فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 43 (پاییز 1389)
  • پیاپی 43 (پاییز 1389)
  • 104 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 15,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1389/08/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سید حسین بحرینی، حسین خسروی صفحه 5
    چاقی مفرط و مشکلات ناشی از آن، تحت تاثیر زندگی بی تحرک مکانیکی، روز به روز در حال افزایش است. تحقیقات گسترده در کشورهای غربی نشان دهنده تاثیر فرم شهر بر میزان فعالیت فیزیکی و در نتیجه سلامت و آمادگی جسمانی است. علی رغم اینکه وضعیت چاقی و کم تحرکی در ایران چندان وضعیت بهتری نسبت به کشورهای غربی ندارد، هیچ تحقیقی در رابطه با تاثیر فرم محیط ساخته شده بر میزان سلامت در ایران صورت نگرفته و معیارهای کالبدی-غضایی موثر استخراج نشده است. شهرجدید هشتگرد باتوجه به همگن بودن بافت اجتماعی-اقتصادی و همچنین تفاوت شایان در فرم کالبدی محلات مختلف شهر، محمل مناسبی برای هدف تحقیق شناسایی شد. لذا در این تحقیق ابتدا 9 خوشه مسکونی در قسمت های مختلف هشتگرد انتخاب شد تا بقیه اطلاعات اجتماعی-اقتصادی، سلامت، آمادگی جسمانی و نهایتا میزان فعالیت فیزیکی هفتگی خانواده ها در چارچوب آن جمع آوری شود. مطالعه بصورت پیمایشی و نمونه گیری بصورت خوشه ایتصادفی صورت گرفت. پس از بررسی همپیوندی بین معیارهای محیطی و میزان آمادگی جسمانی و فعالیت فیزیکی خانواده ها(بتفکیک جنسیت) در خوشه های 9 گانه، این نتیجه منتج شد که فاصله خانه تا محل کار و مراکز خرید بیشترین تاثیر را بر روی میزان پیاده روی خانواده ها دارد. دیگر معیارهای موثر شامل امنیت، تنوع استفاده کنندگان فضا و تنوع فعالیت ها در فضا است.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت، فعالیت فیزیکی، پیاده روی، معیارهای فضایی کالبدی، طراحی شهری، شهر جدید هشتگرد
  • ایرج اسدی، اسفندیار زبردست صفحه 17
    تا پیش از آغاز قرن بیستم استفاده از دو مفهوم شهر و روستا و در معدودی موارد،کلان شهر می توانست برای تشریح اشکال توسعه فضایی و سکونتی موجود آن زمان کافی باشد.اما توسعه و گسترش شهر نشینی قرن بیستمی موجب شکل گیری پدیده های فضایی کلانی در گستره سرزمینی شد که پیشتر وجود نداشتند. از ابتدای قرن بیستم تاکنون تلاش های زیادی در زمینه مفهوم سازی های مرتبط با این پدیده های نوظهور شکل گرفته اند که در برخی مواقع در اثر تعدد و کثرت این مفاهیم نوعی اغتشاش در تعاریف و یافتن مصادیق آنها بین مخاطبان این مفاهیم به وجود می آید.مقاله حاضر بعد از بررسی دوازده مفهوم پر استفاده مرتبط با منطقه شهر بنیاد آنها را در سه دسته مفاهیم الف)مفاهیم ناظر بر ابر شهر مرکزی ساخته شده، ب) مفاهیم ناظر بر یک شهر منطقه منسجم و ج) مفاهیم ناظر بر چند شهر منطقه مستقل همجوار دسته بندی می کند که بر حسب معیار پیوستگی کالبدی و شدت همبستگی عملکردی و نیز مقیاس فضایی از همدیگر متمایز می شوند. در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا علاوه بر ارائه مشخصه های تمایز بخش مفاهیم مختلف مناطق شهر-بنیاد، نوعی تبارشناسی از مفاهیم نیز ارائه گردد تا از این ره، درک جامع تری از موضوع به دست آید.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، منظومه شهری، شهر منطقه، منطقه کلان شهری، مجموعه شهری
  • فرآیند طراحی معماری، تعامل میان طراح و بهره بردار / مدل یابی مشارکت در طراحی مسکن های شخصی ساز
    مهران علی الحسابی، مهندس مهرداد یوسف زمانی صفحه 31
