فهرست مطالب

جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی محیطی - سال بیست و دوم شماره 4 (پیاپی 44، زمستان 1390)
  • سال بیست و دوم شماره 4 (پیاپی 44، زمستان 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/12/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • منصور جعفربیگلو، ابراهیم مقیمی، فرشاد صفری صفحه 1
    توده پرآو- بیستون با وسعت 880 کیلومتر مربع در زون زاگرس رورانده و در استان کرمانشاه واقع شده است. در این ناهمواری ها اشکال متنوعی از چشم انداز کارست همچون کارن ها، اوالاها، دولین ها، غارها و... پدید آمده است. شکل گیری و توسعه فروچاله های کارستی متاثر از روراندگی، گسل ها و شکستگی های منطقه، شرایط مناسبی را برای تغذیه و گسترش منابع آب زیرزمینی به عنوان اصلی ترین منبع آب آشامیدنی شهر کرمانشاه فراهم آورده و هیدروژئولو‍ژی منطقه را تحت تاثیر قرار داده است. بنابراین، شناخت مرفوتکتونیکی فروچاله ها در بررسی های کارستی منطقه جایگاه و اهمیت بالایی دارد. در این تحقیق با استفاده از مدل رقومی ارتفاع (DEM) و پردازش داده های رقومی شده نسبت به استخراج اطلاعات توپوگرافی و هیدرولو‍‍ژی اقدام گردید. همچنین با انجام عملیات میدانی و به کارگیری دستگاه موقعیت یاب جهانی (GPS) و کمپاس، ویژگی و موقعیت فروچاله ها و امتداد درزه ها و شکستگی های منطقه اندازه گیری و در ارتباط با سایر داده های مکانی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد در توده پرآو- بیستون اشکال اگزوکارست در فرم ها و ابعاد مختلف توسعه یافته و تیپیک ترین این اشکال یعنی فروچاله ها در امتداد درزه ها و گسل های کششی ناحیه قرار گرفته و فروچاله های مستخرج از DEM نیز نشان دهنده چنین امتداد و روندی است.
    کلیدواژگان: پرآو، بیستون، فروچاله، مورفوتکتونیک، مدل رقومی ارتفاع
  • عباسعلی ولی، محمدحسین رامشت، عبدالله سیف، رضا قضاوی صفحه 19
    یک سیستم رودخانه ای یک سیستم بازاست که از درگیر شدن ارتباطات مختلف و پیچیده شکل می گیرد. خصوصیات ذاتی حوضه ها از یک سو و عوامل خارجی از سوی دیگر رفتارهای رودخانه را متاثر می سازد.وجود ارتباطات متقابل متعدد از جمله ارتباطات جریان ورسوب حمل شده وتاثیر عوامل ژئومورفولوژی حوضه و مدل سازی آن از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است.در این مطالعه دونوع شبکه عصبی مصنوعی ژئومورفولوژیکی و غیر ژئومورفولوژیکی برای پیش بینی بار رسوب جریان رودخانه سمندگان طراحی گردید و نتایج آن با دو نوع مدل رگرسیونی ژئومورفولوژیکی و غیر ژئومورفولوژیکی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج طراحی شبکه های عصبی مبین کارآیی خوب شبکه های چند لایه ی پرسپترون با الگوریتم یادگیری پس انتشار خطا است. نتایج نشان داد که شبکه عصبی ژئومورفولوژیکی با ضریب تبیین 862/0 و مجذور میانگین مربعات خطای 815/1 در مقایسه شبکه عصبی غیر ژئومورفولوژیکی با ضریب تبیین 827/0و معیار خطای031/2 میزان رسوب جریان را بهتر پیش بینی می کند. نتایج ارزیابی مدل های رگرسیونی مبین عملکرد ضعیف تر آن ها در مقایسه با روش شبکه عصبی مصنوعی است به طوری که ضریب تبیین مدل رگرسیونی ساده غیر ژئومورفولوژیکی 759/0و معیار خطای 395/2 و ضریب تبیین مدل رگرسیونی ژئومورفولوژیکی برابر 811/0 با معیار خطای معادل 142/2 است. همچنین از مقایسه نتایج مدل های مختلف چنین استنباط می شود زمانی که پارامترهای ژئومورفولوژیکی نظیر شاخص ناهمواری، شاخص گردی و شاخص تراکم زهکشی در مدل سازی وارد شوند نتایج ارزیابی آن ها مناسب تر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بار رسوب، پیش بینی، رودخانه سمندگان، ژئومورفولوژی، سیلاب، شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، مدل رگرسیونی، مدل سازی
  • سید حسن مطیعی، لنگرودی، مجتبی قدیری معصوم، محمدرضا رضوانی، آئیژ عزمی صفحه 35
    بازارهای دوره ای محلی، مکان فعالیت زنان شهری و روستایی است که با انگیزه های مختلفی در بازار فعالیت می کنند. این انگیزه ها متنوع بوده و شامل ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی می شود. فعالیت در بازارها دارای موانع و مشکلاتی است که بررسی و حل آن به بهبود وضعیت شاغلان و فعالان بازار کمک می کند. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی انگیزه های زنان شاغل در بازار، تلاش شده تا موانع موجود بر سر راه فعالیت آن ها شناسایی شود. بنابراین، سوال اصلی تحقیق بررسی انگیزه ها و مولفه های پیش روی زنان به منظور فعالیت در بازار است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی تحلیلی بوده و از ابزار پرسشنامه و مصاحبه، استفاده شده است. پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق آلفای کرونباخ تعیین شد که برای فروشندگان برابر با 71/0 و برای خریداران برابر با 70/0 بوده است حجم نمونه شامل 147 خریدار و 146 فروشنده بوده است که فروشندگان به روش سرشماری و خریداران از طریق رابطه کوکران به دست آمدند. روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده است. تعداد شهرهای بررسی شده یازده شهر و معیار انتخاب شهرها نمونه گیری طبقه ای بوده است. نتایج نشان می دهند که فروشندگان به دنبال درآمد، شغل، ارتقای موقعیت خانوادگی و خریداران خواستار تامین نیازهای اقتصادی هستند، بدین شکل که فروشندگان به دنبال ارتقای موقعیت اجتماعی خود هستند و علائق فردی و خانوادگی(درصد واریانس64/31) در کنار روابط اجتماعی و مولفه های اقتصادی نظیر درآمد(درصد واریانس 24/11) و اشتغال از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار است. خریداران نیز با انگیزه خرید (درصد واریانس 04/40) و تفریح (درصد واریانس 83/19) به بازار می آیند. انگیزه خرید شامل کیفیت محصول، قیمت مناسب، تازگی و تنوع محصول است و انگیزه تفریح؛ گردش، دیدن جذابیت های هنری و فرهنگی بازار و... است.
    کلیدواژگان: بازارهای دوره ای محلی، انگیزه های زنان روستایی، نیازهای اقتصادی، موقعیت اجتماعی، استان گیلان
  • محمود علایی طالقانی، زهرا رحیم زاده صفحه 53
    در این تحقیق با استفاده از تحلیل سلسله مراتبی فرآیندها (AHP) مبادرت به پهنه بندی خطر لغزش (به مفهوم عام) در حوضه آبخیز جوانرود واقع در شمال غرب زاگرس چین خورده (در محدوده استان کرمانشاه) شده است. برای این منظور31 نقطه لغزشی در سطح حوضه مورد مطالعه از طریق پیمایش زمینی شناسایی شد و با انتقال آنها بر روی نقشه پایه، لایه پراکنش نقاط لغزشی حوضه تهیه گردید. سپس با توجه به این نقشه و تحقیقات صورت گرفته، 7 عامل تاثیر گذار بر حرکت های توده ای منطقه مورد مطالعه انتخاب و آنگاه به منظور مقایسه زوجی در جدول ماتریس، بر اساس میزان ارجحیت (سلسله مراتب) در وقوع پدیده مورد نظر رده بندی گردیدند. این لایه ها شامل لیتولوژی، شیب، فاصله از زهکش، فاصله از جاده، فاصله از روستا، جهت گیری دامنه، کاربری اراضی بوده اند که در تهیه آنها از نقشه های توپوگرافی 25000/ 1 زمین شناسی10000 / 1، تصویر ماهواره ای ETM استفاده شده است. در مرحله آخر به کمک نرم افزار ArcGIS عملیات وزن دهی و همپوشانی از لایه های انتخابی صورت گرفت و با توجه به ضرایب حاصل، نقشه پهنه بندی خطر زمین لغزش در 4 پهنه خطر کم، خطر متوسط، خطرزیاد و خطر خیلی زیاد به دست آمد. مقدار عددی ضریب نهایی از جمع اعداد حاصل از ضرب وزن هر معیار در شاخص آن در هر نقطه بین صفر تا 100تعریف گردید که در آن هر چه ضریب حاصله به سمت 100 میل کرده باشد نشان دهنده پر خطر بودن وقوع زمین لغزش است و هر چه این ضریب به صفر نزدیک تر شده باشد نشاندهنده کم خطر و یا نهایتا بی خطر بودن وقوع آن است. نتایج مشخص کرده است که 58 درصد از سطح حوضه جوانرود از نظر وقوع لغزش جزو منطقه بسیار پر خطر و پر خطر است. این مناطق منطبق بر گسترش سازندهای گورپی و رادیولاریتی است که شرایط اقلیمی نیمه مرطوب سرد حاکم بر منطقه باعث تشکیل قشر ضخیمی از مواد رگولیتی و خاک بر سطح آنها شده است. شکل این عوارض به صورت تپه ماهور های مدور با شیب کمتر از 16 درصد است اما هنگامی که پای آنها توسط زهکش ها و یا احداث جاده زیربری شود، جابجائی ناگهانی مواد هوازده بر سطح آنها در قالب لغزش اجتناب ناپذیر خواهد بود که به کمک مدل AHP نیز این نتایح حاصل شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: جوانرود، مدل AHP، لغزش، سلسله مراتب فرآیندها
