فهرست مطالب

کودکان استثنایی - سال هفتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 25، پاییز 1386)
  • سال هفتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 25، پاییز 1386)
  • 116 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 15,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1386/09/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • نرگس ادیب سرشکی*، معصومه پورمحمدرضای تجریشی، سیدمحمود میرزمانی بافقی صفحات 247-264
  • حجت الله راغب * صفحات 265-286
    هدف
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی ویژگیهای روان سنجی سیاهه ارزیابی آمادگی تحصیلی کودکان پیش دبستانی در حیطه رویکرد به یادگیری برای دانش آموزان پیش دبستانی دختر و پسر عادی و کم توان ذهنی اجرا شد.
    روش
    نمونه مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش تعداد 1193 دانش آموز پیش دبستانی (1022 دانش آموز عادی و 171 دانش آموز کم توان ذهنی) دختر و پسر سازمانهای آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران، شهرستانهای تهران، آذربایجان شرقی، اردبیل، گیلان، مازندران، مرکزی، همدان و سمنان بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای تصادفی انتخاب و سیاهه مذکور در مورد آنها تکمیل شد. برای تحلیل سوالها و برآورد ویژگیهای روان سنجی مولفه های پرسشنامه، از مدل کلاسیک آزمون استفاده شد. همسانی درونی مقیاسها با استفاده از فرمول آلفای کرونباخ برآورد شد.
    یافته ها
    ضرایب همسانی درونی مولفه های پرسشنامه به ترتیب برای مولفه کنجکاوی و علاقه 0.95، مولفه پایداری و توجه 0.95، مولفه خلاقیت و نوآوری 0.96، تعمق و تفسیر 0.95 و کل پرسشنامه 0.98 است. در خصوص روایی نیز تحلیلهای مختلفی صورت گرفت از جمله این تحلیلها می توان به تمایزگذاری گروهی اشاره کرد. تفاوت بین میانگین نمرات کودکان عادی و گروه کودکان کم توان ذهنی پیش دبستانی در همه مولفه ها و کل پرسشنامه در سطح 0.001 معنی دار بود.
    نتیجه گیری
    به طور کلی یافته های حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که مولفه ها و کل پرسشنامه، از اعتبار و روایی مطلوب و بالایی برخوردارند و با اطمینان می توان از آنها برای سنجش عملکرد کودکان پیش دبستانی در حیطه رویکردها به یادگیری استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: آمادگي تحصيلي، پيش دبستاني، اعتبار، روايي، روان سنجي
  • اصغر مینایی * صفحات 287-298
    هدف
    پژوهش حاضر، ساختار عاملی مقیاس رفتار انطباقی بزرگسالان (ABS-RC: 2) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
    روش
    مطالعه حاضر یک تحلیل ثانویه است که با بهره گیری از داده های حاصل از نمونه هنجاری ABS-RC: 2 صورت گرفت. نمونه هنجاری ABS-RC: 2 شامل 4103 فرد بزرگسال (18 سال به بالا) مبتلا به ناتوانیهای رشدی است که در اجتماعات محلی مانند: محیط خانواده، یا محیطهایی با جمعیت کمتر از 16 نفر و یا در مراکز نگهداری شبانه روزی زندگی می کردند. ماتریس همبستگی 18 حیطه مورد سنجش این مقیاس از نی هیرا، للاند و لمبرت (1993، ص 40) اقتباس شد.
    یافته ها
    نتایج حاصل از تحلیل جداگانه و مرکب حیطه های ABS-RC: 2، نشان داد که حیطه های مقیاس رفتار انطباقی بزرگسالان بر روی دو مولفه (عامل) عمده با نام استقلال شخصی و رفتار اجتماعی بار می شوند.
    نتیجه گیری
    در تفسیر نمرات ABS-RC: 2 به جای 5 عامل و 18 حیطه که مولفان مقیاس مطرح کرده اند، باید بر دو مولفه مفهومی عمده، یعنی استقلال شخصی و رفتار اجتماعی تمرکز شود.
    کلیدواژگان: مقیاس رفتار انطباقی، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، ساختار عاملی، تحلیل ثانویه
  • محمد احمدپناه *، پراکاش پاکادانایا صفحات 337-352
  • صفحه 353
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  • Narges Adibsereshki*, Masoumeh Pour Mohammad Rezay Tajrish, Seyed, Mahmoud Mirzamani Bafghi Pages 247-264
    Objective
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a preparatory program on the acceptance of students with physical disability by their peers in inclusive and normal schools in Tehran.
    Method
    435 subjects were selected randomly from 3rd to 5th grades in inclusive and normal schools and were placed into experimental and control groups by random. Acceptance Scale (form 2) developed by Voeltz (1980) was utilized to as the research instrument.
    Results
    The acceptance of two groups were collected before and after the treatment (applying preparing program) and the data were analyzed by t-test for independent groups and two-way ANOVA. The results showed that acceptance of experimental group in both inclusive and normal schools was enhanced. Regarding to the school type, no significant difference was observed between experimental groups.
    Conclusion
    Preparatory programs can be helpful to increase students acceptance toward students with physical disabilities.