    به موازات شکل گیری جوامع انسانی، پدیده مشارکت در جهت تقویت روابط اجتماعی متناسب با تنوع نگرش و مکاتب ظهور یافته است که با رشد نهضت های انسان شناختی مشارکت بهره برداران سرلوحه طراحان معماری قرار گرفته و یکی از عوامل مهم در پایداری اجتماعی گردیده است. این پژوهش با معرفی زمینه ها و افق های مشارکت و دیرینه این پدیده درطراحی مسکن، سعی در معطوف داشتن توجهات دست اندرکاران تولید مسکن به بهره گیری از پتانسیل های اجتماعی این مقوله داشته تا شناخت مناسبی برای انتخاب رویکرد منطقی طراحی، در جلب مشارکت فکری قطب های طراحی مسکن بدست آید. از دیگر اهداف، سوق سطح مشارکت بهره بردار از توجه نیازهای فیزیولوژیکی، به خود یابی، بوسیله طراح است که در این راستا، دسته بندی نیازهای انسانی و نوع مشارکت متناسب با آن، محدودیت ها و دامنه های دخالت طراح و بهره بردار، باز تعریف مقولات طراحی مشارکتی، از مراتب تحقیق می باشد. سپس با بهره گیری از مولفه ها و اهداف در برگیرنده آنها، ابزار نظر سنجی طراحی و به سنجش گذاشته می شود. در خاتمه علاوه بر کسب عوامل اصلی و تحلیل فرضیه ها، به مدلی در برگیرنده روابط میان عوامل فرآیند طراحی مشارکتی دست می یابیم. مطالعه بر گرفته از بررسی های توصیفی -استنتاجی، کتابخانه ای، مصاحبه، سنجش میدانی و تحلیل آماری آنها می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت، قطب های طراحی، مسکن گزینی، قیود طراحی مشارکتی، جدول هدف محتوی و مدل یابی
  • سیدمهدی میرهاشمی، سیدمحمدهادی شاپوریان، زهرا قیابکلو صفحه 43
    از کل انرژی مصرفی کشور، حدود40% آن صرف سرمایش و گرمایش ساختمان ها می شود که یک سوم اتلاف حرارتی از طریق پنجره ها صورت می پذیرد. از آنجایی که بسیاری از ساختمان های موجود مطابق با استانداردهای مصرف انرژی ساخته نشده و به ناچار برای ایجاد شرایط آسایش حرارتی مجبور به مصرف انرژی بیش از حد هستند، بنابراین موجب به هدر دادن ذخایر انرژی شده و با واقعی شدن تعرفه حامل های انرژی، بالا رفتن هزینه ها را نیز سبب می شوند. پنجره ها عناصری از بنا هستند که نور، حرارت و زیبایی مناظر را به درون دعوت می کنند. پنجره ها همچنین بزرگترین عناصر اتلاف حرارت نیز به شمار می روند. در ساختمان های موجود، راه های پیش گیری، تعویض و یا بهبود کارایی پنجره ها است. عدم وجود راهکار مناسب جهت بهینه سازی بازشوها و جدار های نورگذر ساختمان های موجود یکی از نقاط ضعف فرایند بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی در ساختمان به شمار می رود. مقاله حاضر تلاشی برای ارایه راهکاری ساده و اجرایی برای بهینه سازی درها و پنجره های موجود در ساختمان با حداقل هزینه است. این روش شامل افزودن شیشه دوم به همراه پروفیل های پوشاننده می باشد. فرایند اجرای آن نیازمند تجهیزات پیچیده و آموزش متخصصان نبوده، همچنین موجب اتلاف مصالح اولیه پنجره نمی شود. این روش در نهایت باعث کاهش اتلاف انرژی و افزایش کیفیت آسایش فضای داخلی می شود. نتایج مدل سازی رایانه ای میزان کاهش ضریب انتقال حرارت (سطحی) حاصل از این روش را 37% نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: بهینه سازی مصرف انرژی، بهینه سازی پنجره، کاهش اتلاف انرژی، اصلاح پنجره های تک جداره
  • امید ریسمانچیان، سایمون بل صفحه 49
    این مقاله به شناخت کاربردی روش «چیدمان فضا» در مطالعه پیکره بندی و ساختار فضایی شهر می پردازد. در این راستا نظریه «پیکره بندی در معماری» و نیز «حرکت طبیعی» که به روش چیدمان فضا و اهمیت تاثیر پیکره بندی فضایی بر روابط اجتماعی-اقتصادی در معماری و شهرسازی می پردازد مطرح شده اند. این روش تکنیکی برای تحلیل کمی عوامل کیفی شهر می باشد. این نظریه توسط هیلیر و هانسون در سال 1984 میلادی در لندن پایه ریزی شد و اساس آن بر تحقیق در نحوه ارتباط بین فرم های اجتماعی و فضایی می باشد. این نظریه بر این باور است که فضا هسته اولیه و اصلی در چگونگی رخ دادهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی می باشد. در این زمینه مطالعات مختلفی برروی شهرهای مختلف ایران نیز انجام شده است که بسیاری از آنها توسط ایرانیان مقیم خارج صورت گرفته است. این روش از نظر تکنیکی درحال رشد روزافزون می باشد که ضرورت پرداختن به آن را روشنتر می کند. در این مقاله و در راستای معرفی هرچه بیشتر این روش عناصر زیربنایی آن معرفی شده و سپس یک نمونه از کاربرد این روش و نقشه ها و مقادیر بدست آمده از قبیل میزان همپیوندی در درک ساختار شهر تهران ارائه می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: پیکره بندی فضایی، حرکت طبیعی، چیدمان فضا، همپیوندی، ساختار فضایی، تهران