  • ابوالقاسم امیر احمدی، مهدی ثقفی، مریم ربیعی صفحه 73
    مطالعات گسترده ای در مورد زمین شناسی و ژئومورفولوژی مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک بیابان های ایران انجام شده است. اما در این بین مخروط افکنه ها به عنوان یکی از اشکال ژئومورفیک نادیده گرفته شده و یا کمتر به طور تخصصی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در ای ن مقاله مخروط افکنه های رشته کوه باقران در جنوب شهر ب ی رجند از نظر شکل هندس ی مورد بررس ی قرار گرفته، بطوریکه در ابتدا 17 مخروط افکنه شناسا یی و نقشه برداری شده است. اندازه گیری های مربوط به پارامترهای تعیین کننده شکل هندسی مخروط افکنه های منطقه به طور مجزا صورت گرفته است. در مرحله بعدی این اندازه گیری ها برای بررسی روابط و مقایسه شکل هندس ی این لندفرم ها با یکدیگر مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. برای این منظور از مدل های مختلف و نرم افزارهای ویژه برای تحلیل های چند متغیره مانند: تحلیل های عامل و تحلیل های خوشه ایو در نهایت، برازش منحنی ها رگرس ی ون ی استفاده شده است. بر اساس نتای ج حاصله مهمترین متغیر موثر در شکل مخروط افکنه های منطقه مساحت حوضه زهکشی در بالا دست هر مخروط افکنه است که با عامل اول حاصل از تحل ی ل عامل ی همبستگی در حدود 88 درصد را نشان می دهد. با کمک تحل ی ل خوشه مخروط افکنه های منطقه در 5 گروه طبقه بندی شده است. بر این اساس در گروه اول، تعداد 10 مخروط افکنه با میزان تشابه 35/70 درصد، در گروه دوم تعداد 3 مخروط افکنه با میزان تشابه 62/76 درصد، در گروه سوم تعداد 2 مخروط افکنه با میزان تشابه 86/73 درصد و در گروه های چهارم و پنجم هر کدام یک مخروط افکنه با میزان تشابه به ترتیب 45/60، 76/12 درصد قرار گرفته است. برازش های مختلفی که به شیوه های گوناگون بین دو متغیر اصل ی موثر در شکل هندس ی مخروط افکنه ها (مساحت حوضه زهکشی و مساحت مخروط افکنه ها در منطقه) انجام گرفته با توجه به مقدار ضریب تعیین مدل های مختلف () تب ی ین کننده مناسب تر بودن مدل نمایی برای تخمین ارتباط بین این دو متغیر در منطقه است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل و طبقه بندی چند متغیره، مدل سازی، مخروط افکنه، کوهستان باقران شهر بیرجند
  • حمیدرضا وارثی، مسعود تقوایی، احمد شاهیوندی * صفحه 91

    یکی از مشکلات خدمات گردشگری نبود مکان های سکونتی و هتل های مناسب در تمام فصول سال و برای همه قشرهای جامعه با درآمدهای مختلف است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی وضعیت هتل های شهر اصفهان و ارائه راهکارهای مناسب در جهت ارتقاء سطح کمی و کیفی آنها است. روش تحقیق به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی و همبستگی است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از روش های کای اسکوئر، ضریب همبستگی گاما و مدل تحلیلی SWOT استفاده شده است. مهمترین نقطه قوت هتل های شهر اصفهان، دسترسی مناسب آنها به مراکز تفریحی، تاریخی، تجاری و غیره است. وجود جاذبه های تاریخی در این شهر بعنوان فرصت خوبی برای صنعت هتلداری محسوب می شود. مهمترین نقاط ضعف هتل های شهر اصفهان عدم وجود تجهیزات و وسایل خدماتی و نبود افراد آموزش دیده و مجرب در زمینه خدمات رسانی مناسب به گردشگران است. همچنین نبود هتل ها و مسافرخانه ها برای گروه های کم درآمد و عدم وجود اتاق های خالی در برخی از ایام سال به عنوان تهدیدهای صنعت هتلداری در این شهر محسوب می شوند. بررسی فرضیات نیز نشان می دهد، بین خدمات ارائه شده از طرف هتل های شهر اصفهان و امکان سکونت مجدد در این هتل ها رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین بین امکانات و خدمات گردشگری شهر اصفهان با سفرهای مجدد گردشگران به این شهر رابطه معناداری وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری، گردشگر، خدمات گردشگری، هتل، شهر اصفهان، مدل SWOT
  • علی اکبر عنابستانی، حسن سیفی صفحه 113
    در شرایط فعلی، کشاورزی مهم ترین فعالیت اقتصادی در اغلب روستاهای ایران بوده و لازم است به عنوان محور برنامه های توسعه قرار گیرد. بخش کشاورزی علاوه بر تامین نیازهای مصرفی جمعیت، ایجاد اشتغال، افزایش درآمد و غیره نقش اساسی در اقتصاد خانوارهای روستایی دارد. در نواحی روستایی که فعالیت غالب آن ها کشت محصولات زراعی است، بررسی نقش فعالیت های مکمل اقتصادی می تواند حائز اهمیت باشد. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی نقش و جایگاه کشت های دوم در اقتصاد خانوارهای روستایی در بین شالی کاران منطقه ی دشت سر آمل بوده است. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی است که برای گردآوری اطلاعات از روش های میدانی (پرسشنامه) کمک گرفته شده و بر اساس آن علاوه بر شوراها و دهیاران 40 روستای مورد مطالعه، از 354 خانوار روستایی نمونه پرسشگری به عمل آمده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که ظهور کشت های دوم در نواحی روستایی مورد مطالعه از سه دهه ی قبل شروع شده، اما در دهه ی 1380 روند فزاینده ای به خود گرفته است، به نحوی که میزان گرایش روستاییان به کشت های دوم در بین 4/41 درصد پاسخگویان، زیاد و خیلی زیاد است. علاوه بر این سهم کشت های دوم در اقتصاد خانوارهای روستایی از نظر حجم درآمد خالص 5/37 درصد و از نظر حجم درآمدزایی کل برابر 3/21 درصد برآورد شده است. بنابراین، ضریب درآمدزایی کشت های دوم نمونه تا 15/3 برابر نسبت به کشت غالب برنج می رسد. با توجه به یافته های پژوهش، راهکارهایی از قبیل ایجاد کارخانه ی بسته بندی سبزیجات، راه اندازی کارخانه های سبزی خشک کنی، استفاده های از بذرهای اصلاح شده و پر محصول و غیره پیشنهاد شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: کشت های دوم، برنج، اقتصاد روستایی، شالی کاران، درآمدزایی
  • داریوش رحیمی صفحه 127
    منابع آب زیر زمینی به دلیل ضریب اطمینان بالاتر و نوسانات کمتر به عنوان یک گزینه مطمئن از دیر باز مورد استفاده انسان بوده و در طی دهه های اخیر در اثر برداشت بیشتر از تغذیه با کاهش کمی و کیفی روبرو شده است. مدیریت و جلوگیری از تشدید این مشکلات از طریق اکتشاف و بهره برداری متناسب با پتانسیل آن یکی از استراتژی های منتخب در این زمینه است. در این پژوهش دشت شهرکرد به عنوان دشتی که با افت سطح آب و کیفیت روبرو است انتخاب گردیده است. برای بررسی و پتانسیل یابی منابع آب زیرزمینی داده های تراز ایستابی و سطح آب در دوره زمانی 1386-1363، پایگاه اطلاعات جغرافیایی متشکل از زمین شناسی، لیتولوژی، قابلیت تخلخل، توپوگرافی شیب و شبکه آبراهه تشکیل گردید. سپس با اتکاء بر مفاهیم مهندسی ارزش، شیوه تحلیل کیفی دلفی و روش ترکیب لایه ها پتانسیل یابی آب های زیر زمینی به عنوان یک استراتژی در آبخوان های در معرض خطر تهیه گردید. نتایج نشان داد 5900 هکتار دشت دارای پتانسیل بالا برای برداشت و تغذیه مصنوعی و مناسب برای حفر چاه، 1600 هکتار پتانسیل متوسط و4802 هکتار پتانسیل کم است.