    Keywords: Students with physical disability, acceptance, inclusive, normal schools
  • Hojjat A. Ragheb* Pages 265-286
    Objective
    This study investigates the psychometrics of school readiness checklist for preschool children in approaches to learning domain.
    Method
    The checklist was run on a sample of 1193 preschool girls and boys (1022 normal and 171 with mental retardation) who had been recruited on the basis of random cluster sampling. Then the checklist administered for them.
    Results
    Reliability coefficients by internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) of subtests are 0.96, 0.95, 0.95, 0.96, 0.95 respectively for first to fifth subtest. In the differential validity there is meaningful differences between mean marks for normal and mental retarded preschool students (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The results showed that reliability and validity of all subtests were high and they could be used to assess achievement readiness of preschool children in approaches to learning domain.
    Keywords: School readiness, Preschool, Reliability, Validity, Psychometrics
  • Asghar Minaei* Pages 287-298
    Objective
    This study examined factor structure of AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community: Second Edition (ABS-RC: 2).
    Method
    The present study is a secondary analysis which conducted by using the ABS-RC: 2 normative sample of 4103 examinees above 18 years old with developmental disabilities residing in the community (e.g., at home with parents, in community– based residence of 16 or less) or in residential facilities. The correlation matrix for the 18 domains of ABS-RC: 2 obtained from Nihira, Leland, and Lambert (1993, p. 40).
    Results
    The results from combined and separate analyses of domains of ABSRC: 2 showed that the domains of the scale loads on two major components/factors (personal independence and social behavior).
    Conclusion
    Interpretation of the ABS-RC: 2 scores should focus on its two major conceptual components (personal independence and social behavior) rather than the five factors and 18 domains endorsed by its authors.
    Keywords: Adaptive Behavior Scale, exploratory factor analysis, factor structure, secondary analysis
  • Bagher Ghobari Bonab*, Masoud Hejazi Pages 299-316
    Objective
    The aim of current investigation was studying the relationship among assertiveness, self- esteem, and academic achievement in gifted and regular school students. Comparing regular school students and gifted students in these variables also were studied.
    Method
    In this study expos facto (causal-comparative) design was utilized. sixty gifted students (30 girls, and 30 boys) and sixty regular school students (30 girls, and 30 boys) were randomly selected. Assertiveness Scale of Gambrille and Richey, Self–esteem inventory of Coopersmith and the students Grade point average in the last year were used.
    Results
    Analysis of data with utilization of MANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Multiple Regression analysis showed that gifted Students were superior in all three measures of assertiveness, self–esteem, and academic achievement. However, there were no difference in terms of these variables in males and females. There was a positive relationship among the three variables in regular school students. In gifted students, a positive significant correlation was observed only between assertiveness and self– esteem. In addition, assertiveness and self–esteem significantly predicted academic achievements of regular school students.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study have been discussed and suggestions for future studies have been given.
    Keywords: Assertiveness, self –esteem, academic achievement, gifted, regular school students
  • Ameneh Shahaeian*, Farideh Yousefi Pages 317-336
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between selfactualization (SA), life satisfaction (LS), and need for cognition (NC), and to study the effects of gender and class on these factors.
    Method
    512 students recruited from special middle schools for talented students in Shiraz. Students completed the questionnaires in their regular classes. Scales used in current study were the Ahvaz Self Actualization Inventory (ASAI), Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), and Need for Cognition Scale (NCS).
    Results
    Pearson correlation analysis manifested that there exists significant relationships between SA, LS, and NC. Furthermore, MANOVA analysis revealed that the effect of class on self actualization and life satisfaction was significant. Also the effect of sex and the interaction effect of class and sex were not significant.
    Conclusion
    This study helps to get a better understanding on self-actualization and need for cognition among students of special middle schools for talented students.
    Keywords: Self, actualization, life, satisfaction, need for cognition, talented students
  • Mohammad Ahmad Panah*, Parakash Pakadannaya Pages 337-352
    Objective
    This study reviewed researches recently conducted on Dyslexia.
    Method
    Studies were reviewed that had investigated the different dimensions of dyslexia.
    Results
    These studies suggest that dyslexia is a specific learning disorder characterizing: deficits in word decoding, weak ability in fluency, spelling and representation. Unlike language which has simultaneous growth and evolution, and it is achieved in the developmental process, reading skills are acquired in higher ages and through educational interference. In this complex cognitive process, different skills involve simultaneously like: conception and discrimination of letters and sounds, correspondence between letter and sounds, labeling and depicting them, comprehension of groups of words in a sentence form, memory, movement, audiovisual factors which are all component parts of this process. Although many researchers have linked this disorder to low phonological awareness, and its related factors, studies have been done for discovering the neurons and biological origins of the disorder and they have led to remarkable results. This paper endeavors to study researches and results in each case by taking in to account different dimensions of dyslexia.
    Conclusion
    Dyslexia has become a fertile ground for interdisciplinary studies and a model for elucidating biological, educational and socio-cultural factors of brain/cognition interactions.
    Keywords: Dyslexia, reading skills, phonological awareness, decoding, fluency