  • سیدهاشم حسینی صفحه 57
    خطه آذربایجان به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین مناطق سرزمین ایران و همچنین خاستگاه صفویان و مذهب تشیع، نقش مهمی در توسعه و تکامل سنت مقبره سازی اسلامی داشته است. به نظر می رسد طی دوران ایلخانی در این منطقه، سبک خاصی از معماری تدفینی در قالب مقابر برجی شکل تکوین یافته است که مبانی آن ریشه در تصوف اسلامی بخصوص مکتب شیخ زاهد گیلانی و شیخ صفی الدین اردبیلی از عرفای نامی قرون هفتم و هشتم ه ق دارد. از مهمترین نمونه های برجای مانده این سبک می توان به مقبره شیخ صفی الدین در شهر اردبیل، مقبره منسوب به شیخ حیدر در مشکین شهر و مقبره بردع توربه سی در جمهوری آذربایجان اشاره کرد که به لحاظ ویژگی های طراحی و تزیینی از شباهت ها و ویژگی های خاصی برخوردارند. تحقیق کنونی به بررسی و تحلیل ویژگی های معماری و تزیینی این مقابر پرداخته و سعی دارد با تعیین تاریخچه زمانی ظهور این فرم از معماری در منطقه آذربایجان بر اساس بررسی های باستان شناختی، به ابعاد مختلف سبک مزبور دست یابد. بنابر یافته های تحقیق، از مهمترین مصادیق این سبک می توان به شیوه خاص تزیین جداره بیرونی مقابر بصورت کتیبه بنایی الله به عنوان ذکر افضل و مداوم متصوفه و نیز شیوه طراحی پلان اشاره نمود که در مقاله به تفصیل مورد بحث قرار گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری اسلامی، مقابر برجی شکل، تصوف اسلامی، دوران ایلخانی، آذربایجان
  • مسعود ناری قمی صفحه 69
    نگاه مفهومی به موضوع «درونگرایی»، به عنوان یکی از شاخص ترین ویژگی های مطرح شده در معماری های منتسب به اسلام، مساله اصلی این مقاله است که پس از ارایه تحلیل های موجود از موضوع درونگرایی و نقد مختصر آنها، با تمرکز بر توپولوژی رابطه شهر و فضای معماری، به تبیین این مفهوم پرداخته شود. در این راستا، ابتدا مدلی از انسان شناسی اسلام و سپس با تکیه بر این مدل، عناصر محیطی انسان ساخت که در منابع اصلی اسلامی (آیات قرآن و روایات)، مورد اشاره است، شناسایی و معرفی می شود. آنگاه موضوع اصلی، مقاله مفهوم «درون» و «بیرون» مطرح می شود، به این ترتیب که: پنج موضوع موثر در ایجاد معنای «درون» از یک فضا یعنی: محصوریت، ضوابط دخول، حوزه خلوت، دوام حضور در قلمرو و تفکیک جنسیتی، در چهار عنصر کالبدی مورد تاکید در منابع اسلامی (بیت، مسجد، سوق و سبیل)، بررسی می گردد؛ این بررسی ها به صورت تطبیقی با ادبیات معناشناسی روابط انسان محیط، پی گرفته و در پایان، ضمن تعریف دوباره درونگرایی، مدلی از توپولوژی نسبی این فضاها و شهر اسلامی، ارایه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اسلام، انسان شناسی، محیط انسان ساخت، درونگرایی، توپولوژی، حوزه وجودی
  • مجتبی پوراحمدی صفحه 83
    این مقاله به بررسی طرح معماری گنبد آرامگاه شیخ زاهد گیلانی، یکی از آثار به جا مانده از اواخر دوران تیموری و اوایل دوران صفوی در لاهیجان، می پردازد. فرضیه پژوهش حاضر این است که طرح گنبد مورد اشاره، بر مبنای روابط و ترسیمات هندسی دقیقی شکل گرفته است و هدف از پژوهش حاضر آن است که از این هندسه پنهان پرده بردارد. در این مقاله پس از اشاره به اهمیت مطالعه طراحی گنبد هرمی خاص این بنا و نیز اشاره به جایگاه محوری هندسه در طراحی معماری قدیم، هندسه شکل دهنده به گنبد این بنا در نمای اصلی ساختمان معرفی می گردد. مقاله در ذکر اهمیت رمزگشایی از هندسه پنهان در طرح این بنا، به دو مطلب اشاره می نماید: اول این که پی بردن به این هندسه، تذکر مجددی بر جایگاه ممتاز هندسه در طراحی معماری قدیم است که خود به فهم صحیح تر معماری سنتی کمک ارزنده ای می کند؛ دوم این که با نگاهی به وضعیت نامطلوب فعلی طراحی گنبد در شهرها و روستاهای کرانه جنوبی دریای خزر، نظام هندسی مورد استفاده در طراحی این گنبد می تواند به گونه ای خلاقانه در طراحی گنبدهای جدید در این پهنه جغرافیایی-فرهنگی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: آرامگاه شیخ زاهد گیلانی، طراحی معماری، هندسه، گنبد هرمی، کرانه جنوبی دریای خزر، لاهیجان