    کلیدواژگان: آب زیر زمینی، داده های رقومی، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، پتانسیل یابی، دشت شهرکرد
  • حسنعلی فرجی سبکبار، حسین نصیری*، محمد حمزه، سمیه طالبی، یوسف رفیعی صفحه 143

    بخش عمده ای از کشور ایران جزء مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک محسوب می شود و آب به عنوان یک عامل محدود کننده فعالیت های بشر در این مناطق به شمار می آید. وجود سیلاب های مخرب و کمبود آب در این مناطق، لزوم مهار سیلاب ها را ایجاب می کند. پخش سیلاب یک استراتژی مناسب برای مهار سیلاب و بهره وری از آن است. تعیین عرصه های مناسب برای پخش سیلاب و وارد کردن آب به یک سازند نفوذپذیر، یکی از مهمترین عوامل تعیین کننده موفقیت طرح های پخش سیلاب است. از این رو، در این پژوهش سعی شده تا با تلفیق سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و سیستم های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره (MCDM)، مناسب ترین عرصه ها برای اجرای عملیات پخش سیلاب در دشت گربایگان فسا شناسایی شوند. بدین منظور، ابتدا داده های 8 پارامتر تاثیرگذار-شیب، کیفیت آب، زمین شناسی، ضخامت آبرفت، کاربری اراضی، قابلیت انتقال، ژئومورفولوژی و تراکم زهکشی- منطقه مورد مطالعه، در محیط GIS آماده سازی گردید و با استفاده از روش ANP و مقایسه زوجی به ترتیب وزن هر معیار و وزن کلاس های هر لایه در نرم افزار Super Decision محاسبه شد. در مرحله بعد، نواحی دارای محدودیت برای پخش سیلاب حذف گردید. سپس با استفاده از توابع تحلیلی GIS، کل محدوده برای هر یک از معیارهای تعیین شده پهنه بندی شد. در نهایت، با تلفیق نقشه هایپهنه بندی شده براساس وزن اکتسابی از روش ANP، نقشه نهایی در پنج کلاس از کاملا مناسب تا نامناسب تهیه شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که مناطق کاملا مناسب برای تغذیه مصنوعی آبخوان ها، اغلب در نهشته های کواترنری Qb، Qgsc و Qg و واحدهای ژئومورفولوژیکی پدیمنتی و مخروط افکنه ای با شیب کمتر از 3 درصد واقع شده اند. همچنین نتایج حاصل از این روش با استفاده از کنترل زمینی، مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفت که حاکی از برآورده شدن همه معیارهای انتخابی در نواحی کاملا مناسب، و رضایت بخش بودن به کارگیری روش های MCDM در تلفیق با GIS در امر مکان یابی عرصه های مناسب برای تغذیه مصنوعی آبخوان ها است.

    کلیدواژگان: پخش سیلاب، مدیریت منابع آب، مقایسه زوجی، ANP، GIS، گربایگان
  • غلامعلی مظفری، فاطمه بخشی زاده کلوچه، محمد غیبی صفحه 167
    لیشمانیوز بیماری انگلی است که به وسیله نیش پشه خاکی ماده به انسان انتقال می یابد و دو نوع اصلی آن لیشمانیای جلدی و احشائی است. شیوع این بیماری در برخی از استان های ایران نظیر اصفهان، فارس، خراسان، خوزستان، کرمان و یزد بسیار چشمگیر است. استان یزد با میزان بروز 170 نفر در صد هزار نفر جمعیت در سال 1998 در مقام نخست آلودگی سالک جلدی در سطح کشور قرار دارد همچنین شیوع و انتشار این بیماری تحت تاثیر مسائل اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی به ویژه شرایط محیطی و اکولوژیکی است. در تحقیق حاضر رابطه بین پوشش گیاهی با میزان شیوع و گسترش این بیماری در سطح دشت یزد- اردکان به عنوان یکی از نقاط آلوده کشور با استفاده از تکنیک های سنجش از دور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. از تصاویر ماهواره ای سنجنده لندست ETM + و تصاویر ارتفاعی رادار برای استخراج پوشش گیاهی از طریق مدل شاخص پوشش گیاهی (NDVI) استفاده به عمل آمد و اطلاعات مربوط به میزان شیوع این بیماری در سطح مناطق آلوده نیز از مراکز بهداشتی و درمانی جمع آوری گردید. مقایسه پراکنش فضائی موارد بیماری با وضعیت پوشش گیاهی نشان می دهد که بیشترین میزان شیوع بیماری سالک جلدی در مناطقی با پائین ترین میزان پوشش گیاهی متمرکز گردیده است. همچنین نتایج حاصل از بررسی عناصر اقلیمی موثر در شیوع بیماری سالک جلدی با استفاده از روش LSD فیشر نیز نشان دهنده این واقعیت است.
    کلیدواژگان: سالک، لیشمانیوز، پوشش گیاهی، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، سنجش از دور، یزد، اردکان
  • فریدون بابایی اقدم، محمد آزادی مبارکی، عقیل مددی صفحه 179
    امروزه اغلب فرایندهای فیزیولوژی، جسمی و روانی انسان از شهرنشینی تاثیر پذیرفته اند، بنابراین، برخی از معضلات خاص بشر از جمله بی خوابی، اضطراب، افسردگی، خستگی روانی و غیره از این امر ناشی می شوند. توسعه بی رویه شهری، افزایش وسائل نقلیه و زوال محیط زیست، آثار زیانباری بر ساختار محیطی-کالبدی شهر وارد کرده است. فقدان ایمنی شهروندان در مقابل تصادفات، عدم امنیت در فضاهای شهری و مسکونی، انزوا، افسردگی و گسست اجتماعی در محلات شهری از بیماری های مزمن در محیط های شهری هستند. بنابراین شناسایی اثرات نامطلوب توسعه شهری و مسکن، بر سلامت عمومی شهروندان و ارتقای زندگی سالم شهری ضروری است. پژوهش حاضر برگرفته از طرح تحقیقاتی است که اتمام آن بیش از یک سال طول کشیده است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، تعیین محله های مناسب شهر اردبیل به منظور سکونت است. در هدف فرعی نیز به تعیین فاکتورهای مناسب برای محلات شهری برای سکونت پرداخته شد. در این پژوهش تلفیق مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و منطق ارزش گذاری لایه ها (Index Overlay) با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، به مدلی برای مکانیابی محلات مناسب به منظور سکونت در شهرستان اردبیل منتج شده است. این مطالعه نشان دهنده انطباق وضعیت اجتماعی و اقتصادی محلات شهری با درجه مطلوبیت آنها است که در زندگی روزمره شهر اردبیل قابل مشاهده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان یابی، محله های مناسب سکونتی، اردبیل، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی(AHP)، GIS
  • هادی حکیمی، محمدرضا پورمحمدی، اکبر پرهیزکار، ابوالفضل مشکینی، مهدی پورطاهری صفحه 197
    اسکان غیر رسمی که بعد از اصلاحات ارضی و افزایش قیمت نفت در شهرهای بزرگ ایران، شکل گرفت آرام آرام به سطوح پایین سلسله مراتب شهری کشور رسوخ کرد؛ به طوری که شهر خوی به عنوان یکی از شهرهای میان اندام کشور با این پدیده در محلات خود مواجه است. محله جمشیدآباد بزرگترین اجتماع غیر رسمی در شهر خوی است که در این مقاله به بررسی و ارزیابی وضعیت کالبدی آن پرداخته شده است. مسکن که خود کوچکترین واحد فضایی است، نشان دهنده وضعیت اقتصادی- اجتماعی گروه های ساکن در آن است. از این رو هدف از بررسی حاضر شناسایی و ارزیابی شاخص های کمی و کیفی مسکن در یکی از سکونتگاه های غیر رسمی کشور با استفاده از روش مقایسه با شهر خوی و کشورهای در حال توسعه است. یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که شاخص های مسکن در محله جمشیدآباد نسبت به شهر خوی در وضعیت نا مطلوبی قرار دارد ولی در مقایسه با کشورهای در حال توسعه دارای وضعیت مطلوبتری است.
