fathi Hafshjani *, MohammadAli Afshar Kazemi Pages 653-668

    In recent decades, the integrated optimization approach of information-based logistics systems has been one of the most important aspects of optimization in supply chain management. This approach deals with the simultaneous investigation of dependencies between facility location, allocation of suppliers/customers to facilities, the structure of transportation routes, planning, and inventory control. One of the most critical issues related to logistics is location routing. Therefore, in this research, a multi-objective mathematical model for locating and routing multiple perishable goods is presented, considering the objectives of minimizing logistics costs and transportation costs, minimizing product distribution time among customers, and maximizing customer service. Among the most critical limitations considered are the capacities of suppliers, vehicles, and producers and the soft time window of product distribution. Due to the uncertainty in the number of customers' orders for product delivery in the supply chain and the large volume of big data, the queue model based on M/M/C/K was introduced in the fuzzy conditions of customer demand. Finally, the mathematical model was optimized and analyzed with MOSA and MOKA. The analysis results of two meta-heuristic algorithms in the studied problem showed that the MOSA has better efficiency.

    Keywords: Smart Location-Routing, perishable goods, Queuing theory, Meta-heuristic algorithm, big data analysis
  • Sara Irani, Meisam Modarresi *, Alireza Moghaddam Pages 669-684
    This research aims to identify the motivation of lifestyle entrepreneurs in Iran due to the fact that many opportunities in these areas have been used and exploited by entrepreneurs in Iran. This research has been done based on these opportunities and hopes for the prosperity of this type of entrepreneurship in Iran. This qualitative research was conducted in 2022. Due to the nature of qualitative research, this research used a purposeful sampling strategy and continued until reaching data saturation (13 individuals). Data were collected through in-depth interviews, and the motivations for starting a business were discussed indirectly. The main result of this research is to identify the motivation of lifestyle entrepreneurs in Iran. Based on the theory of Ryan and Deci (2000), the motivations of lifestyle entrepreneurs were divided into two categories: Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivations: creating a business activity aligned with interests, following a dream, needing independence, gaining social status, and using individual capacities. Extrinsic motivations: social orientation, work-life balance, dissatisfaction with the previous job, and financial concerns. It should be noted that no such research has been conducted in Iran.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Lifestyle entrepreneurship, Lifestyle Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurs Motivation, Iran