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  • Seyed Hossein Bahraini, Hossein Khosravi Page 5
    Obesity and its consequences, affected by modern sedentary life style, are growing constantly. Numerous researches in the Western World countries have illustrated the influences of city form on the physical activity rate and subsequently on health status and body fitness of populations. In spite of the fact that the Iranians obesity rate is not at significant variance with the west countries, there is no specific research engaged with the impact of formal and spatial features of built environment on the residents’ health. Accordingly and with regard to homogeneity in socio-economic factors of population and significant difference between different parts of city, Hashtgerd is appropriate case for the research purpose. In the research, first, 9 residential clusters in different part of the city were selected in which other information (socio-demographic, health status, body fitness and weekly amount of physical activity) were gathered. Statistical society was composed of men and women (parents of the family) with 20 to 50 years old who were selected through the cluster random sampling. The number of cases was derived through the Cochran sampling formula. After that, by investigating regression between different built environment features of the clusters (derived from expert view) and body fitness rate in one hand and residents’ weekly amount of physical activity in the other hand, a list of formal- spatial factors which have effect on amount of physical activity and consequently on health were derived. This list became more completed through deep interviews we had had with the residents. In addition to this a questionnaire (barrier questionnaire) prepared to discover the barriers of walking through the residents’ mind. In the other word, we also wanted to derive the attribute of the built environment which are effective on walking, perceptually. In this questionnaire residents were asked to mention the walking barrier for different kind of travel. The factors were a wide range of formal- spatial features which had to be arranged. After test retest exam which had done to estimate the validity and reliability of the factors, the multivariate linear regression was done between the derived factors from the previous steps and residents’ weakly amount of physical activity. Finally, we concluded that the distance from home to the work place and market centers has the most impact on the walking rate of families. The other crucial factors are safety and diversity of users and functions of space, that the former have a very strong impact on walking of women and the later on the men. The study also showed that extreme climatic and environmental factors have significant adverse impacts on walkability. Appropriate slope for walking, protection from extreme sunshine, rain, wind, etc. can be achieved through appropriate design ideas in order to enhance the quality of the pathways and eventually attract more pedestrians into urban spaces.