    کلیدواژگان: جمشید آباد، خوی، شاخص، مسکن
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  • M. Jafarbeyglou, E. Moghimi, F. Safari Page 1
    Intro duction Fractures are one of the most important factors in capability of carbonate rocks permeability. System of fractures and joints bring about penetration and access of water into the deeper layers. Therefore, karstic processes can developed along them and result in variety of karst morphology. In mountainous massif of Parav - Bistoun, Various forms of the karst landscapes such as karrens, uvalas, dolines, caves and soon have emerged due to specific lithology and tectonic. The Depressions are interesting because of great influenc e of fractures on them and their dimensions. Thus, in this study, morphotectonic consideration of depressions an important part of karstic studies has been marked. Besides, the study of karst morphology in the region, the morphotectonic recognition of depressions has proceed ed in combined with results of fieldwork and processing of DEM. 2- Methodology In this study, accurate location and orientation of depressions and joints were provided using GPS and compass data collected during fieldwork. In addition, orientations of faults were recognized using a 1/100000 scaled geologic map of the study area and in the next step were digitized. This collected information was processed in Rock Work software and their rose diagrams provided. By processing of digital elevation models in GIS software, depressions location was recognized and drainage density index of the area was surveyed. At the end, after collecting all these data, relation between karstification process and tectonic was attended and karstification rate and its conditions in the area were studied. Analysis of joints and faults system and its effect on the area: High brittleness and low flexibility in the thick limestone formations has followed the increase of stress effect resulted in creation of various faults with different directions and orthogonal (tensile) - shear in the relief. The creation of orthogon al fault s and crashing in their direction have important role in further permeability of water and create further contact level with bed. It caused the development of karstification process and created of various depressions with bigger dimensions in direction of faults. Therefore, in order to survey relationship between faults & joints and depressions, in addition to tracing rose diagram of depressions resulted from digital elevation models and field work, was traced rose diagram of fault lines that had been divided from 1/100000 scale geologic map and field works. 3- Discussion According to these results, the orientation of tensions in Parav - Bistoun mass is approximately Northern – Southern and faults show Azimuth angles of 45, 75 and 315 degrees. Joints and fractures with a similar trend show up that the azimuth orientation 45 and 325 degrees in area. Tracing of lengthwise across of depressions shows trend of NW-SE. Thus, the longitudinal axis of the depressions with azimuth angle of 320-330 degrees are consistent with trend of maximum faults and their maximum different with faults of area is 10 degrees. Therefore, this study shows the development of karstic depressions and development of karst has been fundamentally affected from tectonic situation and tectonic activity in the area. -Morphology of karst in the study area. The study of different forms of exokarstic in Parav - Bistoun indicated that, in the result of the dissolution process at different levels, the karsts create a specific landscape and topography with a variety of forms. The most significant karst forms in the area are sinkholes, dolines, Karens, caves, uvalas and so on. This form indicated differences in dimensions and local dispersal in relationship to suitable circumstances for karstification. According to the geomorphological evidence of the region (Parav cave with a depth of 751 m and local erosion level s such as great fields of karst in surfaces of low relief) the thickness of Bistoun limestone together with high purity that have potential for dissolution, Depressions of the area lie within dissolution - break down class from sextet categor ies that introduced by Ford &Williams (2007, p. 341). The area has various depressions with different dimentions. The biggest depression has depth of 115 m and diameter of 180 m. It shows azimuth angle of 30 degrees. Other karst ic forms of area are caves, which recognized as the deepest cave in the whole Middle East and have depth and length of about 751 and 1361m, respectively. On the basis of studies that has performed by the Ministry of Energy of I.R.Iran General tren d of the cave is according to the main Zagros thrust fault trace. Uvalas are others form from karst of area that have shaped as a result of great karst development and unifying contiguous depression s. Sometimes, these shapes have created in the realm of depressions development with unevenness bed and sometimes have shaped in downwards of big depressions with evenness bed, as a result of dissolution processes in beneath the earth’s surface and have relationship with infiltrated waters into higher elevations depressions. Identify of depressions and big karst fields: Studies have been focusing on more the recognition of exokarstic types in terms of depressions & uvalas using of digital data. In this study, we have surveyed hydrological methods related to depressions and uvalas of the area. Automatic extraction of network and watershed proper ties from a DEM represents a convenient and rapid way to parameterize a watershed (Garbrecht and Campbell, 1997, 205 p). With the help of digital hydrological model, the locations that have convergent drainage (without distinict outlet) and frequently have main shaft (without distinct drainage and without cell data) have been extracted as depression. By applying 50 meters resolution DEM, about 20 depressions and karst fields were identified (table 4 and fig.12). Trend of depressions is according to fractures rose diagram that shows development of karst is effect ive from tension and tectonic activity in the region. Processing of DEM with resolution of 10 m and extract of Figure 13 helps to evoke a more vivid portrayal of karst big field wich indicated in figure 12. Figure 13 shows depressions with zero cells ratio and blue color. This figure denotes relationship between depressions and faults. Finally, proceeded toward trace of depressions profile in the area that have great area and depth shows karst field of depressions and identification were impossible because of low spatial resolution of DEM. 4- Conclusion Due to the specific tectonic & lithologic conditions of Parav - Bistoun mass the development of dissolution has morphologically existed in surface and depth. - existence of thick stratum of limestone with high purity has provided development of karst processes. - raptures that are resultant of fault activities, has provided development of dissolution processes in depth and create depressions according to joints and fractures and also create vaults and columns. - existence of caves (Parav cave that has depth of about 751) and uvalas that have created in different elevation surfa ces and have role of local erosion bases shows that development of karst is extensive in the region. - the major depressions extracted from 10 meters resolution DEM shows that trend of depressions is linear and is in relationship with lineaments and faults of the region.
  • A.A. Vali, M.H. Ramesht, A. Seif, R. Ghazavi Page 19
    Introduction Estimating correct volume of sediment in a fluvial system is one of the most important issues in water engineering, river engineering, water resources, facilities, structures, water and environmental projects and programs for the development of them. The bed load transfers by saltation and suspension forms according to the sediment particle size. The sediment load is one of the most important parameters of hydraulic projects, a useful indicator of soil erosion, and watershed's ecological environment. Several physical experimental methods for estimating the sediment in a watershed has been developed. Experimental methods are based on estimated sedimentation basin characteristics such as area topography, land cover, climate and the qualitative characteristics of the firm (Zhou et al.2002). Those can estimate indirectly sedimentation rates in the Delta or the Vessels (Verstraeten et al, 2004). These methods due to the simple structure, simple mathematical calculations and are able to work in a widely input data (Zhou et al.2007). However, linear or nonlinear regression model can use for suspended sediment load with relative accuracy of computational models which provide simple experimental models. In recent years has occurred a great interest to investigate the possibility of using artificial neural network systems. Neural networks are powerful computational tool in organizing and establishing the relationship between the various intelligence capabilities. The use of the mapping capabilities of these systems in a multi-dimensional spaces and the analysis of the issues without resorting to the relations sophisticated mathematical difficulty can be useful in engineering. Artificial neural networks have been successful in dealing with issues such as system identification, function approximation, optimization and anticipating the results. Artificial neural network system based on data flexibility with different weights to the establishment of neural connections during the learning process is able to recognition complex and ambiguous issues especial issues that are not easily expressed in mathematical relationships. A river system is an open system where the involvement of sophisticated forms of communication. The inherent characteristics of a basin and external factors affect the behavior of the river. The existence of multiple interactions, including the interaction moves and transported sediment and geomorphology of the basin parameters is important. Watershed is the most essential natural scale regional units. An independent identity has defined the concept of river basin as a spatial unit has an effective role in the classification of human activities (Ramsht 2005). The purpose of this study was to develop modeling using artificial neural network approach to geomorphic agents and compare its performance with multiple regression methods. To the extent predicted by the models of sediment basin Comparison of the calculated values with observed values is explained by its comparative advantage. 2- Methodology First, for removing diagnostics data calculate the residual R student index by using SAS software. Then were evaluated training data set and testing data set from wholly of data. The Statistical Modeling and Artificial Neural Networks are helping with SPSS software. Statistical methods used and designed to model both simple and multiple regression analysis. In simple regression best fit of the relationship between flow and sediment is taken of the relationship linear, inverse, exponential, logarithmic, quadratic, and the power basis of degree decision. This method measures the curve of known deposits or SRC. This method is called MARS for short to multivariate adaptive regression sp-line. In the flow vector the power supply to the large number of independent variables into the geomorphological parameters using stepwise multiple regression analysis method to determine the model parameters have to be removed excluded variable or ineffective variable. So a geomorphological multivariate model is designed. In other words, each of the parameters in the geomorphology of the basin as a data point are being integrated with vector data such as statistics in a flood of new data are converted into a vector and new vectors is obtained base on multiple regression fit. Artificial neural network model is used by utility neural network option of SPSS software. Neural network designed in this study were divided into two types depending on the input data. The first type of artificial neural networks designed using the instantaneous flow and sediment. Instantaneous flow in the network as the input and output system is designed as a moment of deposition. NGANN geomorphology of this network is called neural network for short. The second type of artificial neural networks designed using the elements used in the method of feeding is in March and the geomorphic parameters of this network is called for short GANN. 3- Discussion Two statistics factor to evaluate the performance are RMSE (root mean square of error) and R square (determination index) of different models is possible. These factors can determine the value of the preferred models to the observed values and the predicted values. Notice to RMSE values and the R square shows relative advantage of models. The highest significant determination index, and the lowest error, is introduced the best method. To the value of the preferred methods, is determined respectively GANN, NGANN, MARS and SRC rate determination coefficients with 0.86, 0.83, 0.81, 0.76 and values of the error estimate 1.815, 2.031, 2.142 and 2.359. Results showed the GANN estimated better with highest coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.862 and root mean square of error (RMSE) of 1.815 in compression to NGANN with 0.827 for R2 and 2.031for RMSE. performance value of regression models were weaker than ANN models with R2 of 0.759 and RMSE of 2.395 for SRC model And R2 of 0.811 and RMSE of 2.142 for MARS model. Therefore it was revealed not only ANN models but also regression models have performance value when combine with geomorphologic parameters. 4- Discussion Comparison of statistical methods and neural network models shows neural network significant preference values ​​in the estimation of daily moment sediment estimation. The difference between the performance of artificial neural and statistical methods can be defied with the ability to estimate and predict artificial neural networks for non-linear approximation with a low volume of data. However, the performance and accuracy of the regression methods follow of sample size and it challenge of statistical models. The artificial neural network models design by the low number of samples. Conclusion presented and ANN model by geomorphology parameters designed to help the River Basin behavior. It is worthy of the network with back propagation algorithm learning with one hidden layer and 2 neurons in the hidden layer with high ability to flow and sediment load simulation is running with minimal restrictions. The results of the modeling of sediment load in the present study also confirmed that the results of previous studies in the review of previous studies presented in the introduction. To develop and improve deposition load modeling is necessary applying geomorphologic parameters of basin. The geomorphological characteristics of the basin are an essential element of effective and recommended for hydrological modeling.