    Keywords: Physical Activity, Urban Design., Walking, Health, Formal, Spatial Features, Body Fitness
  • Iradj Asadie, Esfandiar Zebardast Page 17
    Before the beginning of the twentieth century, two concepts of "City" and "Village" (rural areas) and in a few cases, "Metropolis" would have to describe sufficiently residential forms and spatial development of national territories. But the development of urbanization in the twentieth century in both micro and macro scale caused formation of new phenomena in the spatial organization of the land. Responding to the formation of new spatial phenomena, scholars in spatial science start to conceptualize what were emerging. Reflects of spatial changes in micro scale can be traced in the construction of new concepts like New towns, Satellite cities, Suburbia and more recently Edge cities, Exurbia and Exopolise, Technoburbs and Technopoles that all were emerging in rural-urban fringe of great and pioneer cities. The second category of conceptualization (macro scale) were reflected in creating concepts such as Metropolis, Conurbation, Metropolitan area, City - region, Megalopolis, Mega city, Mega city-region, Functional urban region, Urban agglomeration, Metropolitan region, Polycentric urban region … all conceptualize macro scale spatial phenomena. These types of great regional substance were resulted from, a) initial expansion of the city or metropolis, b) joining together independent neighboring urban areas and, c) existence of functional interaction between physically separate urban and rural areas. In fact, macro scale phenomena were result of expansion, joining together and functional interaction of micro scale phenomena explained above. Definition of macro scale spatial concepts and also providing a kind of typology of these phenomena are the main theme of present paper. The necessity of this typology is nested in the existence of confusion in finding correspondence of real world macro scale phenomena with equivalent accepted concepts among different kind of users. One of the major misconceptions in Iran is seen in finding equivalent concepts for "Majmoo-e-ye shahri" which is considered in our official documents as equivalent of "Conurbation" while it is not. The most important note here is that the effects of these misunderstanding will not be limited to the theoretical field but it will appear in practice. Because, it is evident that finding proper strategy and management systems for a Conurbation will be different from a proper one to a Metropolitan region that is the best concept for naming Majmoo-e-ye shahri in Iran. This paper attempt to reviews prevalent macro scale concepts in literature of urban and regional studies. Twelve concepts were listed at the end of a wide exploratory study. It should be reminded that some of these concepts, their definitions and application in the literature also have some degree of confusion. It seems that there is not a clear distinction between some concepts. Regardless, our typology ended in categorization of all reviewed macro scale concepts into three class: a) the concepts focused on a great built city, b) concepts focused on a typical and coherent city -region and, c) the concepts focused on several independent city regions which are adjacent but physically separated. All concepts in these three categories are distinct according to criteria such as physical cohesion and continuity, intensity of functional interaction and their spatial scale.
    Keywords: metropolis, typology, city, region, metropolitan region, conurbation
  • Mehran Alalhesabi, Mehrdad Usefzmani Page 31
    Housing is one of the critical areas, its character, can cause increase the dimensions of human existence. to create this space, in addition to the physical and physiological standards, emotional desires and human interests also should be consider. In recent decades (after modernism), many architects, using current methods of global approaches with local attitudes, and following the realization of this matter they want to producing housing with participation way (similar to what is done in traditional housing), and they believes that consult of Owner is the factor success in this process. History of social contributions and examples of traditional housing in the city of Sanandaj, cause the tendency in owners to refer the participation of designers because of growing public awareness and understanding of the perspectives of designers, employers generally residential projects, but because the lack of operational criteria, processes ways to design relatively based on taste and done incomplete. This study introduces the field and long horizons and participate in the design of this phenomenon housing; trying to divert attention to housing production involved using the concept of social potential matter.And also developed a model and identify factors include variables and introduce operational techniques, that has stages as follows: by using qualitative, interpretation - historical and correlation research techniques, first we study the "general concepts and approaches to participation" and the participation approach in structural space, than introduce participation in urbanization and architecture With regards to systematic designing methods, symbol language of common architecture, effective dimension and flexibility of each elements that involved in designing are determinate. With these studies, independent variable (participation requirements), interfere variable (real participation) and the dependent variable (housing appropriate) been determined and the cycle relations and empirical model and all factors for each variable are drawn. Preparing the content of each of the variables, target - content table, including four axis: common and special awareness, mechanisms and effective factors in participation, and According to these factors questionnaire is design. Next, we use, survey research methods to analyze questionnaire´s data and use the cause. - Comparison research Method, to final modeling and analysis of hypothesis. four main factors: involvement in executive processes, optimal participation, the role of participants and forming initial participation, and four theories: education, culture, family participation, and adjusted expectations, the following results are become available. - two mine principles in executive participation and participation process optimization (independent variables),have direct or indirect effect on the initial formation of the operating partnership (interfere variable), the optimal participation (dependent variable). - theoretical studies factor, in addition to the positive effect on executive participation stages, can Deteriorate the participants role and has negative effect on it. - theoretical culture factor (self oriented), all cross channel routes to reach the final goal (adjusted expectations). - The main stages of participation and the role of executive participants, directly effect on theoretical expectations, but adjusted the main formation of the initial partnership with its cultural effects, or impact on improving participation can be optimized to play this role. - Also prove that The partnership could utilizing existing social potentials and architectural design, and increase residence incentives.
    Keywords: Participation_Table Purpose – Content_Modelling._Poles Designed for Resettlement_Participatory Design Constraints
  • Seyyed Mahdi Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mohammad Hadi Shapourian, Zahra Ghiabaklou Page 43
    In Islamic republic of Iran, the heating and cooling of buildings account for approximately 40% of total energy use. From the entire energy loss taking place in a building, one third of that energy loss occurs through the windows. Many of today’s existing buildings are not energy efficient, and consume more energy than is needed in order to make the working and living environments comfortable. This is a very large waste of natural resources and money. With the recent energy crises and the rising price of energy, finding a way to lower the energy consumption of a building is very important. To decrease a building’s heat loss one may suggest limiting the amount of glass in a building, however windows are an excellent source of heat and light. Windows bring light, warmth, and beauty into buildings and give a feeling of openness and space to living areas. They can also be major sources of heat loss in the winter and heat gain in the summer. However, when properly selected and installed, windows can help minimize a home's heating, cooling, and lighting costs. By reducing the heating and cooling load of a building, the amount of energy that is needed to heat or cool the building is also reduced. Reducing heat loss or gain in homes often includes either improving existing windows or replacing them. This paper describes an option to energy-efficient windows available for reducing a home's heating and cooling energy requirements. When air leaks around windows, energy is wasted. Energy is also transferred through the centers, edges, and frames of windows. Eliminating or reducing these paths of heat flow can greatly improve the energy efficiency of windows and, ultimately, of homes. Several options are available to reduce air leaks around windows; the least expensive one is the proposed system. Traditionally, clear single glass has been the primary material available for window panes in homes. Lack of suitable strategy for minimizing energy waste from these windows and other openings is one of the major deficiencies in this field of study. In this article a simple solution for optimizing the energy consumption and also increasing the performance of common windows and other openings of a building is studied. This technique involves adding a second layer of glass along profiles as the coverage of prior frames. This method helps to prevent energy wasting from previously used materials and also provides more indoor thermal comfort on account of uniformity in environment temperature. Generally, such a process can simply be accomplished without extensive requirement to equipments with a minimum cost. The computer simulation program THERM 5.2 is used to predict the thermal behavior of the windows. Computer modeling shows a window's U-value reduction from 5.71W/m2k, to 3.71W/m2k, which consist 37% reduction in Thermal transmittance. Work is underway to define the application constraints and quantify the comfort benefits of such system. The further work is still required to incorporate the calculation routines into suitable models that will allow the consumers to make full use of this optimization method.
    Keywords: Modification of Single Glazed Windows, Windows Optimization, Energy Consumption Optimization, Energy Loss Reduction
  • Omid Rismanchian, Simon Bell Page 49
    The theory of natural movement was developed by Hillier and Hanson at 1984 and investigates the relation between social and spatial forms. Hillier believes that space is the key aspect of how social and cultural worlds are made in the real world. Hillier claims that social and spatial forms follow such a consistent pattern that spatial configuration determines social patterns such as land-use and movement.The application of the ‘natural movement theory’ in studying the spatial structure of the cities is highlighted in the literature. Given that this theory delivers an applicable tool called space syntax, it is very welcomed by the planners, researchers and the practitioners in the field of architecture and urban planning. Hillier introduces space syntax as “… a set of computer techniques for modeling buildings and cities in which spatial layout is first represented as systems of linked geometrical elements- lines when studying movement convex elements when studying interaction, fields of view when examining more complex patterns of behavior- and then analyzed in terms of the relations between each spatial element and all the other spatial elements in the layout”. He highlights the application of space syntax for “… applying configurational measures to the patterns of different geometric elements that are created by buildings and cities. Whether we choose lines, convex spaces, Isovists, or even points as the elements for our analysis depend in what aspect of functionality or human spatiality we are investigating”. Space syntax is a well known technique in studying the pattern of pedestrian movement, distribution of crime, land uses, and immigrant quarters in the city. It is a useful tool to quantify the urban quality as well as studying the spatial structure of the city. It can be integrated with GIS to develop new models such as route filtering system. It also can be very applicable in studying the deprived area and their condition in the spatial structure of the city. This method allows the planners to investigate the issue of accessibility to the urban fabric including the deprived areas in order to increase their integration into the surrounding urban fabric. It also allows urban planners to investigate the issue of movement from an angel different from traffic point of view. In Iran accessibility to the deprived area has been always highlighted as an issue and unfortunately the traffic-orientated approach has been assumed to be the solution. However, applying spaces syntax to the deprived cases shows that there are other structural methods in order to increase the integration of the deprived areas to the surrounding urban fabric as well as the accessibility to these areas. For the case of Iran several cities have been studied with this method as well. However, lack of references is one of the main obstacles in applying this method for the researches more often. In this regard, this paper discusses space syntax and its relevant theories. The axial map of Tehran is also presented to make the readers familiar with the application of space syntax in urbanism.