  • S.H. Motiee Langroudi, M. Ghadiri Maasoum, M. R. Rezvani, A. Azmi Page 35
    Introduction Local periodic markets have important role in economics of Guilan province. The local periodic markets are focal point in urban-rural interaction. The local periodic markets are place for urban and rural women activity. This situation makes a condition that these the local periodic markets be place for cultural and society activity nearest economic activity. Many people are active in the local periodic markets and women are important group among them. These women come to the markets from villages and cities. They have variety impetus from activity in the markets. These motivations are variety that includes economic, culture and society. Therefore, principal question is attitude and effective component among women in activity in the market. There are some problems for activators that their resolving helps to them for better activities. In this paper، women motivation study and help them for resolving problems in Guilan province. In this paper some recommendation present for improving the local periodic markets. It helps to women (sellers and buyers) for better activity in the markets. Buyers buy crops because they are variety, fresh, high quality and low costs. They come to the markets for tourism and recreation. Sellers come to the markets for selling. They come to the markets because they needs to money, recreation. They want to see their friend and family. They need to jobs. In many papers and some investigations, this approach present that the local periodic markets are place for small sellers and buyer's activity. The local periodic markets are important for women. There are some proofs. These two groups (sellers and buyers) have much impetus for activity in the markets. Therefore assumptions include: Buyer's women are active in the rural periodic markets for purchase and recreation; Seller's women are active in the rural periodic markets for personal, social component, income making and employment. 2- Methodology Investigative method was descriptive that was used from questionnaire and interview for collecting data. Reliability was calculated by alpha Cronbach that for sellers equal 0. 71 and for buyers’ equal 0. 70 and validity was calculated by geography and social science researchers. Statistical societies were 147 people for buyers and 146 people for sellers. The sellers were selected by census method and the buyers were selected by Cochran formula. Sampling method for the buyers was simple random sampling method. Case study in this paper was Guilan province. This province exist in north of Iran. This province is variety. This variety is in economic, cultural and social dimension. Therefore these characters that helps to rural investigation in Guilan province. Guilan province has many local periodic markets in cities and villages. This situation helps to investigation about the local periodic markets in Guilan province. 3- Discussion Mean of age in statistical society was middle. Sellers and buyers in the local periodic markets were marriage. Most of respondents were illiterate (%78. 1). Little of respondent have high degree. Results says that selling crops, unemployment, security foods and obviating livelihood are some impetus for activity of sellers in the local periodic markets. Buyers were satisfaction from buying crop in the local periodic markets. Some impetus buying from local periodic markets were locality, variety and fresh of the crops. Therefore it shows that quality is important factor for the buyers for the buying from the local periodic markets. In women seller's family and personal incentive have most per cent variance among other factors and therefore it has most variable among itself. Income variable is only one variable that include 11. 24 per cent of total variance. But family and personal incentive component have 7 variables among itself. It shows that personal incentive component is important component because it has many variables among itself. Each variable have a little effects but total variable effect strong on impetus women. Women sellers have much impetus in purchase of the markets. Therefore their impetus from purchase of the local periodic market not only buying from the markets but also it is recreation and tourism. The women have many problems: they are unprofitable costs for their crops, weak role in management of the local periodic markets, problem of finding stall for selling. In first assumption it shows that buyer's women are active in the rural periodic markets for purchase and recreation. It shows that these markets are tourism attractive for women. Because of they not only purchase from the markets but also recreate in the markets. In second assumption Seller's women are active in the rural periodic markets for personal, social component, income making and employment. It shows that seller's women have personal and social attitude in the markets. They want have income and jobs in the markets. 4- Conclusion Finally it recommendation that for improving women's situation in the local periodic markets it is essential that: facilitating in selling and buying crops by making stall for sellers; facilitation of sanitary; developing of tourism in the markets; improving in transportation for crops; and transformation in attitude to women sellers in the local periodic markets.
  • M. Alaee Taleghani, Z. Rahimzadeh Page 53
    Whenever slop is exposed to unsteadiness, landslide occurrence is unavoidable on the surface according to the heavy rain, under layers of the slop, fault movement of. The slops of Javanrood Basin are one of the slops in folded Zagros, which are exposed to landslide. Recording 31 landslides on the surface of this small area confirms this issue. The aim of this research is recognition of this unsteadiness according to the strength and weakness based on AHP model. 2- Methodology The method applied in this research is analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The base of this model is comparing variables by pair wise by Matrix relationship. In this way, pair wise of the effective variables on the landslide were considered and based onrelative weights the output was extent The process of the research has been done by GIS. The outcome of this research has been presented the zoning map of landslide severity in the four classes including very high, high, average and low. The applied data and maps included; geology map 1/100000, topography map 1/50000, Dem, satellite picture A.T.M (2002) and GIS software. 3- Discussion The natural feature of the environment such as the weak materials of the earth, the half-wet cold climate, the wide spread of the running waters, the low hill earth with thick over weathered layers, accompanying with human interference through flattening of the slop and road building in such foothills are the ground work of many and repeated occurrence of the land sliding in the basin of Javanrood. 4- Conclusion The result showed that about half of the area in Javanrood basin (about 58%) was classifying very high and high risk to land slide, and 36% is under the danger of medium occurrence of landslide which involve the width of Shili and Marn layers, Goorpi and Radiolarit formation, seem natural. Based on these finding only in 5.5% of Javanrood area the possibility of the occurrence of landslide is weak.
  • A. Amirahmadi, M. Saghafi, M. Rabiei Page 73
    Intro duction Extensive studies of geology and geomorphology in arid and semi-arid deserts of Iran have been done so far, but in between the alluvial fan as one of geomorphologic forms has been ignored or less has been studied specifically. In this paper, alluvial fan geometry of BAGHERAN Mountains in the south of BIRJAND city has been studied. In fact the main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the morphology of alluvial fans and physiographic characteristics of their composing basins, and to compare these landforms to analyze their geomorphologic evolution. The study area, Birjand plain, is located between 32°42′N to 33°8′N and 58°41′E to 59°44′E. This area has composed of meridian topographic elongated and has caused two separate adjacent flat plains with the same trend. The northern one is called Birjand plain drainage basin which is about 3425 square kilometers. Plain covers about 980 square kilometers of this area and the rest are covered by heights. 2- Methodology Initially, 17 alluvial fans have been identified and mapped. Measurements to determine the parameters of the alluvial fan geometry have been done separately. In the next phase these measurements have been used to evaluate and compare the geometric relationships of this land forms. For this purpose, various models and special software are applied for multivariate analysis such as: factor analysis and cluster analysis and finally fitted regression curves. 3- Discussion According to calculated eigenvalues, factor analysis resulted in determining 4 main factors affecting the alluvial fans geometry. The first factor covers 57% of variables’ variances; the second factor covers 15.9% of variables’ variances; the third factor covers 9.8% of variables’ variances and the forth factor covers 6.9% of variables’ variance. These 4 factors cover 89.7% of all variables’ variances in total that shows suitability of variables chosen for factor analysis. Correlation matrix between research variables and factors affecting alluvial fans geometry shows that the most important variable affecting the area’s alluvial fans geometry is the area of each alluvial fan’s drainage basin which is about 0.88 correlated with the first chosen factor. Hence, the area of drainage basin of each alluvial fan can be considered as the most important variable affecting alluvial fans geometry. 4- Conclusion Based on results the most important variable which is affecting the region alluvial fan is drainage basin area upstream of each alluvial fan. This factor shows correlation of about 88 percent with the first factor obtained from factor analysis. Alluvial fans have been classified into five regional groups with the help of cluster analysis. Accordingly, in the first group, 10 alluvial fans are located with a 70.35 percent similarity, three in the second group with a 76.62 percent similarity, two in the third group with a 73.86 percent similarity. Fourth and fifth groups each contain one alluvial fan with a similar rate, respectively 60.45 and 12.76 percent. Various fitting methods between the two main variables affecting the alluvial fan geometric (area of drainage basin and alluvial fan area in the region), according to the coefficient of determination () shows that the exponential model better estimates the relationship between these two variables in the region. According to the studies conducted in this paper, the derived model would be: In this model is area of the alluvial fan, is area of drainage basin and x is a fixed coefficient that is obtained empirically. Coefficient x that differs from 0.1 to 2.2 according to geographical conditions of each area, for the study area and its alluvial fans is equal to 0.1078.
  • H.R. Varesi, M. Tghvaei, A. Shahivandi Page 91

    Intro duction One of the issues in the face of tourism is the lack of residential places and appropriate hotels in all seasons and for all people from various classes with different incomes. The present research aims at investigating the status of Isfahan’s hotels and presenting proper solutions in order to enhance their quantitative and qualitative level. The research method is descriptive-analytical. To analyze data, Chi Square, Gamma correlation coefficient and SWOT analytical method were used. The most important advantage of Isfahan’s hotels is their appropriate accessibility to recreational, historical, commercial and other centers. Presence of historical appeals in this city is considered as a good opportunity for hotel industry. The most important disadvantages of Isfahan’s hotels are lack of service equipment and facilities and lack of trained and skillful individuals in the realm of delivering suitable services to tourists. Also, lack of hotels and hostels for low-income groups and lack of empty rooms in some days of year are regarded as threats to this city’s hotel industry. Examining hypotheses indicate that there is a significant relationship between services delivered by Isfahan’s hotels and the possibility of resettling in these hotels. Also, there is a significant relationship between Isfahan’s tourism facilities and services and further trips of tourists to this city. Statement of the Problem Hotels are considered as one of the most important tourism infrastructures, which guarantee tourists’ welfare. These two sectors are mutually related to one another and any failure or challenge in one affects directly the other. Hotel industry has a seventy-year life in Iran. However, weakness in educational, managerial and welfare matters, shortage of proper governmental facilities, lack of harmony between supply and request, few numbers of tourists coming to our country, domestic tourists’ not preferring expensive hotels, all and all, contribute to unclear future of hotel industry in Iran. In spite of having many natural and historical appeals, Isfahan is not an exception. As all hotels are old, there are only few luxury and modern hotels in this city, and there is not possible for all people to stay in these hotels in all seasons, it is necessary that the problems of hotels be cared about in Isfahan. Urban tourism resources comprise of three main parts: elementary factors of tourists’ attraction, which exactly are the main factors of tourists’ attraction, include visiting places such as historical locations, parks, cinemas, rivers, etc; secondary factors of tourists’ attraction include settling facilities, shops, etc; the third part includes tourists’ guidance and services. The present article makes efforts to investigate the secondary factors of urban tourism with an emphasis on hotels. The present article aims at measuring the extent of satisfaction and analyzing strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of hotel industry in Isfahan from the perspective of tourists and experts. Hypotheses posed in the current study are as follows: There is a significant relationship between services delivered by Isfahan’s hotels and the possibility of resettling in these hotels. There is a significant relationship between Isfahan’s tourism facilities and services and further trips of tourists to this city. 2- Discussion In tourism industry, urban infrastructures, especially residential facilities, play a key role. One may not depict a better future for this industry without considering problem and issues of these infrastructures. Although Isfahan has many tourism appeals, it has relatively limited residential centers and hotels, especially luxury hotels, are few in this city. In addition, these few hotels suffer from some problems. Therefore, solving these problems may change the future of tourism industry in this city. However, some people believe that most of the tourists visit this city do not stay in hotels, that they are professional campers or stay in other places than luxury hotels, but the number of cheap hotels is not so high that may deliver services to all tourists in crowded seasons. Findings indicated that there is a direct relationship between investment in tourism facilities and tourists’ attraction to Isfahan. Chi Square (158.01), Gamma Correlation (0.775) values and their significance level (0.000) show that there is a significant relationship between Isfahan’s tourism facilities and services and further trips of tourists to this city. Therefore, the first hypothesis of this study is confirmed. In other words, the higher the satisfaction from hotels, the higher the possibility of resettling in the hotels. To investigate the second hypothesis of the study, Chi Square and Gamma Correlation coefficient were employed. Considering their resulted values and significance level (0.00), it may be said that there is a significant relationship between Isfahan’s tourism facilities and services and further trips of tourists to this city. Thus, the second hypothesis is also confirmed. In other words, the higher the deliverance of services to tourists, the higher the possibility of their further trips to this city. In Isfahan, as most of the hotels are old and do not have proper welfare facilities, tourists develop less motivation in staying again in these hotels. Also, among others, the issue is that these hotels are not able to satisfy the residential needs of tourists in the specific seasons as most of these hotels do not have sufficient space for all tourists to stay and some of them are forced to stay in other places. Therefore, it is necessary to construct more new hotels with respect to the needs of all tourists. Concerning the analyses of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats resulted from SWOT model, findings are as follows: The most important strength of Isfahan hotels is their access to commercial, recreational, historical centers and Zayandeh Rood River. The most important external opportunities in developing hotel industry in Isfahan may be the attraction of its historical constructions and natural appeals, Isfahan’s central location in Iran and the zealousness of the most of the tourists in tripping to Isfahan. The most important weakness of Isfahan’s hotels, among others, may be the lack of tourism services such as sport facilities, lack of trained personnel in hotels, problems concerning traffic in some crowded days around hotels. Of most important elements that have threatened hotel tourism in Isfahan in the recent years are related to the lack of hotels for low-income tourists, the lack of empty rooms in some occasions and negative unjust propaganda of some countries against our country’s peacefulness. 3- Conclusion - Recommendation of Strategies Based on the Results of SWOT Model - Competitive-Offensive Strategies (SO) In competitive-offensive strategies, emphasis put on internal strengths and external opportunities, some of which are as follows: Investing more in recreational-historical spaces and beautification of these spaces in order to appeal and attract more tourists. Constructing appropriate hotels and settlements near to recreational, commercial and touristic centers in the city. Developing the motivation of further trips to Isfahan in tourists through delivering better services, hospitality in hotels and other recreational, touristic spaces. Developing appropriate communicative networks in all urban roads in order to have proper access from hotels to recreational and touristic spaces. Investing and equipping hotels more with telecommunicative networks and reservation services. Paying attention to proper design of hotels. Making optimal use of cultural appeals of different races in Isfahan, which may be attractive and interesting for tourists. Creating certainty in tourists that there sufficient security and safety in hotels they stay in. Delivering proper and up-to-date health care services proportionate with different cultures. - Diversity Strategies (ST) Creating opportunities for the simultaneous cooperation and investment of private and public sectors in hotel industry for sustainable development in this industry (considering our country’s economical system, separate actions of these sectors do not contribute to success). Constructing hotels and restaurants in all spots of the city with respect to the number of tourists each district attracts. Creating diversity in constructing residential centers for all people from all socio-economical classes Adopting appropriate policies in order to offer rooms in all seasons to all tourists. Providing different methods of reservation, personal or impersonal (by the phone or via internet). Diversifying hotels’ services in addition to their dormitory function. - Review Strategies (WO) Reviewing the way hotels deliver services and requiring all hotels to provide proper basic services to tourists in terms of international service standards. Paying attention to and reviewing hotels’ software sections and training employees on hospitality principles in hotels. Reviewing and creating hotels in appropriate spots of the city in order to avoid traffic problems. Reviewing illegal activities in providing settlements for tourists such as renting private homes in some occasions of the year. Reviewing advertisements and presenting correct recognition of Iran’s cultural, economical, social and environmental features to tourists in order to make more foreign tourists travel to Iran and Isfahan. - Defensive Strategies (WT) Correcting and adjusting the laws that make barriers in the way of optimal use of hotel industry in our country. Correcting legal conditions in order to increase the number of foreign tourists and facilitate visa issuance, custom regulation, etc. Correcting executive procedure and accelerating the execution of 44th article of Iranian Constitution concerning the privatization of hotels that has not been well implemented so far. Creating harmony among organizations related to hotel tourism such as Organization for Cultural Heritage and Tourism, municipality and other related organizations in Isfahan City. Shutting governmental guest houses. This may help develop productive employment in Isfahan’s hotel industry. Giving logical and low-interest facilities and loans to working agents in hotel industry. This may help country in the competition with other countries in constructing luxury and high quality hotels. Holding national conferences. This may help good settlements in attracting tourists and bringing foreign currencies be recognized.

  • A.A. Anabstani, H. Seyfi Page 113
    Intro duction In current conditions, agriculture's most important economic activity in most villages of Iran and need to be development oriented. In addition to providing the consumer needs of the agricultural sector, creating employment, increasing income and so has a major role in the economy of rural households. In the rural areas of most crops are grown, the role of complementary economic activities can be important. The survey second cultivations as a complementary activity, the main crop is paddy rice could be a way to raise revenue, increase employment opportunities and prosperity of rural communities in the study area is the Dashtsar Dehestan of Amol County. 2- Methodology Methods In this research is descriptive - analytical, part of the research data from field studies and questionnaires and interviews, another part of the conceptual and theoretical framework of such data, documents and censuses have been obtained through the library. In the study area, all of villages with 10 households, 40 villages and population of 35.8 thousand were selected. The population consists of agricultural exploiters using the formula Kuchran, with a sample size of 354 households and villages to visit, and information obtained from questionnaires completed by rural households. After data collection and processing software environments in SPSS, ArcGIS & etc., Data analysis and were studied to clarify the issue. This is the first study to examine whether the distribution of rural settlements in the region and interference of various factors, second cultivations, despite the prevailing culture of the rural economy influence coefficient cultures of rice is how much? The present study sought answers to the above question and by reason of the cultures and the residents of the area is welcome. The hypothesis of this study can be developed, it seems that the decrease in rice prices and to get rid of the single-product economy, in recent years, local farmers turned to second cultivations and significant role in the economy of rural households have been allocated. 3- Discussion second cultivations as a complementary economic activity in the dominant culture of the region the rice area in the years before the revolution there, they are often used to your face and a small amount to the sale have been carried out. While the cultivation of these products day after the Islamic revolution has increased and in recent years, the maximum is reached. Local inquiry shows that lack of income from rice cultivation and living expenses not funded by 50 percent, Income increased 30% and 20% unemployment and job creation the main causes of farmer's attitudes towards the second cultivations. In addition, farmers in the region to respond to the question of the extent to which second cultivations are satisfied with the level of their villages? 35.3 percent high and 31.3 percent on average this type of expansion of agricultural activities; have expressed satisfaction indicating that the level of farmers to increase income and enhance their economic potential is. The costs of a rural household in 2008 about the digit 66 million Riyal for each household residing in the province shows, current income is only enough to hold an annual cost of more than half of rural households will. Farmers in the agricultural area are looking for ways to increase your income bringing the second cultivations on one of these income sources will be. Findings show that the total volume of the sample, 100 percent of the exploiters of rice agriculture, with 27 percent of second cultivations and 37 percent are other economic activities. Income in the volume of economic activities in the study area, these results indicate that 47.5 percent of income from rice, 21.3 percent of second cultivations and 31.2 percent to other economic activities such as livestock, horticulture, retail and so belongs. Finally, the volume of net income per rural resident in the area, 22.5 percent of rice, 37.5 percent of second cultivations and 40 percent is other economic activities; Therefore, according to research findings, the economy of rural households in the second cultivations about two-fifths share of net income and income are allocated to one fifth of the volume, the production cost of rice in cultures, as compared with the cultures (vegetables, etc.) has more. 4- Conclusion Appearance of second cultivations in rural areas were started three decades ago, but in the decade to 2000 has been an increasing trend, so that the tendency of villagers to the cultures in 41.4 percent of respondents, is high and very high. Significant role in developing products for the second cultivations to increase farmer's incomes and the needs of society, such as vegetable oil is edible. In case of technical problems such as drainage problems and formulating policies on rice farms and marketing support for agricultural products, the possibility of expanding the area under cultivation in the region, there will be, this additional income will be the fate of farmers. So that second cultivations the share of households in the rural economy in terms of volume, net income 37.5 percent of the total income amount equal to 21.3 percent, is, two cultures of the income ratio to 3.15 against the dominant culture to be rice. Out of difficulties and obstacles in the area for two cultures, the following guidelines may be appropriate in part: A vegetable packing plant, with 3,110 hectares of land available; Create of drying vegetable factory in this area that increased of the area under cultivation of vegetables. Products suitable for the cultivation of paddy land; one way to maintain a stable income for farmers in rice production, introduce products tailored second cultivations of the lands is paddy fields. The use of improved seed varieties and introduce new products and product with the high production efficiency and yield than local varieties, increase the economic income of rural households has to. And support more government oversight of the agriculture sector.