    Keywords: Urban Structure, Tehran, Spatial Configuration, Space Syntax
  • Hashem Hoseyny Page 57
    In the Islamic era, Mausoleums were considered as the most important after mosques. Constructing these buildings dates from the fourth century after Hijrah, coinciding with the establishment of the earlier post -Islamic dynasties in East and North East of Iran. This tradition continued in later Islamic periods in two basic rectangular and Tomb tower types. The significant point about these buildings is the relation between structural and ornamentation characteristics of the decedent person. One of the most important periods of constructing mausoleums in Islamic period in Iran is Ilkhanid period. Since Azerbayjan was the centre of the Ilkhanid dynasty and Mongol emperors were interested in Islamic theosophism, Ardebil region was regarded as one of the significant centers of Sufism. It seems that during this period, a special style of burial architecture was shaped the principles of which were rooted in the Sufisim of Sheikh Zahed Gilani and Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili. We can name this new style as the style of mausoleums of Azerbaijani theosophists that combined early Seljuk tomb towers in Damghan And Mazandaran and late Seljuk tomb towers in west Azerbaijan with basic specifications of Ilkhanid architecture and local architecture of the region. Among remarkable samples of this style are mausoleums of Sheikh Safi al-Din in Ardebil, Sheikh Heidar in Meshkinshahr and Barda Turbatsi in the republic of Azerbaijan. Many of these tomb towers such as the tomb of Sheykh Safi Aldin Ardebili underwent basic changes in Safavid period especially in tile works and paintings ornaments and changed its nature of early Ilkhanid architecture. All three mausoleums which wer the subject of the present study belong to tomb towers which are the most common type of tombs in Islamic period of Iran. In terms of overall architectural characteristics, these tombs are influenced by the style known as Azeri. Due to the significant role of mysticism in evolution of mausoleum building tradition, the present study has paid attention to different aspects of the architecture and decoration of these mausoleums and is trying to determine the date of the emergence of this form of architecture in the region based on Archaeological studies to determine different aspects of Sufis mausoleums of Azerbaijan. To achieve this goal, the features of design and architectural decoration of this style is surveyed. The period during which this style was common is the first half of the eighth century and its geographical area is East Azerbaijan especially Ardebil province. One of the important features of this Architectural style is two pre-arch as entrance and exit doors which included more detailed inscriptional ornamentation and geometric frames. But the most specific characteristics of this style that culminated in the mausoleum of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili, is the especial style of decoration in the exterior wall of mausoleums in the shape of Kufi inscription of Allah as continuous prayer (Zikr) of Sufis and especial design of the plan.