  • D. Rahimi Page 127
    Intro duction Water resources are studied and exploited in two divisions: surface and ground waters. Ground water recourses, due to certain characteristics such as freshness (in terms of contrast with seawater), constant chemical makeup, Constant temperature, lower pollution index and higher dependability as a water supply, are considered a reliable resource especially in arid and semi – arid areas. Ground water recourses are, excepting ice – mounds and vast ice – covered areas, the most significant freshwater resource (Sedaqat1994: p.7). 97% of the global use of fresh water is obtained from ground water resources whereas these resources with an overall volume of 37 billion cubic kilometers constitute only 22% of the world's fresh water resources (Foster 1998). Madman et al (2008), studying the role of ground water resources in the ecological potential of land, attributed a significant role to these recourses in terms of economic development, ecological variety and social well being The exploitation of ground water resources at a rate faster than their replacement and the fall of ground water level considered one of the most important enduring challenges of development worldwide.El–Naka et al(2008) studying the role of water resource and its significance in the development of Jordan, showed that over – use, the fall in ground water quality and a lack of yearly precipitation resulted in a steep decline in water level in most water – beds and subsequently a lapse in the country's development programs. Shahid and Hazarika(2009) studying ground water drought in the Northwestern Districts of Bangladesh. In this paper, groundwater scarcity and drought in three northwestern districts of Bangladesh have been investigated. The Cumulative Deficit approach from a threshold groundwater level has been used for the computation of severity of groundwater droughts. Iran, after the highly populated countries, china and India, is the third unrestricted exploiter of groundwater recourses and with a 75% usage of restorable resource as against the 40% UN standard, is in an unsuitable situation (The National Society of ground water Resources.2006). In light of the given statistics, a review of management strategies for water resources and a reconsideration of economic and social planning deem a serious necessity. The ChaharMahal&Bakhtiari province covering an approximate one percent of the country's surface and as the supplier of 10% (10. 5 billion cubic meters) of the domestic fresh water supply (M.P.O, 2005) has a significant place in relation to the enhancement of the country's water resource status. In this province due to certain factors including severe shifts in altitude, economic underdevelopment the high cost of pumping water, the role of surface waters in water supply is approximately 15% (equivalent to 225 million cubic meters).The remaining demand for water which is approximately 85% (10275 billion cubic meters) is supplied by the ground water recourses of the province. Over – exploitation of ground water resources in conjunction with the effect of recently occurring droughts has not only lowered the water level of the provincial water – beds with a rate of 2- 12 meters annually, but has also lowered the quality such that the electric conduction amount of some water – beds has Changed from a 300mm level to 900mm (Management and planning organization2001). 2- Methodology In this article, Shahrekord plain is choose for reserch,that has decrease water level, the mountain–bordered Shahrekord plain in the province of ChaharMahal&Bakhtiari was chosen. This plain (water – bed) with an altitude of 2000 meters from sea level and a surface area of 125000 hectares, 21 rural settlements and one urban settlement are situated in the Shahrekord plain (Iran data center –2006). From a hydrological perspective the plain is a part of the Karoon basin (north Karoon basin) in which the Jahanbin river flows (provincial basin registration, 1998). The shahrekord plain is, geologically speaking a descended plain constituted by quarts sediments with an alluvial depth of 60 – 110 meters (M.P.O 1986).Map (1) shows the geographical standing of the Shahrekord plain.
  • H.A. Faraji Sabokbar, H. Nasiri, M. Hamze, S. Talebi, Y. Rafiei Page 143

    Intro duction Groundwater is the single water resource in many regions of Iran. This is considered to be a major historical limitation in the social and economical development of the country. Recent studies on the management of water resources in Iran have shown that out of the 430 billion m3 of the annual precipitation in the country, 20% is lost during sudden floods which flow into the playas, lakes and seas (Foltz, 2002; Mohammadnia and Kowsar, 2003). The climate of the country is mainly classified as arid and semi-arid. In addition to the small amount and unbalanced distribution of precipitation (both spatially and temporally), high intensity rainfalls which result in destructive floods bring about serious damages to downstream towns, roads, and agriculture, and sometimes even cause casualties (Hayati and Karimi, 2005). Flood spreading on aquifers, thereby artificially recharging of the aquifers, is an efficient strategy for controlling floods and managing water shortage and water resources (ASCE, 2001). Selecting optimal sites for flood spreading involves integrating several complicated parameters, which necessitates the use of GIS (geographic information systems) in combination with MCDM (multi criteria decision making). The groundwater-based agricultural activities in the Garabaygan Plain and the location of the region in the arid zone of Iran have highlighted the significance of water in this area. Considering these conditions, the present study aims to prevent the wasting of water in the region by determining suitable flood spreading sites and using the floodwater optimally. To this purpose, using the ANP and Pair wise comparison methods in combination with GIS, the suitable flood spreading areas were located. 2- Methodology The Garabaygan Plain (28° 30' to 28° 45' N and 53° 45' to 54° 01' E) is located in the south part of Fars province of Iran (Fig. 2).The mean elevation of the area is 1476 meters above mean sea level. According to the De Martonne climate classification, the area represents a dry climate type with the average annual rainfall of 259 mm, the average annual potential evaporation rate of 2934 mm, and the average annual temperature of 20.6 C. Garabaygan is an area located in the folded Zagros Mountains stretching like a folded belt from the northeast to the southwest of the country. 2-1- Pair wise comparison In the present research the Pair wise comparison was used to determine the weights of the sub-criteria. The Pair wise comparison was first proposed by the renowned mathematician Thomas L. Saaty (1980) as an appropriate decision-making approach to handle complex problems with numerous factors involved. This process is used to assess the intangible qualitative criteria and the objective quantitative criteria (Ghodsipour, 2005). To assign weight, a pair wise comparison matrix is formed to make a pair wise comparison between the classes of any criterion. In the pair wise comparison, each of the classes was assigned a weight ranging from 1 to 9. For this, the local conditions of the region, the relevant literature and the specialist expertise were considered and finally the relative weight of each class was determined using the Eigen Vector method in the environment of the Expert Choice software. Tables of 2 and 3 presents the pair wise comparison matrix along with the weights of the sub-criteria extracted via the software. 2-2- Analytic Network processes (ANP) In this study, ANP method was employed to determine criteria weights. ANP is one of the most recent MCDM techniques which have been proposed by Saaty (2001). In fact, ANP can be considered as a more recent extension of AHP for decision making with dependence and feedback that can handle a more complex decision structure (Saaty, 2001) such as food spreading siting which is a complex network of various factors. AHP is limited to relatively static and unidirectional interactions with little feedback among decision components and alternatives (Sarkis, 2002). ANP consists of three parts: the first part is the control hierarchy for the network of the criteria and sub-criteria; the second part is a network of influences among the elements and clusters; and the third is the feedback between the various clusters and elements within a cluster (khan and Faisal, 2008). For the case under study, four groups of connoisseur experts, namely environmentalists, hydrologists, geologists and GIS specialists contributed to establish the ANP based network model with the support of Super Decisions software. To calculate criteria weights by the use of ANP method, some questionnaires consisting of pair wise questions for the comparison analysis were designed. The experts participating in the survey completed the questionnaires. Then, through Super Decision software, criteria weights were calculated using information derived out of the questionnaires. 3- Discussion The overall process of the flood spreading site selection has been schematically presented in Fig. 1. The collected data related to the eight parameters (slope, water quality, geology, alluvium thickness, land use, transmissivity, geomorphology, and the drainage density) was analyzed in the present work. Having collected the information layers according to the flowchart, Pair wise comparison and ANP were used to determine the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria respectively. After obtaining the normal weights of all eight thematic layers and the features of individual thematic layers, all the thematic layers were integrated with one another in order to demarcate artificial recharge zones in the study area. The Final map was classified in five equally scored classes from the least suitable to the most suitable areas. The final land suitability map is presented in Fig.9. The results of the study show that the majority of the areas considered most suitable and suitable for flood spreading are located in alluvial and pediment geomorphological units, and quaternary Qg, Qb and Qgsc geological units.This can be due to the location of the units on the margins of the streams and on the low slopes, the formation of these units from lime, silt, sand and gravel, and the good permeability of the units. 4- Conclusion Soil erosion and the flood-proneness of Iran have followed growing trends in recent decades. Planning to use floods not only can reduce their destructive effects but also provides new water resources for various uses. Flood spreading is one of the methods which set the ground for efficient utilization of floods. In this study, the integrated MCDM-GIS approach was used in order to determine the suitable areas for flood spreading and artificial recharge of aquifers. To this purpose, the most important and effective factors in selecting suitable flood spreading areas were employed. The results of the study indicated the efficiency of the MCDM in flood spreading site selection and the effectiveness of ANP in the rapid assessment of large areas. The present work proposes a method for flood spreading site selection and can help policy and decision-makers to approach water management issues with a deeper understanding of environmental factors.

  • Gh. Mozaffari, F. Bakhshizadeh, M. Gheibi Page 167
    Intro duction Salak/Leishmaniasis is a parasite disease that is transmitted by the bite of infected female sand flies. This disease has been reported in all countries except Australia and South Antarctic. The principal focuses of leishmaniasis are located approximately between 28 to 42 degree north latitude. Leishmaniasis is also reported in Yazd province, Leishmaniasis is divided into two major group, rural and urban, usually the dog and human are urban reservoir(dry salak) and rodents are rural reservoir (wet salak).In this research, we analyzed correlation between vegetation cover and disease prevalence in Yazd-Ardakan plain. 2- Methodology -The study area Yazd-Ardakan plain located in one of the barred plains central plateau of Iran in Yazd province and have climatically conditions very hot and dry and adverse weather conditions at the surface on so that excluding the high plains which located in mountainous areas and highlands, other areas of vegetation conditions are not favorable conditions, Just in elevations Shirkooh due to the precipitation received only modest conditions are more favorable. Quality ranges from the slopes of the Shirkooh pans are better than the parts. -Incidence data and information salak The data of disease prevalence as monthly during the years 1997 to 2009 are taken from Medical Sciences university of Yazd. - Satellite images For investigating correlation between vegetation cover and disease prevalence, it is very important to know about vegetation distribution. So has been used the satellite images from landsat E.T.M, in 2002 and radar images for extraction vegetation cover by NDVI [1]. In this study were used the Arc hydro and digital elevation model (DEM) [2] and Erdas software version 9.1 and Arcgis 9.3.1. - plant Indicators In this study, the vegetation map was produced by Landsat E.T.M 2002. This index was calculated by subtracting the values of brightness in the infrared band (band 3) and near infrared (band 4) by the following equation: NDVI = Band4 – Band3 / Band4 + Band3 According interpretation of these calculations, the region are classified into six classes: non-coverage, low coverage, medium coverage, high coverage and the coverage very high class. 3- Discussion In recent years due to living conditions in the surrounding towns and geographic distribution development, new focuses of the disease have been spread. One major focus of this disease in the province of Yazd is Yazd -Ardakan plain, that in the range of plain includes trifocal polluted rural areas of Ardakan counties (chah Afzal, Hossen abad, Ahmmad abad, tork abad and Ardakan suburb), Meybod (Bafroeeh) that disease in this area was rural leishmaniasis and Yazd was urban Leishmania. The factor of vegetation cover affected directly and indirectly on the incidence of leishmaniasis and sand flies biology. The vegetation classes and their buffer were overlapped with disease cases. In certain geographic perspective, the importance of all elements in the disease epidemiologic chain is linked that led to the creation of regional high-capacity Risk (disease). Comparing spatial models of human disease with vegetation display that the highest incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis vegetation is concentrated in areas with the lowest amount of coverage as the dominant. 4- Conclusion In this research, high disease cases have adjustment with little to no vegetation cover. The results of this study, is similar with results of correlation analysis between sandflies and vegetation density of mosquitoes in Brazil (Bavia et al, 2005). The percentages of vegetation cover show salak focuses in Ardakan and Meybod are wet and dry salak that climatic conditions confirmed it. The vegetation cover of Yazd emphasized dry salak or urban salak. Based on the results get of Fisher's LSD method, the average incidence of disease incidence are different in Yazd and Meybod with Ardakan, (Meybod Yazd).
  • F. Babai Aghdam, M. Azadi Mobaraki, A. Madadi Page 179
    Introduction Universal hygiene organization treat life environment quality graduation more determinative for human health secures moreover people security versus illnesses. Frame universal hygiene organization point of view, moreover age and genre and inheritance, life style, local social structure, work environment and subject abidance and environmental and cultural and social and economic common status are more effective in determining people health status. Low quality cities environment, air pollution, irrelative management of cities garble, vocal pollution and also maleficent effects of toxic chemical materials and weighty metals like lead, mercury and also geomorphological ventures can threat citizenship life of metropolises. Design influence and optical quality of city environment on people behavior and their mental health have been affirmed in environmental designer researches among William white, Oplipard, Kovin linch and Allexander. Environmental hygiene science researcher believed that most of illnesses such as colds, heart attacks, cancer, depression and ante mortem have a mutual relation with religious and social and familial relations. Faint social links like nonalignment and social liability and nonmember ship in voluntary and charitable groups are more affective in creation noisome behavior on health like swats and fix consumption, neurosiss, insanity, Eskizoferni, heart arteries eclipse, casualty and even suicide (Jackson, 2003). According to mentioned matters every citizens have a living right in sectors with best biological terms. At this situation a citizen can reach to his desires and wishes in calmness and peace. At present research, we proceed to survey and determination of Ardabil suitable sectors due to hesitance Ardabil during several past years because situated province center, industrial centers development and as people crowd is encounter with noticeable somatogenic development and this case lead to disorders creation in civic system. As regards to growth and development of sectors in this city that one more deploy and developmental rapidly, determination of suitable inhabitance sectors and submitted respective parameters can be idealistic patterns for citizen ship, managers and civic programmers. At present research have been tried to produce effective layers in determination of suitable inhabitance sector in GIS environment Because of prissiness of layers, hierarchical analysis model (AHP) and kinds of modeling techniques have been used. Criteria of suitable sector choice: According to accomplished surveys and also bib lio thecal observation that done in this research by writers, factors that can be selected as a suitable criteria of suitable sector choice for hesitance in Ardabil can be divided into 3 categories that any of them have a sub criterion. These criteria and sub criterion are consisting of below terms (Table 1). Methodology At this research because of effective factor specification in residential nicety sector of Ardabil, researcher used attributive method and also interview with matter custodial especially with clear sighted of scientific centers about their expertise subjects and organs like police force, municipalize and domicile organization, government, mayoralty and other respective absolute factor in sector nicety, analytical method have been lionized. Because these researchers launched to database creation in GIS environment and layer constitution for any of sub criterion that shown in Table 1, user map of Ardabil civics domains provided from domicile and municipalize office of Ardabil province and user map of natural domains are provided natural resources headquarters of province. Most of substrates with creation of stratification are delineated at noted range level and like raster layers stored at data base. For providing layer of other sub criterion, respective organization data have been used. For about scale of crime and felony, data and information of province police force headquarters and for providing substrate of hypogenous waters level data of aqua organization have been used. Layers according to available buffer are precedence to 4 – 5 part. In the cases that sectors abutment to slightly criteria enumerate as an advantage (such as abutment to main roads). Near level are in precedence and have a more value and versus in the cases that sectors abutment towards to noted criterion are among disadvantage (Abutment to cemetery), levels that are beyond the criterion have a more value and privilege. 3- Discussion Importance of residential controls is more than other existent controls in civic area. Thus in most of city centers, noticeable portion of civic area are allocated to these controls, as civic main function can be their residential function. Thus quality and quantity of residential regions are one of challengeable case in world civic literatures that are debatable from different dimension. One of dimension that analyzed residential regions subject is analysis of different regions nicety of one city as for different criterion. In present research nicety of city different regions according to geomorphological, social - economical and so matGenic criterion via modulation of hierarchical analysis model with layers valuation (overlay index) in GIS environment have been analyzed main point of preset research is using of 19 criterion in modeling suitable civic sectors that obtained result have been shown in final map which assimilated with road maps of Ardabil city. Surveying of above map and comparing of it with existent situation of different city sectors show the acceptability of obtained results. 4- Conclusion Results show that sectors such as Basij, Hafez, Rezvan, Azadegan and Azadi Square that are among the best and nice sectors of Ardabil at obtained map also one among the most desirable regions and versus regions that are toward to city north geographic that are among the more undesirable regions at above map, at existent situation also have undesirable biological – environmental situation. Other civic regions have some epenthetic biological situation in final map of modeling of existent design. Thus using of method of present research has available results in the case of residential regions modeling that one suitable for hesitance.
  • H. Hakimi, M.R. Poormohammadi, A. Parhizkar, A. Meshkini, M. Poortaheri Page 197
    Introduction After industrial revolution in Europe, Informal settlements have been known as shadow cities with geographical redistribution of population from rural to urban areas and a rural-urban living style. At the recent decades, this phenomenon is forming in developing countries.. According to the available data, about 1/5 up to 1/3 population of the developing countries live in the informal settlements. Neglecting the acceptance of psychosocial changes, people who live in these settlements suffer economical changes in the time period. Housing as the smallest unit of space is the symbol of the socio-economic status of a household and settlement. Therefore, the evident differences between the quantitative and the qualitative housing indices depict the differences between the informal settlements of countries, the settlements and the city and the all of settlements. On the other hand, possessing an appropriate housing is emphasized in several UN worldwide manifests as well as the 31st Iranian constitution principle. Investigating the housing qualitative and quantitative indices would simplify the decision making for urban, regional and national policy makings. Therefore, this study attempts to answer the question that what is the condition of the informal settlements in comparison with the main city based on the selected indices. In order to answer the above question, one of the informal settlements named as Jamshid Abad, which stands around Khoy, was selected and an adaptive comparison between housing qualitative and quantitative indices of it and the main city was well in accomplished. So this article has been showed the hosting indices which applied in other countries base on available data. 2- Methodology Data were collected through documental and fieldwork methods. Field procurement was accomplished using the sampling technique applying a questionnaire. The random method has been applied in sampling process. In the present investigation, the samples number, were obtained using the Cochran formula with 140 samples. 3- Discussion The quantitative indices of housing include family residential density, person density in residential units, density of people in a single room, the room in a dwelling unit density, the average number of rooms per household, and the average level of infrastructure. The results showed that these indices are in undesirable levels in compare with the main city and are in desirable level in relative to developing countries. In this study, the qualitative indices of housing include history, types of building materials, structure status, the way of seizing, the land, and the type of housing have been identified. The results showed that the status of Jamshid Abad is relatively desirable, although there is a distance between Khoy city and Jamshid Abad. The results also indicated that Jamshid Abad has better conditions in comparison to the developing countries. On the other hand, there exist some differences from the viewpoint of basic services accessibilities such as water, electricity, telephone, gas, bathroom, kitchen, etc, which are indices of housing quality. 4- Conclusion Results generally indicated low standard of housing in the Jamshid Abad neighborhood in comparison to KHoy city. However, the condition of Jamshid Abad neighborhood is better in relative to informal settlements in developing countries according to the studied indices. Since the mentioned settlement is a part of the country housing space, it is possible to some extent to accept the claim that the informal settlement conditions in Iran are better than that of the majority of the informal settlements in developing countries. Another issue confirms the above statement is the fact that no shantytown patterns such as thicket, hut, and slums were not found.