    Keywords: Tomb towers, Ilkhanid period, Islamic mysticism, Azerbaijan, Islamic architecture
  • Masoud Nari Ghomi Page 69
    It is conventional to say that Islamic built environment is introversive. In urban and architectural studies, this term is made equal to a formal organization of voids and solids in which voids are surrounded by an impermeable mass, and then some theoretical reasoning is attached to this formal system. Here we are dealing with the issue in an alternative way; Instead of finding interpretations for existing patterns in so-called Islamic City, we try to explore resources of Islamic knowledge to find conceptual materials about built environment embedded in it. In other words, this research is founded upon a hypothesis of existence of an underlying conceptual system of image of the city (and buildings themselves) in Islamic original texts, which does not have to match with the existing objectivity of built environments that are known as Islamic. To follow this assumption, there is a need for exploring concepts of “inside” and “outside” in Islamic resources; and this exploration, in turn, makes a need for comparative base that is provided here by a brief studying of the two concepts in none-Islamic architectural literatures, which are mainly suited to western cultures. As in this study a self-centered understanding of whole world is found to be dominant in western culture and so in architectural knowledge, it becomes necessary to study the role of “I” in Islamic interpretation of the world and quality of being of human in relation with its essentials. This begins the second part of the article, while this second and main part by tuning into Islamic Culture is dealt with concept of Introversion. In this part, five main factors are provided for establishing a conceptual debate about “inside” and “outside” in Islamic context: enclosure, rules of coming in, privative space, enduring of occupying space and gender division. These are explored in four main elements of built environment which are noticed in Holy Quran: Bayt, Masjid, Sabyl and Suq which are respectively equal to: House, Mosque, Rout and Bazaar. The five socio-psychological factors are characteristics of being in a space, which are not only seminal in mental cognition of concepts of “inside” and “outside”, but also have deep roots as well as clear evidences in original Islamic texts – those go back up to only 3rd century from the Prophet’s life. This study is comparative – between general architectural literature and Islamic main literature, and for every term the architectural definition is criticized by using Islamic criteria to find how this term can be redefined in Islamic context or what its Islamic attributes are. One example of major findings is about the term ‘privacy’ which is more strictly explored and is made – in contrast with ecological psychology- opposite to ‘territoriality’; Consequences of this matter are vital in making relationship of inside and outside of a house, more Islamic: neither self- oriented and anti- social nor unveiled. The findings are presented in conceptual models. Finally a basic topologic model of “inside” and “outside” in urban context to be Islamic, is made upon findings of this research.
    Keywords: Built Environment, Existential Space, Introversion, Topology, Islamic Context, Inside, Outside Relation
  • Mojtaba Pour Ahmadi Page 83
    This research is an attempt to discover the logic behind the specific architectural design of Sheikh Zahed-e-Guilani Shrine, a monument dating back to late Timurids and early Safavids in Lahijan in Northern Iran. The hypothesis behind this research is that the design of this dome must be based on some exact geometrical relations and proportions which have not been discovered yet. After mentioning the architectural merits of the building to be studied, the important role of geometry in architectural design in old days is discussed, both in Islamic and non-Islamic architecture. This brief discussion justifies the use of geometrical analysis in order to discover the logic behind the form of this monument, specially its unique pyramidal dome. The research continues to use a geometrical analysis to understand the specific form of the dome in the main façade of the building. It illustrates the process of designing the specific pyramidal dome of the building step by step; the process that the real designer of the building had probably gone through more than five centuries ago when designing this monument. Analysis shows that a network of 45 degree slanting lines has been used as the geometrical base of the form of the dome and the whole façade; a network which is not seen in the design of traditional architectural works in central Iran and can be considered a local approach to the use of geometry in architectural design. Concerning the importance of the findings of this research two points are discussed: first, discovering these hidden geometrical relations is again a reminder of the prominent role of geometry in old architectures which is in turn an indication about how one should "read" traditional architectural works. Second, the geometrical system, used in designing this dome, can be utilized in a creative way to design new domes for religious buildings to be built in the specific cultural and geographical context of the southern coasts of Caspian Sea. The article discusses two current popular attitudes towards designing new domes in this region: the more widespread one is purchasing and installing a prefabricated metal dome with a curved profile on the roof of buildings; A profile which belongs strongly to the central parts of Iran. These domes are not usually well-integrated into vernacular architecture and the result usually suffers a sense of doubled-identity. In the second attitude, the traditional pyramidal domes of the region are imitated without enough creativity. They try to reconstruct the exact traditional forms using new building technology. Although this method considers the architectural culture of its context and tries to be respectful to it, again the non-creative result is not satisfactory. Using a form giving geometrical system similar to the one used in designing the dome of Sheikh Zahed Shrine, today's creative designer can design new domes which are new and creative in their formal design and at the same time are traditional and have their roots deep in vernacular architecture.
    Keywords: Architectural Design, Sheikh Zahed, e, Guilani Shrine, Pyramidal Dome, Lahijan, Southern Coasts of the Caspian Sea, Geometry